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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120163/fda-approval-summary-pembrolizumab-for-recurrent-locally-advanced-or-metastatic-gastric-or-gastroesophageal-junction-adenocarcinoma-expressing-pd-l1
#1
Lola Fashoyin-Aje, Martha Donoghue, Huanyu Chen, Kun He, Janaki Veeraraghavan, Kirsten B Goldberg, Patricia Keegan, Amy E McKee, Richard Pazdur
On September 22, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval for pembrolizumab (Keytruda, Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ) for the treatment of patients with recurrent, locally advanced or metastatic, gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma with disease progression on or after two or more systemic therapies, including fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-containing chemotherapy and, if appropriate, HER2/neu-targeted therapy, and whose tumors express programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), as determined by an FDA-approved test...
August 17, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118646/the-protective-role-of-melatonin-in-chemotherapy-induced-nephrotoxicity-a-review-of-non-clinical-studies
#2
Hamed Haghi-Aminjan, Bagher Farhoud, Mahban Rahimifard, Tina Didari, Maryam Baeeri, Shokoufeh Hassani, Rohollah Hosseini, Mohammad Abdollahi
Chemotherapy agents are widely and effectively used for the treatment of different malignant tumors. Nonetheless, their use may lead to different adverse outcomes such as nephrotoxicity which is the main cause of morbidity and hospitalization of patients in intensive care units. Melatonin is a small molecule with pleiotropic healing properties and effectiveness in the management of a wide range of diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of melatonin in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity at the preclinical level...
August 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117260/response-rate-to-a-single-dose-of-vinblastine-administered-to-dogs-with-treatment-naive-multicentric-lymphoma
#3
K Harding, N Bergman, A Smith, S Lindley, A Szivek, R Milner, W Brawner, A Lejeune
Vincristine is included in vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy protocols, which are the gold-standard treatment for high-grade canine lymphoma. Vincristine can result in relatively high rates of gastrointestinal toxicity, whereas vinblastine is generally well tolerated and thus may represent an under-utilized and minimally toxic alternative to vincristine. Our objective was to determine the response rate and toxicity associated with a single dose of vinblastine administered to dogs with treatment-naïve, intermediate to large-cell, multicentric lymphoma...
August 16, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111361/adjuvant-chemotherapy-does-not-benefit-patients-with-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-treated-with-definitive-chemoradiotherapy
#4
Mingqiu Chen, Minmin Shen, Yu Lin, Pingping Liu, Xiaohong Liu, Xiqing Li, Anchuan Li, Rongqiang Yang, Wei Ni, Xin Zhou, Lurong Zhang, Benhua Xu, Jianhua Lin, Junqiang Chen, Ye Tian
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). METHODS: The clinical data of patients with ESCC treated with chemoradiotherapy with or without AC were collected and retrospectively reviewed. The overall survival (OS), locoregional failure-free survival (LFFS) and distant failure-free survival (DFFS) rates were analyzed statistically...
August 15, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109544/phase-ii-feasibility-study-of-preoperative-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-with-cisplatin-plus-5-fluorouracil-and-elective-lymph-node-irradiation-for-clinical-stage-ii-iii-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
Jun Hashimoto, Ken Kato, Yoshinori Ito, Takashi Kojima, Tetsuo Akimoto, Hiroyuki Daiko, Yasuo Hamamoto, Hisayuki Matsushita, Susumu Katano, Hiroki Hara, Yoichi Tanaka, Yoshihiro Saito, Kengo Nagashima, Hiroyasu Igaki
BACKGROUND: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a standard treatment for stage II/III esophageal cancer. Preoperative chemotherapy is also considered a standard treatment for stage II/III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in patients who undergo radical lymph node dissection. We conducted a feasibility study of preoperative CRT with cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (CF) and elective lymph node irradiation followed by esophagectomy with radical lymph node dissection in patients with stage II/III ESCC...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109501/platinum-based-concurrent-chemotherapy-remains-the-optimal-regimen-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-a-large-institutional-based-cohort-study-from-an-endemic-area
#6
Yahui Yu, Hu Liang, Xing Lv, Liangru Ke, Wenze Qiu, Xinjun Huang, Guoying Liu, Wangzhong Li, Xiang Guo, Yanqun Xiang, Weixiong Xia
PURPOSE: To retrospectively investigate the optimal regimen of concurrent chemotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by comparing clinical outcomes of patients who received platinum-based and non-platinum-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) regimens. METHODS: Based on a prospectively maintained database from 1998 to 2013 in an endemic area, a total of 4608 newly diagnosed, biopsy-proven, and non-disseminated NPC patients were identified and allocated into three cohorts based on concurrent chemotherapy regimens: cisplatin-based (CP) chemotherapy cohort, other platinum-based (OP) chemotherapy cohort, and non-platinum-based (NP) chemotherapy cohort...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109361/unilateral-cochlea-sparing-in-locoregionally-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer-a-planning-study
#7
L H Braun, K Braun, B Frey, S M Wolpert, H Löwenheim, D Zips, S Welz
BACKGROUND: Cochlea sparing can reduce late ototoxicity in head and neck cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy. In this situation, a mean cochlear dose (MCD) constraint of 10 Gy has been suggested by others based on the dose-effect relationship of clinical data. We aimed to investigate whether this is feasible for primary and postoperative radiochemotherapy in locoregionally advanced tumors without compromising target coverage. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten patients treated with definitive and ten patients treated with adjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy were investigated...
August 14, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105947/intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-with-or-without-concurrent-chemotherapy-in-non-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer-with-unresectable-or-gross-residual-disease
#8
Thomas Hendrix Beckham, Paul Bernard Romesser, Andries Hijlke Groen, Christopher Sabol, Ashok R Shaha, Mona Sabra, Thomas Brinkman, Daniel J Spielsinger, Sean McBride, Jillian Tsai, Nadeem Riaz, R Michael Tuttle, James A Fagin, Eric J Sherman, Richard J Wong, Nancy Y Lee
BACKGROUND: Differentiated thyroid cancer typically has an indolent clinical course but can cause significant morbidity by local progression. Surgery can be difficult due to the proximity to critical normal structures in the neck. Our objective was to review the safety, feasibility, and outcomes of definitive-intent intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to analyze whether patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy (CC-IMRT) had higher rates of disease control and survival over IMRT alone in patients with unresectable or gross residual disease (GRD)...
August 14, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105217/organ-specific-toxicities-due-to-radiation-therapy-in-cancer-patients-with-or-without-hiv-infection-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#9
Melody J Xu, Alison Liewen, Luca Valle, Adam C Olson, Nicola M Zetola, Surbhi Grover
Background: To synthesize published literature on the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and radiation therapy (RT)-related toxicities. Methods: Two electronic databases, MEDLINE and Embase, were searched to identify studies published before November 2016 comparing RT-related toxicities between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients receiving RT or chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for cancer. A qualitative synthesis of included articles and organ-specific toxicities was then performed...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103765/induction-chemotherapy-plus-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-versus-induction-chemotherapy-plus-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-alone-in-the-treatment-of-stage-ii-ivb-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients-a-retrospective-controlled-study
#10
Linger Liu, Zhenghua Fei, Mengfeng Chen, Lihao Zhao, Huafang Su, Dianna Gu, Baochai Lin, Xiaona Cai, Lihuai Lu, Mengdan Gao, Xuxue Ye, Xiance Jin, Congying Xie
BACKGROUND: In the era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the role of additional concurrent chemotherapy (CC) to radiotherapy (RT) after induction chemotherapy (IC) compared to IC followed by RT alone remains unclear for stage II-IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of IC/RT and IC/CCRT in the treatment of NPC with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). METHODS: From January 2012 to March 2016, a total of 217 NPC patients were retrospectively assessed...
August 13, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103227/colorectal-malt-lymphoma-a-rare-clinical-entity
#11
Wolfgang Fischbach
BACKGROUND:  Data on colorectal lymphoma in general and on MALT (mucosa-associated-lymphoid tissue) lymphoma, in particular are, very rare. There are no existing recommendations from current guidelines for how to manage these patients. We here report our experience from a clinical series. AIM:  The aim of this study is to present clinical features and the endoscopic appearance of colorectal MALT lymphoma and therapeutic approaches. METHODS:  Seven patients (5 male and 2 female, aged 47 - 75 years) were diagnosed to have colorectal MALT lymphoma...
August 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102186/intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-versus-conventional-radiation-for-anal-cancer-in-the-veterans-affairs-system
#12
Alex K Bryant, Minh-Phuong Huynh-Le, Daniel R Simpson, Loren K Mell, Samir Gupta, James D Murphy
PURPOSE: Compared with conventional radiation therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may reduce acute toxicity from anal cancer treatment, potentially leading to improved long-term outcomes. We analyze the effect of IMRT on short- and long-term outcomes among a large sample of US veterans. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From a national Veterans Affairs database, we identified 779 patients (n = 403 conventional radiation therapy, n = 376 IMRT) with locally advanced anal squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed between 2000 and 2015 and treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102076/strategic-development-of-azd1775-a-wee1-kinase-inhibitor-for-cancer-therapy
#13
Siqing Fu, Yudong Wang, Khandan Keyomarsi, Funda Meric-Bernstein
Wee1 kinase controls the G2-M checkpoint. Wee1 inhibition by AZD1775 allows cells with a deregulated G1 checkpoint to progress, resulting in catastrophe and apoptosis. The challenges ahead are in the establishment of the optimum dosing schedule either alone or in combination, and the identification of patients with specific biomarker profiles who benefit most. Areas covered: This article provides an overview of AZD1775, based on English peer-reviewed articles on MEDLINE. The authors highlight the data from the published preclinical and clinical studies...
August 13, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100732/transcobalamin-i-a-novel-prognostic-biomarker-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-locally-advanced-hypopharyngeal-squamous-cell-cancers
#14
Ying Wang, Changli Yue, Jugao Fang, Lili Gong, Meng Lian, Ru Wang, Ling Feng, Hongzhi Ma, Zhihong Ma, Honggang Liu
Background: Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPSCC) is an aggressive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with poor prognosis. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy could provide better efficacy in HPSCC treatment. Identification of predictive biomarkers is critically needed to improve selection of patients who derive the most benefit from NACT. The aim of this study was to investigate whether transcobalamin I (TCN1) could be a novel predictive biomarker for NACT in HPSCC...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099922/impact-of-time-to-start-systemic-therapy-on-the-outcomes-of-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-treated-with-first-line-folfox-chemotherapy-a-patient-level-pooled-analysis-of-two-clinical-trials
#15
Hani Oweira, Omar Abdel-Rahman, Anwar Giryes, Meinrad Mannhart, Michael Decker
BACKGROUND: Time to start adjuvant therapy has been shown to be an important determinant of survival following curative resection of colorectal cancer. Time to start systemic therapy following diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) needs to be additionally studied and assessed. METHODS: This is a pooled analysis of the raw data of the comparator arms of two randomized studies (NCT00272051; NCT00305188). Univariate and Multivariate analysis of predictors of overall and progression-free survival was conducted through Cox regression analysis...
August 11, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093840/targeting-of-her3-with-functional-cooperative-mirnas-enhances-therapeutic-activity-in-her2-overexpressing-breast-cancer-cells
#16
Hui Lyu, Jingcao Huang, Zhimin He, Bolin Liu
Background: The HER3 receptor functions as a major cause of drug resistance in cancer treatment. It is believed that therapeutic targeting of HER3 is required to improve patient outcomes. It is not clear whether a novel strategy with two functional cooperative miRNAs would effectively inhibit erbB3 expression and potentiate the anti-proliferative/anti-survival effects of a HER2-targeted therapy (trastuzumab) and chemotherapy (paclitaxel) on HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Results: Combination of miR-125a and miR-205, as compared to either miRNA alone, potently inhibited expression of HER3 in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer BT474 cells...
2018: Biological Procedures Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093800/early-clinical-outcomes-patterns-of-failure-and-acute-haematologic-toxicity-of-image-guided-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-ig-vmat-in-the-definitive-treatment-of-locally-advanced-carcinoma-cervix
#17
Irfan Ahmad, Kundan Singh Chufal, Irfan Bashir, Chandi Prasad Bhatt, Ram Bajpai, Lalit Sharma, Sandeep Rathour
Purpose: To evaluate clinical outcomes and failure patterns in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) treated definitively using image-guided volumetric-modulated arc therapy (IG-VMAT). Methods and materials: This retrospective review included 18 consecutively treated patients with LACC. Treatment consisted of IG-VMAT and concurrent chemotherapy followed by intracavitary radiotherapy. The primary end points were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS)...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092761/an-elderly-patient-presenting-with-a-primary-spinal-multifocal-intradural-extramedullary-pilocytic-astrocytoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Devin McBride, Zaid Aljuboori, Eyas M Hattab, Richard Downs, Shiao Woo, Brian Williams, Joseph Neimat, Eric Burton
BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytoma is a low-grade central nervous system tumor most commonly seen in children. Dissemination from a primary intracranial tumor along the neuroaxis has been described at both presentation and disease progression. However, the development of an intradural extramedullary pilocytic astrocytoma independent of a primary intraparenchymal tumor in an adult patient with no history of pilocytic astrocytoma has rarely been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old woman presented with progressive myelopathic symptoms and thoracic radicular pain...
August 9, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092600/survival-following-multimodality-treatment-including-surgery-for-stage-ia-iiib-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Barbara Christine Weckler, Natalie Baldes, Joachim Schirren
BACKGROUND:  Prognosis in limited disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) after concurrent chemoradiotherapy is poor. While some studies show better survival after multimodality treatment including surgery, other trials failed to prove a surgery-related survival benefit. Therefore, this study investigated survival in stage IA-IIIB SCLC following surgery combined with chemotherapy and/or thoracic radiotherapy. METHODS:  We retrospectively reviewed all stage IA-IIIB SCLC patients without supraclavicular lymph node involvement at a single institution between January 1999 and August 2016 after multimodality treatment with curative intent...
August 9, 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089896/textural-features-of-cervical-cancers-on-fdg-pet-ct-associate-with-survival-and-local-relapse-in-patients-treated-with-definitive-chemoradiotherapy
#20
Shang-Wen Chen, Wei-Chih Shen, Te-Chun Hsieh, Ji-An Liang, Yao-Ching Hung, Lian-Shung Yeh, Wei-Chun Chang, Wu-Chou Lin, Kuo-Yang Yen, Chia-Hung Kao
We retrospectively reviewed the records of 142 patients with stage IB-IIIB cervical cancer who underwent 18 F-FDG-PET/CT before external beam radiotherapy plus intracavitary brachytherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. The patients were divided into training and validation cohorts to confirm the reliability of predictors for recurrence. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed and a Cox regression model was used to examine the effects of variables on overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and pelvic relapse-free survival (PRFS)...
August 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
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