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CKD OR "Chronic Kidney Disease"

Jonatan Barrera-Chimal, Leslie Rocha, Isabel Amador-Martínez, Rosalba Pérez-Villalva, Rafael González, Cesar Cortés-González, Norma Uribe, Victoria Ramírez, Nathan Berman, Gerardo Gamba, Norma A Bobadilla
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is not as harmless as previously thought since it may lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Because most of the time ischemic AKI occurs unexpectedly, it is difficult to prevent its occurrence and there are no specific therapeutic approaches to prevent the AKI to CKD transition. We aimed to determine whether mineralocorticoid receptor blockade (MRB) in the first days after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) can prevent progression to CKD. Methods: Four groups of male Wistar rats were included: sham and three groups of bilateral renal ischemia for 45 min, one without treatment and the other two receiving spironolactone for 5 or 10 days, starting 24 h after IR...
August 9, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Shin Jung Park, Prakash Thapa, Hye-Jin Seo, Eun Seok Park, Seong Hoon Jeong
CKD-519, a potent cholestryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor, is a clinical candidate being developed for the treatment of dyslipidemia. It is considered a Biopharmaceutical Classification System II compound with low solubility and high permeability. The objective of this study was to develop early formulations focusing on the dissolution rate of the compound to achieve dose-dependent exposure. High performance formulation strategies including solid dispersion (SD) and a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) were investigated and their in vivo and in vitro correlations were also evaluated in monkeys along with dose optimization in human volunteers...
August 11, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Tomasz Charytoniuk, Maciej Małyszko, Jan Bączek, Piotr Fiedorczyk, Karolina Siedlaczek, Jolanta Małyszko
Nephrectomy, which constitutes a gold-standard procedure for the treatment of renal-cell carcinoma (RCC), has been widely discussed in the past decade as a significant risk factor of the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). RCC is the third most common genitourinary cancer in the United States, with an estimated more than 65,000 new cases and 14,970 deaths. The aim of this review was to precisely and comprehensively summarize the status of current knowledge in chronic kidney disease risk factors after nephrectomy, the advantages of minimally invasive vs...
August 14, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
David J Paulucci, Alp Tuna Beksac, James Porter, Ronney Abaza, Daniel D Eun, Akshay Bhandari, Ashok K Hemal, Ketan K Badani
OBJECTIVE: To compare the perioperative and renal functional outcome between transperitoneal and retroperitoneal robotic partial nephrectomy (TP-RPN and RP-RPN) in the largest cohort to date of RP-RPN for posterior tumors. METHODS: We identified 519 patients who met eligibility criteria and underwent TP-RPN (n = 357, 68.8%) or RP-RPN (n = 162, 31.2%) for a posteriorly located cT1 tumor. Patients were propensity score (PS) matched on preoperative and tumor-specific characteristics...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Benjamin Cochran, Tereza Kovačíková, Kateřina Hodaňová, Martina Živná, Aleš Hnízda, Angela G Niehaus, Alex Bonnecaze, Gowrie Balasubraminiam, Irene Ceballos-Picot, Amret Hawfield, Kendrah Kidd, Stanislav Kmoch, Anthony J Bleyer
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency (OMIM #614723) is a rare autosomal recessive defect in the purine salvage pathway that causes excessive production of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, leading to nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This case report describes the natural history of CKD in untreated APRT deficiency. We describe a novel APRT mutation (chr16:88877985 G / C; c.195 C>/G; p.His54Asp) presenting with CKD without nephrolithiasis. The patient initially required dialysis, but kidney function improved with allopurinol...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Kosuke Honda, Akimitsu Kobayashi, Takahito Niikura, Tsukasa Hasegawa, Zenya Saito, Shuji Ito, Tomoya Sasaki, Kazumasa Komine, Seita Ishizuka, Yutaro Motoi, Takahiro Kubota, Hiroyasu Yamamoto, Takashi Yokoo
A 68-year-old Japanese man was monitored for chronic kidney disease (CKD), with unknown primary disease starting in 2014. His serum creatinine (sCr) was stable at ~ 2.5 mg/dL for ~ 2 years. Two weeks before admission, he had bloody sputum, and sCr increased to 4.63 mg/dL. Soon after admission, the patient developed a high fever with pigment spots on the legs. A kidney biopsy was performed. The kidney specimens showed necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis without granuloma formation. An additional blood-sampling test revealed high titers of PR3-ANCA, and we diagnosed PR3-ANCA-positive microscopic polyangiitis (MPA)...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Radha Chirumamilla, Diana Mina, Salpi Siyahian, Meyeon Park
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most prevalent genetic kidney disease. It carries high lifetime morbidity not only due to chronic kidney disease, but also due to a higher risk of cardiovascular death. Multiple metabolic abnormalities associated with -ADPKD including insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia as well as subclinical cardiovascular abnormalities, such as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), contribute to this cardiovascular risk. These conditions may manifest before evidence of worsening estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Kristien Daenen, Asmin Andries, Djalila Mekahli, Ann Van Schepdael, François Jouret, Bert Bammens
Oxidative stress (OS), defined as disturbances in the pro-/antioxidant balance, is harmful to cells due to the excessive generation of highly reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species. When the balance is not disturbed, OS has a role in physiological adaptations and signal transduction. However, an excessive amount of ROS and RNS results in the oxidation of biological molecules such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Oxidative stress has been reported in kidney disease, due to both antioxidant depletions as well as increased ROS production...
August 13, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Asmin Andries, Kristien Daenen, François Jouret, Bert Bammens, Djalila Mekahli, Ann Van Schepdael
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), caused by mutations in PKD1 or PKD2 genes, is the most common hereditary renal disease. Renal manifestations of ADPKD are gradual cyst development and kidney enlargement ultimately leading to end-stage renal disease. ADPKD also causes extrarenal manifestations, including endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Both of these complications are linked with reduced nitric oxide levels related to excessive oxidative stress (OS). OS, defined as disturbances in the prooxidant/antioxidant balance, is harmful to cells due to the excessive generation of highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen free radicals...
August 13, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Kuan-Ting Wu, Chung-Yang Chen, Bradley Chen, Jun-Wen Wang, Po-Chun Lin, Shih-Hsiang Yen
Background: Etiology of acute kidney disease (AKD) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was considered as multifactorial. However, the role of early postoperative volume supplement in AKD rate has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of AKD in patients with early volume supplement following TKA. Methods: This was a retrospective study with 458 patients who underwent unilateral TKA. All the patients received 6% tetrastarch, 7...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jaya Prasad Tripathy
Background: Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and their complications are a growing problem in India. However, no comprehensive picture of this disease burden has yet been presented to date. Methods: I used aggregate data from the Global Burden of Disease 2016 to describe the burden of diabetes and its risk factors, chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to diabetes, and diseases caused by high fasting plasma glucose from 1990 to 2016 in India. Results: Deaths due to diabetes accounted for 3...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
John M Haynes, James N Selby, Isaiah Pl Abad, Teresa Vandekolk, Joan K Ho, Wai-Ling Lieuw, Katie Leach, Judith Savige, Sheetal Saini, Craig Fisher, Sharon Ricardo
Renal podocyte survival depends upon the dynamic regulation of a complex cell architecture that links glomerular basement membrane to integrins, ion channels and receptors. Alport syndrome is a heritable chronic kidney disease where mutations in α3, α4 or α5 collagen genes promote podocyte death. In rodent models of renal failure, activation of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) can protect podocytes from stress related death. In this study we assess CaSR function in podocyte-like cells from induced-pluripotent stem cells derived from two patients with Alport Syndrome (AS1 & AS2), a renal disease free individual (NHMC) and an immortalized podocyte-like (HIP) cell line...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Alessandro Antonelli, Andrea Minervini, Marco Sandri, Roberto Bertini, Riccardo Bertolo, Marco Carini, Maria Furlan, Alessandro Larcher, Guglielmo Mantica, Andrea Mari, Francesco Montorsi, Carlotta Palumbo, Francesco Porpiglia, Paola Romagnani, Claudio Simeone, Carlo Terrone, Umberto Capitanio
BACKGROUND: The hypothesis that renal function could influence oncological outcomes is supported by anecdotal literature. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is related to cancer-specific mortality (CSM) in patients who had undergone surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective analysis of 3457 patients who underwent radical (39%) or partial nephrectomy (61%) for cT1-2 RCC between 1990 and 2015...
August 10, 2018: European Urology
Polwatta Liyanage Gayani Chandima Liyanage, Sarath Lekamwasam, Thilak Priyantha Weerarathna, Dodanduwa Waduge Shyamal Yashodara Srikantha
BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria signifies the onset of diabetic nephropathy, but normoalbuminuric patients with diabetes who have a low Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) are not uncommon. The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence of such patients and to assess the clinical correlates. METHODS: Cross-sectional study included patients with diabetes attending medical clinics at Teaching Hospital Galle. Diagnosis of albuminuria was made if urinary albumin excretion was > 30 mg/g of creatinine in two out of three samples...
August 13, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Mandy E Turner, Michael A Adams, Rachel M Holden
The purpose of this review is to summarize the research to date on the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the vitamin K metabolome. Vitamin K-dependent proteins contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention via the prevention of ectopic mineralization. Sub-clinical vitamin K deficiency is common in CKD patients, and evidence suggests that it may contribute to the CVD burden in this population. Research from animal models suggests that CKD alters tissue measures of the two predominant forms of vitamin K: KI and MK-4...
August 12, 2018: Nutrients
Mateusz Maciejczyk, Julita Szulimowska, Anna Skutnik, Katarzyna Taranta-Janusz, Anna Wasilewska, Natalia Wiśniewska, Anna Zalewska
There are still missing non-invasive biomarkers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress indicators in the non-stimulated (NWS) and stimulated saliva (SWS) of CKD children ( n = 25) and healthy controls ( n = 25). Salivary antioxidants (catalase (CAT), peroxidase (Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), uric acid (UA), reduced glutathione (GSH), albumin), redox status (total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI)), and oxidative damage products (advanced glycation end products (AGE), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA)) were evaluated...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Yoshiko Iwasaki, Hideyuki Yamato, Masafumi Fukagawa
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling is not only important in skeletal development, but also essential in bone remodeling in adult bone. The bone remodeling process involves integrated cell activities induced by multiple stimuli to balance bone resorption and bone formation. TGF-β plays a role in bone remodeling by coordinating cell activities to maintain bone homeostasis. However, mineral metabolism disturbance in chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in abnormal bone remodeling, which leads to ectopic calcification in CKD...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Roberta Lizio, Claudio Babiloni, Claudio Del Percio, Antonia Losurdo, Lucia Vernò, Marina De Tommaso, Anna Montemurno, Giuseppe Dalfino, Pietro Cirillo, Andrea Soricelli, Raffaele Ferri, Giuseppe Noce, Maria Teresa Pascarelli, Valentina Catania, Flavio Nobili, Francesco Famá, Francesco Orzi, Franco Giubilei, Carla Buttinelli, A Ivano Triggiani, Giovanni B Frisoni, Anna Maria Scisci, Nicola Mastrofilippo, Deni Aldo Procaccini, Loreto Gesualdo
This study tested whether resting state alpha rhythms (8-13 Hz) may characterize mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (ADMCI) compared with MCI due to chronic kidney disease (CKDMCI). Clinical and resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms from 40 ADMCI, 29 CKDMCI, and 45 cognitively normal elderly (Nold) subjects were available in a national archive. Age, gender, and education were matched in the three groups, and Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score was paired in the ADMCI and CKDMCI groups...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Mitchell L Schubert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the past year's literature, both clinical and basic science, regarding potential adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Proton pump inhibitors are amongst the most widely prescribed and overprescribed medications worldwide. Although generally considered well tolerated, epidemiologic studies mining large databases have reported a panoply of purported serious adverse effects associated with proton pump inhibitors, including chronic kidney disease, cognitive decline, myocardial infarction, stroke, bone fracture and even death...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Arjun Sekar, Taranpreet Kaur, Joseph V Nally, Hernan Rincon-Choles, Stacey Jolly, Georges N Nakhoul
In caring for patients with chronic kidney disease, it is important to prevent and treat hyperphosphatemia with a combination of dietary restrictions and phosphorus binders. This review describes the pathophysiology and control of hyperphosphatemia and the different classes of phosphorus binders with respect to their availability, cost, side effects, and scenarios in which one class of binder may be more beneficial than another.
August 2018: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
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