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subtypes parkinson

Darko Aleksovski, Dragana Miljkovic, Daniele Bravi, Angelo Antonini
INTRODUCTION: Discrete patterns of progression have been suggested for patients with Parkinson disease and presenting tremor dominant (TD) or postural instability gait disorders (PIGD). However, longitudinal prospective assessments need to take into consideration the variability in clinical manifestations and the evidence that only 40% of initially classified PIGD remain in this subtype at subsequent visits. METHODS: We analyzed clinical progression of PIGD compared to TD using longitudinal clinical data from the PPMI...
August 14, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Johan Lökk, Anders Wimo, Maria Eriksdotter
BACKGROUND: Whether dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are distinct disorders or two subtypes of the same entity, is not yet fully understood. There is a dearth of knowledge on differences in longitudinal clinical outcomes between DLB and PDD. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare longitudinal trend of cognitive decline, mortality, and their determinant factors between patients with DLB and PDD. METHODS: At baseline, we recruited 1110 DLB, and 764 PDD patients registered in the Swedish dementia registry (SveDem) during 2007- 2015...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Abderazak Belhocine, Pietro Veglianese, Candide Hounsou, Elodie Dupuis, Francine Acher, Thierry Durroux, Cyril Goudet, J P Pin
Group-III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are important synaptic regulators and are potential druggable targets for Parkinson disease, autism and pain. Potential drugs include orthosteric agonists in the glutamate binding extracellular domain and positive allosteric modulators interacting with seven-pass transmembrane domains. Orthosteric agonists are rarely completely specific for an individual group-III mGlu subtype. Furthermore they often fail to pass the blood-brain barrier and they constitutively activate their target receptor...
August 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Daniela Monaco, Daniela Berg, Astrid Thomas, Vincenzo Di Stefano, Filomena Barbone, Michela Vitale, Camilla Ferrante, Laura Bonanni, Marta Di Nicola, Tonia Garzarella, Luciano Paolo Marchionno, Giovanni Malferrari, Rocco Di Mascio, Marco Onofrj, Raffaella Franciotti
Transcranial sonography (TCS) is a noninvasive, easily performed, and commonly available neuroimaging technique useful for the study of brain parenchyma in movement disorders. This tool has been increasingly used in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism. The aim of the study was to evaluate the applicability of this technique as supportive tool in the early diagnosis of movement disorders. We performed TCS on 315 individuals which were diagnosed as healthy controls or affected by idiopathic Parkinson's disease, monogenetic subtypes of Parkinson's disease, atypical parkinsonism, and Dementia with Lewy bodies...
August 7, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Tiago A Mestre, Shirley Eberly, Caroline Tanner, David Grimes, Anthony E Lang, David Oakes, Connie Marras
INTRODUCTION: PD subtype classification systems attempt to address heterogeneity in PD, a widely recognized feature of the disease with implications in prognosis and therapeutic development. There is no consensus on a valid PD subtype classification system, and its use in clinical research is sparse. Reproducibility has not been systematically assessed as a step for the validation of a PD subtype classification system. We aimed at assessing reproducibility of previously published data-driven PD subtype classification systems in a well-characterized cohort created for clinical research purposes, the Longitudinal and Biomarker Study in Parkinson's Disease (LABS-PD)...
July 20, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Yuek Ling Chai, Joyce R Chong, Jiaju Weng, David Howlett, Andrea Halsey, Jasinda H Lee, Johannes Attems, Dag Aarsland, Paul T Francis, Christopher P Chen, Mitchell K P Lai
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation of β-amyloid plaques (AP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in the cortex, together with synaptic loss and amyloid angiopathy. Perturbations in the brain lysosomal system, including the cathepsin family of proteases, have been implicated in AD where they may be involved in proteolytic clearance of misfolded and abnormally aggregated peptides. However, the status of cathepsin D (catD) is unclear in Lewy body dementia, the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia after AD, and characterized by Lewy bodies (LB) containing aggregated α-synuclein...
July 27, 2018: Brain Pathology
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Miguel Perez De La Mora, Paul Manger, Manuel Narváez, Sarah Beggiato, Minerva Crespo-Ramírez, Gemma Navarro, Karolina Wydra, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Alicia Rivera, Luca Ferraro, Sergio Tanganelli, Małgorzata Filip, Rafael Franco, Kjell Fuxe
This perspective article provides observations supporting the view that nigro-striatal dopamine neurons and meso-limbic dopamine neurons mainly communicate through short distance volume transmission in the um range with dopamine diffusing into extrasynaptic and synaptic regions of glutamate and GABA synapses. Based on this communication it is discussed how volume transmission modulates synaptic glutamate transmission onto the D1R modulated direct and D2R modulated indirect GABA pathways of the dorsal striatum...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Ahmed Al-Qassabi, Amélie Pelletier, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Ronald B Postuma
Autonomic dysfunctions including sudomotor abnormalities commonly occur in early Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about potential sudomotor abnormalities in idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (iRBD), a strong prodromal marker of PD. Our aim was to assess sudomotor dysfunction by galvanic skin response using SudoScan, as well as other autonomic markers in 49 iRBD, 40 PD (21 with RBD, 19 without), 20 atypical parkinsonisms, and 41 age-matched controls. All subjects underwent SudoScan of their hands and feet, a 30-second electrocardiogram with assessment of beat-to-beat variability, assessment of orthostatic blood pressure changes and autonomic symptom questionnaires...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Jian Wang, Zhen Huang, Yuanfang Li, Fang Ye, Changpeng Wang, Yong Zhang, Xiaoqin Cheng, Guoqiang Fei, Kai Liu, Mengsu Zeng, Chunjiu Zhong, Lirong Jin
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to evaluate whether neuromelanin-sensitive MRI (NM-MRI) features in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) were of diagnostic value to differentiate untreated essential tremor (ET) from de novo tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease (PDT ). METHODS: Eighteen untreated ET patients, 21 de novo PDT patients and 21 healthy control subjects were recruited. All the subjects underwent clinical examination, motor and cognitive evaluations, as well as NM-MRI...
July 17, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Xinxin Ma, Wen Su, Shuhua Li, Chunmei Li, Rui Wang, Min Chen, Haibo Chen
BACKGROUND: To investigate, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), morphometric changes of cerebellum in Parkinson's disease with different motor and affective subtypes. METHODS: Fifty-four patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) were classified into tremor-predominant-PD (PDT) (n = 37) and akinetic/rigidity-predominant-PD (PDAR) (n = 17). Moreover, PD groups were divided into four affective subtypes, including depressive but not anxious PD (dPD, n = 5), anxious but not depressive PD (aPD, n = 8), comorbid depressive and anxious PD (coPD, n = 8), and PD patients without depressive or anxious symptoms (nPD, n = 33)...
September 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Fangfang Ge, Jiaqi Ding, Yu Liu, Hong Lin, Ting Chang
Neurofilament light chain (NFL) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a promising biomarker candidate which may discriminate atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD), mainly including multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD), from Parkinson's disease (PD). We aim to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CSF NFL level as a differentiating biomarker between APD and PD. Databases of PubMed, OVID and Web of Science were searched for studies (published until May 31, 2017) that reported on CSF NFL as a diagnostic biomarker between APD and PD...
July 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Annette Gower, Mario Tiberi
Dopamine, a major neurotransmitter, plays a role in a wide range of brain sensorimotor functions. Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia are two major human neuropsychiatric disorders typically associated with dysfunctional dopamine activity levels, which can be alleviated through the druggability of the dopaminergic systems. Meanwhile, several studies suggest that optimal brain dopamine activity levels are also significantly impacted in other serious neurological conditions, notably stroke, but this has yet to be fully appreciated at both basic and clinical research levels...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Paulo H S Pelicioni, Matthew A Brodie, Mark D Latt, Jasmine C Menant, Hylton B Menz, Victor S C Fung, Stephen R Lord
INTRODUCTION: People with Parkinson's disease (PD) can be classified into tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) subtypes; the latter group having more impaired gait and increased fall risk. While there is some evidence that anti-parkinsonian medication, levodopa, might not improve balance and gait control or reduce fall risk in the PIGD subtype, it is unclear whether the levodopa dosage intake affects gait stability. To address these issues, this study used accelerometry to compare gait stability: (i) during before and after levodopa intake between non-PIGD and PIGD subtypes; (ii) between individuals who took less or >750 mg of levodopa/day...
July 3, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Rafael Franco, Juan A Sánchez-Arias, Gemma Navarro, José L Lanciego
Gaucher's disease (GD) is the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder. GD is caused by homozygous mutations of the GBA1 gene, which codes for beta-glucocerebrosidase (GCase). Although GD primarily affects peripheral tissues, the presence of neurological symptoms has been reported in several GD subtypes. GBA1 mutations have recently deserved increased attention upon the demonstration that both homo- and heterozygous GBA1 mutations represent the most important genetic risk factor for the appearance of synucleinopathies like Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (LBD)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Pierre Koch, Andreas Brunschweiger, Vigneshwaran Namasivayam, Stefan Ullrich, Annalisa Maruca, Beatrice Lazzaretto, Petra Küppers, Sonja Hinz, Jörg Hockemeyer, Michael Wiese, Jag Heer, Stefano Alcaro, Katarzyna Kiec-Kononowicz, Christa E Müller
Tetrahydropyrazino-annelated theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) derivatives have previously been shown to display increased water-solubility as compared to the parent xanthines due to their basic character. In the present study, we modified this promising scaffold by replacing the 1,3-dimethyl residues by a variety of alkyl groups including combinations of different substituents in both positions. Substituted benzyl or phenethyl residues were attached to the N8 of the resulting 1,3-dialkyl-tetrahydropyrazino[2,1- f ]purinediones with the aim to obtain multi-target drugs that block human A1 and A2A adenosine receptors (ARs) and monoaminoxidase B (MAO-B)...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Qian-Qian Chen, Caroline Haikal, Wen Li, Ming-Tao Li, Zhan-You Wang, Jia-Yi Li
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, neuropathologically characterized by misfolded protein aggregation, called Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. PD is a slow-progressive disease with colonic dysfunction appearing in the prodromal stage and lasting throughout the course of the disease. Methods: In order to study PD pathology in the colon, we examined the age-dependent morphological and pathological changes in the colon of a PD mouse model expressing human wildtype α-synuclein (α-syn) fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP), under the endogenous mouse α-syn promoter...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
Santosh Kumar Dash, Albert Stezin, Tejashree Takalkar, Lija George, Nitish L Kamble, M Netravathi, Ravi Yadav, Keshav J Kumar, Madhura Ingalhalikar, Jitender Saini, Pramod Kumar Pal
OBJECTIVE: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder with progressive motor and autonomic dysfunction. There is a paucity of information on the early neurostructural changes in MSA, especially its subtypes, MSA-P (patients with predominant parkinsonism) and MSA-C (patients with predominant cerebellar signs). This study investigates the abnormalities of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in early MSA and its subtypes using multi-modal voxel-based analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with MSA with duration of symptoms ≤ 2...
July 4, 2018: European Radiology
Tai N Tran, Trang N N Vo, Karen Frei, Daniel D Truong
Symptoms of Parkinson's disease have been controlled with levodopa for many years; however, motor complications consisting of wearing off of medication effect and dyskinesias tend to occur within a few years of starting levodopa. Motor complications can begin a few months after taking levodopa, with the average time to onset estimated to be 6.5 years. Dyskinesias can be troublesome and require intervention. Levodopa-induced dyskinesia can be composed of a variety of movement disorders including chorea, dystonia, ballism, myoclonus, and akathisia...
August 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Sira Carrasco García de León, Juan Pablo Cabello, Ramón Ortiz, Julia Vaamonde
Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a type of progressive, subacute encephalopathy associated with spongiform degeneration of the central nervous system. sCJD includes a broad and heterogeneous spectrum of clinical variants, but extrapyramidal symptoms and signs at disease onset were rarely reported. We describe a case of unilateral parkinsonism associated with pathological 123 I-ioflupane SPECT (DaTSCAN) results as the initial manifestation of M129V subtype sCJD patient. To the best of our knowledge, only 2 cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease demonstrating nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficits in vivo using DaTSCAN have been published in the literature...
2018: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Camila Wanderley Pereira, Isabelly Sanally Monteiro Florentino, Leonardo Machado
Cotard's Syndrome (CS), among the noncognitive changes in the forms of dementia, is a seldom-found manifestation (1). This syndrome is characterized by the delusion of having lost organs (the individual experiences huge changes in the body and believes that he/she no longer has one or more organs) and by nihilistic delusion (the individual believes he/she or everyone in the world has died or been destroyed) (2). In 1880, Jules Cotard (1840-1889) described a clinical condition that he believed corresponded to a new subtype of depression, which he called anxious melancholia...
June 26, 2018: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
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