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subtypes parkinson

Cuiping Xu, Ping Zhuang, Mark Hallett, Yuqing Zhang, Jianyu Li, Yongjie Li
Background and purpose: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) is well established for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), substantially improving motor symptoms, quality of life, and reducing the long-term need for dopaminergic medication. However, whether chronic STN DBS produces different effects on PD motor subtypes is unknown. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of STN DBS on the PD motor subtypes. Methods: Eighty patients undergoing STN DBS were included...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Yuan Jiang, Long Yan, Longkuo Xia, Xiaoyin Lu, Wenliang Zhu, Dewen Ding, Mingxia Du, Da Zhang, Hongmei Wang, Baoyang Hu
Human pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for improving regenerative medicine. However, a risk for tumor formation and difficulties in generating large amounts of subtype derivatives remain the major obstacles for clinical applications of stem cells. Here, we discovered that zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is highly expressed upon differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into neuronal precursors. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ZEB1 depletion did not impede neural fate commitment, but  prevented hESCs-derived neural precursors from differentiating into neurons, indicating that ZEB1 is required for neuronal differentiation...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jorge Enrique Machado-Alba, Luis Felipe Calvo-Torres, Andrés Gaviria-Mendoza, Juan Daniel Castrillón-Spitia
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease, whose prevalence in Colombia is 4.7 per 1,000 inhabitants, is a public health problem and a therapeutic challenge for health professionals. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prescribing patterns of antiparkinson drugs and the variables associated with its use in a population from Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study. We selected patients who had been given antiparkinson drugs uninterruptedly between January 1st and March 31st, 2015 from a systematized database of approximately 3...
September 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Yanbing Hou, Jing Yang, Chunyan Luo, Ruwei Ou, Yutong Zou, Wei Song, Qiyong Gong, Huifang Shang
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) could be classified into akinetic-rigidity (PDAR ), tremor-dominant (PDTD ) and mixed subtypes. PDAR patients are more prone to develop cognitive deficits. The default mode network (DMN), fronto-parietal network (FPN) and dorsal attention network (DAN) play important roles in cognitive processing. Our aim was to evaluate changes in connectivity patterns of the DMN, and its interrelation with the FPN and DAN in cognitively unimpaired drug-naïve PDAR patients...
October 3, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Stephane Thobois, Christine Brefel-Courbon, Didier Le Bars, Véronique Sgambato-Faure
Opioid receptors are localized throughout peripheral and central nervous system and interact with endogenous opioid peptides and drugs including heroin, synthetic opioids, and pain relievers (codeine, morphine). If several opioid PET tracers exist for preclinical studies, only a few have been used in human. Some tracers are selective for one subtype of opioid receptors (e.g., [11 C]CAF (carfentanil) for μ receptor) while others are not ([11 C]DPN (diprenorphine)). As shown by imaging studies, the opioid system is involved in pain processing, but also in addiction, neuropsychiatric manifestations (harm avoidance, sadness, novelty seeking behavior), feeding and food disorders and, finally, movement disorders and levodopa-induced dyskinesias...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Elisa Cuadrado-Godia, Pratistha Dwivedi, Sanjiv Sharma, Angel Ois Santiago, Jaume Roquer Gonzalez, Mercedes Balcells, John Laird, Monika Turk, Harman S Suri, Andrew Nicolaides, Luca Saba, Narendra N Khanna, Jasjit S Suri
Cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) has a crucial role in lacunar stroke and brain hemorrhages and is a leading cause of cognitive decline and functional loss in elderly patients. Based on underlying pathophysiology, cSVD can be subdivided into amyloidal and non-amyloidal subtypes. Genetic factors of cSVD play a pivotal role in terms of unraveling molecular mechanism. An important pathophysiological mechanism of cSVD is blood-brain barrier leakage and endothelium dysfunction which gives a clue in identification of the disease through circulating biological markers...
September 2018: Journal of Stroke
Xiao-Hong Wang, Jin-Chen Yang, Robert Soohoo, Devyn Cotter, Mei Yuan, Jiangyi Xia, Shuja Yaqub, Jesse Doty, Yu-Qiong Niu, Flora Tassone, Randi Hagerman, Lin Zhang, John Olichney
Objective: To examine cognitive deficits and associated brain activity in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) patients with parkinsonism (FXTp+), in relation to FXTAS patients without parkinsonism (FXTp-), and normal elderly controls (NC). Methods: Retrospective reviews were performed in 65 FXTAS patients who participated in the event-related brain potential (ERP) study and also had either a videotaped neurological examination or a neurological examination for extrapyramidal signs. Parkinsonism was defined as having bradykinesia with at least one of the following: rest tremor, postural instability, hypermyotonia, or rigidity...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Ziyi Wang, Ping Kuang, Yuying Lin, Weitang Liu, Wenwen Lao, Yonghua Ji, Hongyan Zhu
Abnormal synchronized oscillatory bursts occurring in the basal ganglia (BG) are suggested to be correlated with motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and animal models of PD. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) have been demonstrated to play an important role in the abnormal electrical activity of neurons in the BG. Nav1.3, a VGSCs subtype, is predominantly expressed in embryonic and neonatal nervous system but barely detected in the normal adult nervous system in rodents. Here we investigated the expression patterns of Nav1...
September 26, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Manuela Mellone, Elisa Zianni, Jennifer Stanic, Federica Campanelli, Gioia Marino, Veronica Ghiglieri, Annalisa Longhi, Marie-Laure Thiolat, Qin Li, Paolo Calabresi, Erwan Bezard, Barbara Picconi, Monica Di Luca, Fabrizio Gardoni
In the striatum, specific N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subtypes are found in different neuronal cells. Spiny projection neurons (SPNs) are characterized by NMDARs expressing GluN2A and GluN2B subunits, while GluN2D is exclusively detected in striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs). In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopamine depletion and prolonged treatment with levodopa (L-DOPA) trigger adaptive changes in the glutamatergic transmission from the cortex to the striatum, also resulting in the aberrant function of striatal NMDARs...
September 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Ingemar Björkhem, Kalicharan Patra, Adam L Boxer, Per Svenningsson
24S-hydroxycholesterol (24OHC) and Tau are produced in neuronal cells and neurodegeneration leads to increased flux of both of them into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In the present study, CSF levels of 24OHC and 27S-hydroxycholesterol (27OHC) along with those of Tau, P-Thr181 -Tau and Aβ42 were measured in patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD), Corticobasal syndrome (CBS), Corticobasal Degeneration (CBD), and controls. Using mouse models with increased or no formation of Tau protein and increased production of 24OHC, we have also tested the hypothesis that there is a direct association between neuronal turnover of 24OHC and Tau...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Yanbing Hou, Ruwei Ou, Jing Yang, Wei Song, Qiyong Gong, Huifang Shang
PURPOSE: Both the striatal-thalamo-cortical (STC) circuit and cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) circuit play a critical role in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI was used to assess functional connectivity (FC) focusing on the basal ganglia (BG) and cerebellum among early-stage drug-naïve PD patients with tremor-dominant (TD) PD patients with postural instability and gait dysfunction (PIGD) and healthy controls (HCs). RESULTS: Compared to HCs, both PD subgroups had higher FC between the cerebellum and paracentral lobule, sensorimotor areas; lower FC between the BG and superior frontal gyrus, and within the BG circuit; PD-TD patients showed higher FC between the BG and fusiform, paracentral lobule, cerebellum Lobule VI, and between the cerebellum and supplementary motor areas (SMA), insula; lower FC between the BG and rectus, sensorimotor areas, and within the cerebellum circuit; PD-PIGD patients showed higher FC between the cerebellum and middle frontal gyrus, precuneus; lower FC between the BG and cerebellum Crus II...
September 22, 2018: Neuroradiology
Bjørn Heine Strand, Anne-Brita Knapskog, Karin Persson, Trine Holt Edwin, Rachel Amland, Marit Mjørud, Espen Bjertness, Knut Engedal, Geir Selbæk
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease patients are reported to have higher survival rate compared to patients with vascular dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies. There is a paucity of studies investigating survival including persons with cognitive decline and dementia of various aetiologies. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare survival for patients with subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, mixed Alzheimer's/vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson's disease, and other dementias compared to the general Norwegian population, taking into account the role of gender, cognitive function, function in everyday activities, comorbidity and education...
2018: PloS One
Imke Galazky, Christina Caspari, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Joerg Franke
PURPOSE: This observational study was aimed at quantification of low back pain (LBP) in Parkinsonian patients and its morphological correlation. BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common disabling condition in the elderly population. Parkinsonian patients frequently are troubled by LBP. Causes for LBP in PD are muscular imbalances by the movement disorder itself and skeletal degeneration. METHODS: Ninety-seven PD patients and 97 controls were inquired about low back pain through the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire and visual analogue scales...
September 8, 2018: European Spine Journal
Alexander Yitbarek, Khaled Taha-Abdelaziz, Douglas C Hodgins, Leah Read, Éva Nagy, J Scott Weese, Jeff L Caswell, John Parkinson, Shayan Sharif
Commensal gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease. The current study was designed to assess the role of gut microbiota of chickens in the initiation of antiviral responses against avian influenza virus. Day-old layer chickens received a cocktail of antibiotics for 12 (ABX-D12) or 16 (ABX-D16) days to deplete their gut microbiota, followed by treatment of chickens from ABX-12 with five Lactobacillus species combination (PROB), fecal microbial transplant suspension (FMT) or sham treatment daily for four days...
September 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
X Huang, S Y-E Ng, N S-Y Chia, F Setiawan, K-Y Tay, W-L Au, E-K Tan, L C-S Tan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine non-motor symptoms in different Parkinson's disease (PD) motor subtypes and their associations with quality of life (QoL). METHODS: A total of 132 patients with early PD with comprehensive motor examinations and non-motor symptom assessments were included. Motor subtypes were classified based on Stebbins' method. Non-motor symptoms were assessed by the Non-Motor Symptom Scale (NMSS) and validated by more comprehensive instruments, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)...
September 3, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Francesca Assogna, Clelia Pellicano, Luca Cravello, Cinzia Savini, Mariangela Pierantozzi, Bruno Mercuri, Carlo Caltagirone, Francesco E Pontieri, Gianfranco Spalletta, Alessandro Stefani
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder. It is well established that different motor subtypes of PD evolve with different clinical courses and prognoses. The complete psychiatric profile underlying these different phenotypes since the very early stage of the disease is debated. AIMS OF THE STUDY: We aimed at investigating the psychiatric profile of the three motor subtypes of PD (akinetic-rigid, tremor-dominant, and mixed) in de novo drug-naïve patients with PD...
August 30, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, James M Shine, Courtney C Walton, Matthew J Georgiades, Moran Gilat, Julie M Hall, Alana J Muller, Jennifer Y Y Szeto, Simon J G Lewis
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to identify and characterize subtypes of freezing of gait by using a novel questionnaire designed to delineate freezing patterns based on self-reported and behavioral gait assessment. METHODS: A total of 41 Parkinson's patients with freezing completed the Characterizing Freezing of Gait questionnaire that identifies situations that exacerbate freezing. This instrument underwent examination for construct validity and internal consistency, after which a data-driven clustering approach was employed to identify distinct patterns amongst individual responses...
July 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Amanda L Hudson, Nicole R Parker, Peter Khong, Jonathon F Parkinson, Trisha Dwight, Rowan J Ikin, Ying Zhu, Jason Chen, Helen R Wheeler, Viive M Howell
While treatment with surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy may prolong life for patients with glioblastoma, recurrence is inevitable. What is still being discovered is how much these treatments and recurrence of disease affect the molecular profiles of these tumors and how these tumors adapt to withstand these treatment pressures. Understanding such changes will uncover pathways used by the tumor to evade destruction and will elucidate new targets for treatment development. Nineteen matched pre-treatment and post-treatment glioblastoma tumors were subjected to gene expression profiling (Fluidigm, TaqMan assays), MGMT promoter methylation analysis (pyrosequencing) and protein expression analysis of the DNA repair pathways, known to be involved in temozolomide resistance (immunohistochemistry)...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Teresa Mann, Karl Zilles, Felix Klawitter, Markus Cremer, Alexander Hawlitschka, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Oliver Schmitt, Andreas Wree
Cholinergic neurotransmission has a pivotal function in the caudate-putamen, and is highly associated with the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Here, we investigated long-term changes in the densities of the muscarinic receptor subtypes M1 , M2 , M3 (mAchRs) and the nicotinic receptor subtype α4 β2 (nAchRs) in the striatum of the 6-OHDA-induced hemiparkinsonian (hemi-PD) rat model using quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. Hemi-PD rats exhibited an ipsilateral decrease in striatal mAchR densities between 6 and 16%...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Paul J Boersema, Andre Melnik, Bouke P C Hazenberg, Melinda Rezeli, György Marko-Varga, Junichi Kamiie, Erik Portelius, Kaj Blennow, Roman A Zubarev, Magdalini Polymenidou, Paola Picotti
The Biology/Disease-driven (B/D) working groups of the Human Proteome Project are alliances of research groups aimed at developing or improving proteomic tools to support specific biological or disease-related research areas. Here, we describe the activities and progress to date of the B/D working group focused on protein aggregation diseases (PADs). PADs are characterized by the intra- or extracellular accumulation of aggregated proteins and include devastating diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and systemic amyloidosis...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
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