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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101723/micrornas-in-preeclampsia
#1
G Skalis, V Katsi, A Miliou, G Georgiopoulos, R Papazachou, G Vamvakou, P Nihoyannopoulos, D Tousoulis, T Makris
Preeclampsia (PE) continues to represent a worldwide problem and a challenge for both clinicians and laboratory-based doctors. Despite the many efforts done till now, the knowledge acquired regarding its pathogenesis and pathophysiology does not allow us to treat it efficiently. It is not possible to arrest its progressive nature, and the available therapies are limited to symptomatic treatment. Furthermore, both the diagnosis and prognosis are frequently uncertain, whilst the ability to predict its occurrence is very limited...
August 13, 2018: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098828/high-expression-of-trop2-is-correlated-with-poor-prognosis-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
Genxiong Tang, Qi Tang, Lizhou Jia, Shujing Xia, Jing Li, Yuan Chen, Huaiqi Li, Xu Ding, Feng Wang, Deqiang Hou, Xingwang Kuai, Zhenqing Feng, Yuan Fan
Human trophoblastic cell-surface antigen 2 (TROP2) is a cell surface glycoprotein that exhibits high expression in various carcinomas but low or no expression in normal tissues. High TROP2 expression plays an important role in promoting tumor development and aggressiveness, which is correlated with reduced patient survival. However, there are few studies regarding TROP2 in relation to both oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant lesions. The expression of TROP2 protein and mRNA was investigated in OSCC tissues, oral potentially malignant lesion tissues, and normal oral tissues using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
July 25, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096149/transcription-factor-ascl2-is-required-for-development-of-the-glycogen-trophoblast-cell-lineage
#3
Aaron B Bogutz, Rosemary Oh-McGinnis, Karen J Jacob, Rita Ho-Lau, Ting Gu, Marina Gertsenstein, Andras Nagy, Louis Lefebvre
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor ASCL2 plays essential roles in diploid multipotent trophoblast progenitors, intestinal stem cells, follicular T-helper cells, as well as during epidermal development and myogenesis. During early development, Ascl2 expression is regulated by genomic imprinting and only the maternally inherited allele is transcriptionally active in trophoblast. The paternal allele-specific silencing of Ascl2 requires expression of the long non-coding RNA Kcnq1ot1 in cis and the deposition of repressive histone marks...
August 10, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095157/inflammatory-mediators-a-causal-link-to-hypertension-during-pregnancy-studies-in-preeclampsia
#4
REVIEW
Denise C Cornelius, Jesse Cottrell, Lorena M Amaral, Babbette LaMarca
Preeclampsia (PE) is a hypertensive disorder that occurs after 20 weeks of gestation, implicating the placenta as a key offender. PE is associated with an imbalance among B lymphocytes, CD4+ T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and increased inflammatory cytokines. During early on-set preeclampsia, trophoblast invasion and placentation are impaired, leading to reduced blood flow to the fetus. In all spectrums of this disorder, a shift toward a pro-inflammatory state where regulatory cells and cytokines are decreased occurs...
August 10, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092744/changes-in-vasodilator-stimulated-phosphoprotein-phosphorylation-profilin-1-and-cofilin-1-in-accreta-and-protection-by-dha
#5
Mehboob Ali, Lynette K Rogers, Kathryn M Heyob, Catalin S Buhimschi, Irina A Buhimschi
Accreta and gestational trophoblastic disease (ie, choriocarcinoma) are placental pathologies characterized by hyperproliferative and invasive trophoblasts. Cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion are heavily controlled by actin-binding protein (ABP)-mediated actin dynamics. The ABP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) carries key regulatory role. Profilin-1, cofilin-1, and VASP phosphorylated at Ser157 (pVASP-S157) and Ser239 (pVASP-S239) are ABPs that regulate actin polymerization and stabilization and facilitate cell metastases...
August 9, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092105/the-effect-of-maternal-nodal-on-stox1-expression-in-extravillous-trophoblasts-is-mediated-by-igf1
#6
Allerdien Visser, Maarten Beijer, Cees B M Oudejans, Marie van Dijk
The number of molecules identified to be involved in communication between placenta and decidua is fast expanding. Previously, we showed that NODAL expressed in maternal endometrial stromal cells is able to affect NODAL and STOX1 expression in placental extravillous trophoblasts. The effect of maternal NODAL on placental NODAL expression is achieved via Activin A, while preliminary data suggests that maternal NODAL affects STOX1 expression in trophoblasts potentially via IGF1. In the current study, T-HESC endometrial stromal cells were treated with siRNAs against NODAL after which IGF1 mRNA expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR, while IGF1 secretion was measured by ELISA...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091322/effects-of-oncostatin-m-on-invasion-of-primary-trophoblasts-under-normoxia-and-hypoxia-conditions
#7
Jeong Ha Wie, Hyun Sun Ko, Sae Kyung Choi, In Yang Park, Ahyoung Kim, Ho Shik Kim, Jong Chul Shin
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of oncostatin M (OSM) on protein expression levels and enzymatic activities of matrix metalloprotainase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in primary trophoblasts and the invasiveness thereof under normoxia and hypoxia conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Protein expression levels and enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in primary trophoblasts under normoxia and hypoxia conditions were examined by Western blot and zymography, respectively. Effects of exogenous OSM on the in vitro invasion activity of trophoblasts according to oxygen concentration were also determined...
September 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086822/a-combination-of-bovine-serum-albumin-with-insulin-transferrin-sodium-selenite-and-or-epidermal-growth-factor-as-alternatives-to-fetal-bovine-serum-in-culture-medium-improves-bovine-embryo-quality-and-trophoblast-invasion-by-induction-of-matrix-metalloproteinases
#8
Ayman Mesalam, Kyeong-Lim Lee, Imran Khan, M M R Chowdhury, Shimin Zhang, Seok-Hwan Song, Myeong-Don Joo, Jae-Hoon Lee, Jong-In Jin, Il-Keun Kong
This study investigated the use of bovine serum albumin (BSA) plus insulin-transferrin-sodium selenite (ITS) and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF) as alternatives to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in embryo culture medium. The developmental ability and quality of bovine embryos were determined by assessing their cell number, lipid content, gene expression and cryotolerance, as well as the invasion ability of trophoblasts. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage and formed a blastocyst was higher (P<0...
August 8, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086473/nostrin-a-novel-modulator-of-trophoblast-giant-cell-differentiation
#9
Shreeta Chakraborty, Rupasri Ain
Differentiation-dependent expression of NOSTRIN in murine trophoblast cells prompted investigation on NOSTRIN's function in trophoblast differentiation. We show here that NOSTRIN levels increased in both mouse and rat placenta during gestation. NOSTRIN expression was not co-related to expression of eNOS precluding its eNOS mediated function. NOSTRIN transcripts were identified in trophoblast cells of the placenta, predominantly in trophoblast giant cells (TGC). Precocious over-expression of NOSTRIN during differentiation of trophoblast stem cells led to up-regulation of genetic markers associated with invasion (Prl4a1, Prl2a1) and TGC formation (Prl2c2, Prl3d1, Prl3b1)...
July 29, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084919/extraembryonic-heparin-binding-epidermal-growth-factor-like-growth-factor-hbegf-deficiency-compromises-placentation-in-mice
#10
Zitao Liu, Debra F Skafar, Brian Kilburn, Sanjoy K Das, D Randall Armant
Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HBEGF) is expressed in the embryo and uterus at the implantation site, stimulating trophoblast invasive activity essential for placentation. The effect of extraembryonic HBEGF deficiency on placental development was investigated by breeding mice heterozygous for the Hbegf null mutation. On gestation day 13.5, the average placental weights of the wild type (Hbegf+/+) and heterozygous (Hbegf+/-) mice were approximately 76 and 77 mg, respectively, as opposed to reduced average placental weights of approximately 61 mg in homozygous null (Hbgef-/-) females...
July 30, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081007/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-suppresses-the-invasion-of-htr-8-svneo-trophoblast-cells-through-microrna-145-5p-mediated-downregulation-of-cyr61
#11
Zhengfang Wen, Yue Chen, Yu Long, Jian Yu, Mujun Li
Deficiency in trophoblast invasion is causally linked to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) shows the ability to suppress the invasiveness of trophoblasts, while cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr61) exerts an opposite function in trophoblast invasion. This study was designed to check the hypothesis that cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr61) may be involved in the anti-invasive activity of TNF-α in trophoblasts. To this end, we examined the effect of TNF-α treatment on Cyr61 expression in HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells and investigated the mechanism for the regulation of Cyr61 by TNF-α...
August 3, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079067/disruption-in-the-regulation-of-immune-responses-in-the-placental-subtype-of-preeclampsia
#12
REVIEW
Janri Geldenhuys, Theresa Marie Rossouw, Hendrik Andries Lombaard, Marthie Magdaleen Ehlers, Marleen Magdalena Kock
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder, of which one of its major subtypes, the placental subtype is considered a response to an ischemic placental environment, impacting fetal growth and pregnancy outcome. Inflammatory immune responses have been linked to metabolic and inflammatory disorders as well as reproductive failures. In healthy pregnancy, immune regulatory mechanisms prevent excessive systemic inflammation. However, in preeclampsia, the regulation of immune responses is disrupted as a result of aberrant activation of innate immune cells and imbalanced differentiation of T-helper cell subsets creating a cytotoxic environment in utero ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078556/self-renewing-trophoblast-organoids-recapitulate-the-developmental-program-of-the-early-human-placenta
#13
Sandra Haider, Gudrun Meinhardt, Leila Saleh, Viktoria Kunihs, Magdalena Gamperl, Ulrich Kaindl, Adolf Ellinger, Thomas R Burkard, Christian Fiala, Jürgen Pollheimer, Sasha Mendjan, Paulina A Latos, Martin Knöfler
Defective placentation is the underlying cause of various pregnancy complications, such as severe intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia. However, studies on human placental development are hampered by the lack of a self-renewing in vitro model that would recapitulate formation of trophoblast progenitors and differentiated subtypes, syncytiotrophoblast (STB) and invasive extravillous trophoblast (EVT), in a 3D orientation. Hence, we established long-term expanding organoid cultures from purified first-trimester cytotrophoblasts (CTBs)...
July 31, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078346/regulatory-effect-of-mir-195-in-the-placental-dysfunction-of-preeclampsia
#14
Tuba Gunel, Nilufer Kamali, Mohammad K Hosseini, Ece Gumusoglu, Ali Benian, Kilic Aydinli
PURPOSE: Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy specific disease soon after 20 weeks of gestation where major symptoms are hypertension and proteinuria. The underlying pathology is believed to be abnormal placentation. Epigenetic and genetic factors have significant roles in abnormal placental development. MicroRNA's (miRNAs), being one of the most important epigenetic regulators, take part in abnormal placentation. Hsa-miR-195 is a molecule associated with abnormal placental growth mechanisms such as impaired cellular proliferation, inadequate trophoblastic invasion causing defective spiral artery remodeling and apoptosis...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078219/role-of-stat-signaling-and-autocrine-action-of-chemokines-during-h-2-o-2-induced-htr-8-svneo-trophoblastic-cells-invasion
#15
Priyanka Banerjee, Ankita Malik, Sudha Saryu Malhotra, Satish Kumar Gupta
During pregnancy, regulated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is important for activation of signaling pathways and placentation. In the current study, the effect of H2 O2 on invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells, a human extravillous trophoblast cell line, is investigated. Treatment of HTR-8/SVneo cells for 24 hr with H 2 O2 (25 µM) leads to a significant increase in invasion without affecting cell proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. Concomitantly, a significant increase in the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) ratio is observed...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065265/s100p-enhances-the-motility-and-invasion-of-human-trophoblast-cell-lines
#16
Maral E A Tabrizi, Tara L Lancaster, Thamir M Ismail, Athina Georgiadou, Ankana Ganguly, Jayna J Mistry, Keqing Wang, Philip S Rudland, Shakil Ahmad, Stephane R Gross
S100P has been shown to be a marker for carcinogenesis where its expression in solid tumours correlates with metastasis and a poor patient prognosis. This protein's role in any physiological process is, however, unknown. Here we first show that S100P is expressed both in trophoblasts in vivo as well as in some corresponding cell lines in culture. We demonstrate that S100P is predominantly expressed during the early stage of placental formation with its highest expression levels occurring during the first trimester of gestation, particularly in the invading columns and anchoring villi...
July 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061037/microrna-218-5p-promotes-endovascular-trophoblast-differentiation-and-spiral-artery-remodeling
#17
Jelena Brkić, Caroline Dunk, Jacob O'Brien, Guodong Fu, Lubna Nadeem, Yan-Ling Wang, David Rosman, Mohamed Salem, Oksana Shynlova, Issaka Yougbaré, Heyu Ni, Stephen J Lye, Chun Peng
Preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Defects in trophoblast invasion, differentiation of endovascular extravillous trophoblasts (enEVTs), and spiral artery remodeling are key factors in PE development. There are no markers clinically available to predict PE, leaving expedited delivery as the only effective therapy. Dysregulation of miRNA in clinical tissues and maternal circulation have opened a new avenue for biomarker discovery. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-218-5p in PE development...
July 12, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055671/geometric-and-hemodynamic-characterization-of-uterine-spiral-arteries-the-concept-of-resistance-reserve
#18
Mair Zamir, D Michael Nelson, Yehuda Ginosar
BACKGROUND: The coiled geometry of spiral arteries in the human uteroplacental circulation is a hemodynamic enigma because of added length of a spiral artery compared with that of a straight artery, as well as added complexity of the flow within the vessel because of the coiling curvature. METHODS: We examined the geometric and hemodynamic characteristics of mathematically defined helical and spiral arteries and compared these with the corresponding characteristics of a straight artery traversing the same depth of tissue, with the aim of gaining some insight into the possible role of spiral geometry in uteroplacental perfusion...
August 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055669/tgf-%C3%AE-1-inhibits-human-trophoblast-cell-invasion-by-upregulating-cyclooxygenase-2
#19
Yuyin Yi, Jung-Chien Cheng, Christian Klausen, Peter C K Leung
INTRODUCTION: Enhanced expression and activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been reported in trophoblasts from women with preeclampsia compared with healthy pregnant women. Prostaglandin E2, the production of which is initiated by COX-2, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) have been shown to inhibit human trophoblast cell invasion. However, it is not known if TGF-β1 induces COX-2 in human trophoblast cells or whether COX-2 mediates the suppressive effects of TGF-β1 on trophoblast invasion...
August 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055134/long-non-coding-rna-dlx6-as1-is-upregulated-in-preeclampsia-and-modulates-migration-and-invasion-of-trophoblasts-through-the-mir-376c-gadd45a-axis
#20
Yan Tan, Di Xiao, Yanbin Xu, Chenhong Wang
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) are key regulatory molecules that are implicated in diverse biological processes and human diseases, including preeclampsia. However, their expression and functions in the progression of preeclampsia remains largely unclear. In this study, lncRNA DLX6-AS1 was confirmed to be significantly upregulated in the placentas of patients with preeclampsia, compared with normal controls. Overexpression of DLX6-AS1 dramatically decreased proliferation, migration and invasion in trophoblast JEG3 and HTR-8/SVneo cells...
July 25, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
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