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Universal health access

Scott Weich, Craig Duncan, Kamaldeep Bhui, Alastair Canaway, David Crepaz-Keay, Patrick Keown, Jason Madan, Orla McBride, Graham Moon, Helen Parsons, Swaran Singh, Liz Twigg
INTRODUCTION: Supervised community treatment (SCT) for people with serious mental disorders has become accepted practice in many countries around the world. In England, SCT was adopted in 2008 in the form of community treatment orders (CTOs). CTOs have been used more than expected, with significant variations between people and places. There is conflicting evidence about the effectiveness of SCT; studies based on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have suggested few positive impacts, while those employing observational designs have been more favourable...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Elaine O'Connell Francischetto, Sarah Damery, James Ferguson, Gill Combes
BACKGROUND: Video clinics, where patients can have a hospital appointment with their clinician from home, are emerging in practice, but their effectiveness is unclear. This study will evaluate whether a video clinic implemented at the University Hospitals Birmingham (UHB) NHS Foundation Trust improves patient satisfaction compared to standard face-to-face appointments for liver transplant patients. METHODS: This will be a parallel, two-arm, statistician-blinded, randomised evaluation...
October 19, 2018: Trials
Pei Liu, Wei Guo, Hao Liu, Wei Hua, Linping Xiong
BACKGROUND: In 2003, the Chinese government launched the New Rural Cooperative medical System(NRCMS) for its rural population. In 2007, the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance Scheme(URBMS) was inaugurated, which aimed to cover all urban residents who are out of the labor market. However, the accessibility and fairness of the healthcare service have hindered the progress of universal healthcare. At the beginning of 2010, the Integration of Urban and Rural Medical Insurance Scheme(IURMIS) was implemented to bridge the gap in medical care between urban and rural areas...
October 19, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Carlos Iniesta, Débora Álvarez-Del Arco, Luis Miguel García-Sousa, Belén Alejos, Asunción Díaz, Nieves Sanz, Jorge Garrido, Michael Meulbroek, Ferran Pujol, Santiago Moreno, María José Fuster-Ruiz de Apocada, Pep Coll, Antonio Antela, Jorge Del Romero, Oskar Ayerdi, Melchor Riera, Juanse Hernández, Julia Del Amo
OBJECTIVE: To assess the awareness, knowledge, use, and willingness to use and need of PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) who attended World Gay Pride (WGP) 2017 in Madrid. DESIGN AND METHODS: Online survey. Participants were recruited through gay-oriented dating apps and HIV Non-Governmental Organizations´ social media. Inclusion criteria included being MSM or TW, age 18 years old or above, and having attended WGP in Madrid. Information regarding the participant's awareness and knowledge, use or willingness to use, and need for PrEP was collected, as well as sociodemographic characteristics...
2018: PloS One
Fuhmei Wang, Jung-Der Wang, Yu-Wen Hung
INTRODUCTION: The introduction of universal health insurance coverage aims to provide equal accessibility and affordability of health care, but whether such a policy eliminates health inequalities has not been conclusively determined. This research aims to examine the healthcare outcomes of oral cancer and determine whether the universal coverage system in Taiwan has reduced health inequality. METHODS: Linking the databases of the National Cancer Registry with the National Mortality Registry in Taiwan, we stratified patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma by gender and income to estimate the incidence rate, cumulative incidence rate aged from 20 to 79 (CIR20-79), life expectancy, and expected years of life lost (EYLL)...
2018: PloS One
Vera A de Vries, Marcella C A Müller, M Sesmu Arbous, Bart J Biemond, Nicole M A Blijlevens, Nuray Kusadasi, Lambert R F Span, Alexander P J Vlaar, David J van Westerloo, Hanneke C Kluin-Nelemans, Walter M van den Bergh
OBJECTIVES: Historically, patients with a hematologic malignancy have one of the highest mortality rates among cancer patients admitted to the ICU. Therefore, physicians are often reluctant to admit these patients to the ICU. The aim of our study was to examine the survival of patients who have a hematologic malignancy and multiple organ failure admitted to the ICU. DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study, part of the HEMA-ICU study group, was designed to study the survival of patients with a hematologic malignancy and organ failure after admission to the ICU...
October 17, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Chessa K Lutter, Lora L Iannotti, Christine P Stewart
Evidence is mounting about the benefits of eggs for child nutrition and potential benefits for women during pregnancy and birth outcomes. Maternal consumption of eggs during lactation may also enhance the breast-milk composition of certain nutrients, thus contributing to the nutrition and potentially also to the development of breastfed children. Relative to single nutrient supplements, eggs deliver nutrients and other hormone or immune factors in compounds that may be more readily absorbed and metabolized...
October 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Diogo Sousa, Jorge Iriart
This article discusses the health needs and demands of trans men, a topic that has received little attention and frequently calls for the development of specific health care practices for this population. A qualitative study was performed, consisting of participant observation and semi-structured interviews with trans men residing in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, the majority of whom were black, heterosexual, and 20 to 43 years of age. The analysis was based on interpretative anthropology, linked to critique of the assumption of intersectionality and the decolonial perspective...
October 11, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Vera Ehrenstein, Nickolaj Risbo Kristensen, Brigitta Ursula Monz, Barry Clinch, Andy Kenwright, Henrik Toft Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to influenza or fever is associated with risk of congenital malformations. Oseltamivir is used to treat influenza and to provide post-exposure prophylaxis. We examined the association between oseltamivir use during pregnancy and birth outcomes. METHODS: This was a nationwide registry-based prevalence study with individual level data linkage, in a setting of universal health care access. We included all recorded pregnancies in Denmark in 2002-2013, and used data from population registries to examine associations between dispensings for oseltamivir during pregnancy (first trimester, second/third trimester, none) and congenital malformations, foetal death, preterm birth, foetal growth, and low 5-min Apgar score...
October 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Princess N Msibi, Ramadimetja Mogale, Maretha De Waal, Nomathemba Ngcobo
BACKGROUND: E-Delphi is an online method widely used in health and social research to strengthen decision-making processes and reach consensus on developing guidelines for health services. OBJECTIVES: The e-Delphi technique was designed to formulate and appraise a set of criterion-referenced guidelines for women's health concerns of mineworkers at a selected coal mine in Mpumalanga, South Africa. METHOD: The University Learning Management System's discussion forum was customised to suit the characteristics of e-Delphi as the second phase of a primary study on the formulation of guidelines for women's health concerns...
October 4, 2018: Curationis
Jennifer K Brueckner-Collins, Terry D Stratton, Rosemarie L Conigliaro
There is growing evidence in the medical education literature for the aggressive need to recruit and retain the next generation of academic physicians. In 2008, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine (UK COM) developed an academic health careers (AHCs) program for preclinical medical students as an introduction into the practice of academic medicine. The goals of this elective experience included (1) highly customized training and mentorship experiences in research, teaching, and other aspects of academic medicine; (2) information and perspectives to assist students in making informed career choices, including options for academic careers; (3) access to academic career mentors and role models related to individual faculty research interests and teaching responsibilities; and (4) opportunities to network with UK COM administrators...
December 2018: Medical Education Online
Abby Pribish, Nadia Khalil, Rahul Mhaskar, Laurie Woodard, Abu-Sayeef Mirza
Variation between homeless populations due to socioeconomic and environmental factors necessitates tailoring medical, health policy, and public health interventions to the unique needs of the homeless population served. Despite the relatively large size of the homeless population in Florida, there is a paucity of research that characterizes the homeless population who frequent homeless clinics within the state. This project describes the demographics, disease prevalence, and other risk factors among homeless individuals in Tampa, Florida...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Catherine Arsenault, Keely Jordan, Dennis Lee, Girmaye Dinsa, Fatuma Manzi, Tanya Marchant, Margaret E Kruk
BACKGROUND: Emerging data show that many low-income and middle-income country (LMIC) health systems struggle to consistently provide good-quality care. Although monitoring of inequalities in access to health services has been the focus of major international efforts, inequalities in health-care quality have not been systematically examined. METHODS: Using the most recent (2007-16) Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in 91 LMICs, we described antenatal care quality based on receipt of three essential services (blood pressure monitoring and urine and blood testing) among women who had at least one visit with a skilled antenatal-care provider...
November 2018: Lancet Global Health
Glenda Wildschut, Pat M Mayers
PURPOSE: This article describes the work of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in examining the role of the health sector in human rights violations in the protracted conflicts during apartheid. ORGANIZING CONSTRUCT: The enabling legislation contained in the Promotion of National Healing and Reconciliation Act of 1995 allowed for in-depth examination of violations and complicity in human rights abuses. We provide an overview of the process of the public hearings, soliciting submissions, examining evidence of abuse, personal testimony of conflict in situations of dual accountability, and ultimately the recommendations made by the TRC...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Esso-Hanam Atake
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, health shock is one of the most common idiosyncratic income shock and the main reason why households fall into poverty. Empirical research has shown that in these countries, households are unable to access formal insurance markets in order to insure their consumption against health shocks. Thus, in this study, are the poor and uninsured households more vulnerable from health shocks? We investigate the factors that lead to welfare loss from health shocks, and how to break the vulnerability from health shocks in three Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries, namely, Burkina Faso, Niger and Togo...
October 13, 2018: Health Economics Review
Stephen Maluka
BACKGROUND: In the attempt to move towards universal health coverage (UHC), many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are actively seeking to contract-out non-state providers (NSPs) to deliver health services to a specified population. Research on contracting-out has focused more on the impact of contracting-out than on the actual processes underlying the intervention and contextual factors that influence its performance. This paper reports on perceptions of stakeholders on contracting-out faith-based hospitals through service agreements (SAs) to provide primary healthcare services in Tanzania...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Katja Pitkä, Marja Airaksinen, Marika Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä
INTRODUCTION: Evidence-based health and medication information (HMI) sources and databases have a growing importance in daily professional practice in community pharmacies. Previous research suggests that students learn practical skills at the workplace through self-directed learning and practical experience rather than formal training. Thus, pharmacy internship is a key in ensuring pharmacy students' competency to use HMI sources and databases. This study assessed what HMI sources pharmacy students had used and accessible during their first internship in community pharmacies in Finland...
August 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Tamir Ailon, Jin Tee, Neil Manson, Hamilton Hall, Ken Thomas, Y Raja Rampersaud, Albert Yee, Nicolas Dea, Andrew Glennie, Chris Bailey, Sean Christie, Michael H Weber, Andrew Nataraj, Jerome Paquet, Mike Johnson, Jonathan Norton, Henry Ahn, Greg McIntosh, Charles G Fisher
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of results from a prospectively collected Canadian cohort in comparison to published literature. OBJECTIVES: (1) To investigate whether patients in a universal health care system (HCS) have different outcomes than those in a multi-tier HCS in surgical management of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). (2) To identify independent factors predictive of outcome in surgical DS patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Canada has a national health insurance program with unique properties...
October 9, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Issam I Raad, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Harrys A Torres, Ehab Mouris Ayoub, Liliane Iskander Narouz, Jalen Bartek, Ray Hachem
Egypt has one of the highest prevalence rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the world, mostly with genotype 4 that is highly associated with severe fibrosis. As a consequence, hepatocellular carcinoma has become the leading cause of cancer in this country. Mauritania is a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV and HCV could both be iatrogenically transmitted through infected blood products, infected needles, and medical equipment improperly sterilized. Adequate and efficient healthcare and public health measures with good surveillance programs, access for screening, prevention strategies, and successful treatment are needed to halt the spread of these diseases...
September 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Federico Piñero, Jaime Poniachik, Ezequiel Ridruejo, Marcelo Silva
Latin America, a region with a population greater than 600000000 individuals, is well known due to its wide geographic, socio-cultural and economic heterogeneity. Access to health care remains as the main barrier that challenges routine screening, early diagnosis and proper treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, identification of population at risk, implementation of surveillance programs and access to curative treatments has been poorly obtained in the region. Different retrospective cohort studies from the region have shown flaws in the implementation process of routine surveillance and early HCC diagnosis...
October 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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