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trophoblast invasion

Rachel C West, Gerrit J Bouma, Quinton A Winger
Early human placental development strongly resembles carcinogenesis in otherwise healthy tissues. The progenitor cells of the placenta, the cytotrophoblast, rapidly proliferate to produce a sufficient number of cells to form an organ that will contribute to fetal development as early as the first trimester. The cytotrophoblast cells begin to differentiate, some towards the fused cells of the syncytiotrophoblast and some towards the highly invasive and migratory extravillous trophoblast. Invasion and migration of extravillous trophoblast cells mimics tumor metastasis...
October 19, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
C-X Lou, X-T Zhou, Q-C Tian, H-Q Xie, J-Y Zhang
OBJECTIVE: We investigate whether microRNA-21 could increase the infiltration ability of trophoblast cells via regulating PTEN expression, thus participating in the occurrence and development of preeclampsia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MicroRNA-21 expression in the placenta tissues of preeclampsia women and normal pregnant women was detected by quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). The effects of microRNA-21 on cell proliferation and infiltration were examined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and transwell assay, respectively...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Luping Liu, Li Sun, Jing Zheng, Yanchun Wang
BACKGROUND The improper invasion of trophoblast cells (TC) can cause various diseases. BRCT-repeat inhibitor of hTERT expression (BRIT1) is involved in the invasion of tumors. Here, we analyzed the effects of BRIT1 on the invasion of TC. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of BRIT1 in JEG-3, B6Tert, and HTR8/SVneo cells was evaluated by transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting. The viability, invasion, and migration of HTR8/SVneo cells were measured using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and Transwell assays...
October 19, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Xiuhua Yang, Tao Meng
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy complication that is characterized by higher blood pressure, together with higher protein quantity presence in the urine, which occurs after 20 weeks of gestation leading to severity of adverse maternal and fetal consequences. Some special microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed in placentas may be related to the occurrence of PE. Researchers have found that the expression of miR-431 in PE placentas was increased if compared with normal placentas; however, the effect and mechanism of miR-431 in PE are still unknown...
October 10, 2018: Gene
Tiina Rasila, Olga Saavalainen, Hesham Attalla, Petri Lankila, Caj Haglund, Erkki Hölttä, Leif C Andersson
Our group originally found and cloned cDNA for a 98 kDa type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein of unknown function. Due to its abundant expression in astrocytes it was called the protein astroprincin (APCN). Two thirds of the evolutionarily conserved protein is intracytoplasmic whereas the extracellular domain carries two N-glycosidic side chains. APCN is physiologically expressed in placental trophoblasts, skeletal and hearth muscle, and kidney and pancreas. Overexpression of APCN (cDNA) in various cell lines induced sprouting of slender projections whereas knockdown of APCN expression by siRNA caused disappearance of actin stress fibres...
October 9, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Philipp Velicky, Gudrun Meinhardt, Kerstin Plessl, Sigrid Vondra, Tamara Weiss, Peter Haslinger, Thomas Lendl, Karin Aumayr, Mario Mairhofer, Xiaowei Zhu, Birgit Schütz, Roberta L Hannibal, Robert Lindau, Beatrix Weil, Jan Ernerudh, Jürgen Neesen, Gerda Egger, Mario Mikula, Clemens Röhrl, Alexander E Urban, Julie Baker, Martin Knöfler, Jürgen Pollheimer
Genome amplification and cellular senescence are commonly associated with pathological processes. While physiological roles for polyploidization and senescence have been described in mouse development, controversy exists over their significance in humans. Here, we describe tetraploidization and senescence as phenomena of normal human placenta development. During pregnancy, placental extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) invade the pregnant endometrium, termed decidua, to establish an adapted microenvironment required for the developing embryo...
October 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Vernon J Ebegboni, John M Dickenson, Shiva D Sivasubramaniam
This study aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effects of flavonoids, their metabolites alone or in combination against hypoxia/reoxygenation induced oxidative stress in the transformed human first trimester trophoblast cell line (HTR-8/SVneo). Oxidative stress was achieved with hypoxia followed by reoxygenation and the following assays were performed: MTT, CellTox™ Green Cytotoxicity, CellTiter-Glo®, NADP/NADPH-Glo™, ROS-Glo™/H2 O2 , GSH/GSSG-Glo™ and Caspase-Glo® 3/7 assays. HTR-8/SVneo cells, pre-treated for 24 h with flavonoids or their metabolites were protected significantly from oxidative stress...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
John Canfield, Sefa Arlier, Ezinne F Mong, John Lockhart, Jeffrey VanWye, Ozlem Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Frederick Schatz, Ronald R Magness, Charles J Lockwood, John C M Tsibris, Umit A Kayisli, Hana Totary-Jain
Preeclampsia (PE) is a common cause of maternal morbidity, characterized by impaired trophoblast invasion and spiral artery transformation resulting in progressive uteroplacental hypoxia. Given the primary role of LIN28A and LIN28B in modulating cell metabolism, differentiation, and invasion, we hypothesized that LIN28A and/or LIN28B regulates trophoblast differentiation and invasion, and that its dysregulation may contribute to PE. Here we show that LIN28B is expressed ∼1300-fold higher than LIN28A in human term placenta and is the predominant paralog expressed in primary human trophoblast cultures...
October 11, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Fanfan Li, Yin Xie, Yuanyuan Wu, Mengzhou He, Meitao Yang, Yao Fan, Xuanxuan Li, Fuyuan Qiao, Dongrui Deng
Preeclampsia (PE) remains the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Excessive apoptosis of the placenta and poor remodeling of spiral arteries caused by insufficient invasion of trophoblast cells into uterus have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PE. Accumulating evidence showed that heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) is closely associated with the proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis of tumor cells. However, little is known about whether HSP20 plays a role in the development of PE...
October 10, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Yunzhen Ye, Yao Tang, Yu Xiong, Liping Feng, Xiaotian Li
Preeclampsia leads to adverse outcomes for pregnant women. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disruptor and has been shown to be positively associated with increased risk of preeclampsia in human studies. We investigated whether BPA exposure causes preeclampsia-like features in pregnant mice and the associated underlying mechanisms. Experiments were performed in animal models and cell cultures. In pregnant mice, BPA-exposed mice exhibited preeclampsia-like features including hypertension, disruption of the circulation, and the placental angiogenesis biomarkers fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 and placenta growth factor, and glomerular atrophy; urinary protein was not affected...
October 10, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Marion Böing, Beate Brand-Saberi, Markus Napirei
The murine basic helix-loop-helix transcription (bHLH) factor mouse atonal homolog 6 (Math6) is expressed in numerous organs and supposed to be involved in several developmental processes. However, so far neither all aspects nor the molecular mechanisms of Math6 function have been explored exhaustively. To analyze the in vivo function of Math6 in detail, we generated a constitutive knockout (KO) mouse (Math6-/- ) and performed an initial histological and molecular biological investigation of its main phenotype...
October 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eric Jauniaux, Graham J Burton
Current findings continue to support the concept of a biologically defective decidua rather than a primarily abnormally invasive trophoblast. Prior cesarean sections increase the risk of placenta previa and both adherent and invasive placenta accreta, suggesting that the endometrial/decidual defect following the iatrogenic creation of a uterine myometrium scar has an adverse effect on early implantation. Preferential attachment of the blastocyst to scar tissue facilitates abnormally deep invasion of trophoblastic cells and interactions with the radial and arcuate arteries...
December 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Che-Ying Kuo, Mariya Shevchuk, Justin Opfermann, Ting Guo, Marco Santoro, John P Fisher, Peter Cw Kim
Trophoblast invasion and remodeling of the maternal spiral arteries are required for pregnancy success. Aberrant endothelium-trophoblast crosstalk may lead to preeclampsia, a pregnancy complication that has serious effects on both the mother and the baby. However, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in this pathology remains elementary because current in vitro models cannot describe trophoblast-endothelium interactions under dynamic culture. In this work, we developed a dynamic 3D placenta model by bioprinting trophoblasts and an endothelialized lumen in a perfusion bioreactor...
October 9, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Keyla S N Pires, Sue Y Sun, Camilla M Gonçalves, Jaqueline C Santos, Liliane P G Tenorio, Rayane M Botelho, Ana Lucia M Silva, Hillary Gabriela S Oliveira, Karen Priscila T Pendeloski, Silvia Daher, Karen S C Borbely, Alexandre U Borbely
Versican is a proteoglycan known to interact with cells to influence their ability to proliferate, differentiate, migrate, invade and assemble extracellular matrix, with all of these cell functions present during placentation. In the placenta, cytotrophoblast cells have the ability to differentiate into the syncytiotrophoblast, a mechanism that is greatly increased in gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD). Nevertheless, the molecular signaling underlying the increased syncytiotrophoblast differentiation are still being unveiled and may result in novel therapeutic targets for GTD...
October 8, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Yangming Liu, Nan Shan, Yu Yuan, Bin Tan, Chengjin He, Chao Tong, Hongbo Qi
INTRODUCTION: The sufficient invasion and migration of human extravillous trophoblast (EVTs) cells are crucial for placentation. Inadequate invasion of trophoblasts may correlate with the development of preeclampsia. Many studies have suggested that activated Cdc42-associated kinase (ACK1) is associated with tumor metastasis and invasion. This study investigated the ACK1 expression and its function in trophoblasts during placental development. METHODS: ACK1 expression in human placentas was determined through immunofluorescence...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Suji Kim, Kyu-Sun Lee, Seunghwan Choi, Joohwan Kim, Dong-Keon Lee, Minsik Park, Wonjin Park, Tae-Hoon Kim, Jong Yun Hwang, Moo-Ho Won, Hansoo Lee, Sungwoo Ryoo, Kwon-Soo Ha, Young-Guen Kwon, Young-Myeong Kim
Inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, were elevated in patients with cardiovascular diseases and are also considered as crucial factors in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia; however, the underlying pathogenic mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. The present study provides novel evidence that TNF-α leads to endothelial dysfunction associated with hypertension and vascular remodeling in preeclampsia through downregulation of eNOS by NF-κB-dependent biogenesis of microRNA (miR)-31-5p, which targets eNOS mRNA...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Narmada Lavu, Lauren Richardson, Elizabeth Bonney, Ramkumar Menon
INTRODUCTION: Human reproduction is a multifaceted process reliant on proper blastocyst implantation, placental and fetal membrane development, and delivery of a healthy baby. Multiple factors and pathways have been reported as critical machineries for cell differentiation and survival during pregnancy, and most of them involve glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3α/β for cell differentiation and survival and for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Several reports on GSK3's functional role exist; however, the specific role of GSK3 in reproductive tissues and its contribution to normal or abnormal parturition are still unclear...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Sarah A Robertson, Alison S Care, Lachlan M Moldenhauer
At implantation, the embryo expresses paternally derived alloantigens and evokes inflammation that can threaten reproductive success. To ensure a robust placenta and sustainable pregnancy, an active state of maternal immune tolerance mediated by CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) is essential. Tregs operate to inhibit effector immunity, contain inflammation, and support maternal vascular adaptations, thereby facilitating trophoblast invasion and placental access to the maternal blood supply. Insufficient Treg numbers or inadequate functional competence are implicated in idiopathic infertility and recurrent miscarriage as well as later-onset pregnancy complications stemming from placental insufficiency, including preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Changwon Yang, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Homosalate is an organic ultraviolet filter used in most sunscreens but has been reported to be toxic to marine organisms. The estrogenic activity of homosalate has also been reported, but its endocrine-disrupting effect remains unclear. Although homosalate has been detected in human placental tissues, its effect on the survival of human trophoblast cells needs to be investigated. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated if HTR8/SVneo, a human trophoblast cell line, treated with homosalate showed decreasing proliferative activity in a dose-dependent manner...
September 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Caroline E Dunk, Jane J Pappas, Phetcharawan Lye, Mark Kibschull, Mohsen Javam, Enrrico Bloise, Stephen J Lye, Moshe Szyf, Stephen G Matthews
Dysregulation of trophoblast differentiation is implicated in the placental pathologies of intrauterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia. P-glycoprotein (P-gp encoded by ABCB1) is an ATP-binding cassette transporter present in the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta where it acts as a molecular sieve. In this study, we show that P-gp is also expressed in the proliferating cytotrophoblast (CT), the syncytiotrophoblast (ST) and the extravillous trophoblast (EVT), suggesting our hypothesis of a functional role for P-gp in placental development...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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