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Streptococcal group A

Jessica Galloway-Peña, Sruti DebRoy, Chelcy Brumlow, Xiqi Li, Truc T Tran, Nicola Horstmann, Hui Yao, Ken Chen, Fang Wang, Bih-Fang Pan, David H Hawke, Erika J Thompson, Cesar A Arias, Vance G Fowler, Micah M Bhatti, Awdhesh Kalia, Anthony R Flores, Samuel A Shelburne
Inactivating mutations in the control of virulence two-component regulatory system (covRS) often account for the hypervirulent phenotype in severe, invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections. As CovR represses production of the anti-phagocytic hyaluronic acid capsule, high level capsule production is generally considered critical to the hypervirulent phenotype induced by CovRS inactivation. There have recently been large outbreaks of GAS strains lacking capsule, but there are currently no data on the virulence of covRS-mutated, acapsular strains in vivo...
2018: PloS One
Ying-Wei Wang, Yao-Qiang Du, Xiao-Lin Miao, Guang-Yong Ye, Yi-Yun Wang, Ai-Bo Xu, Yun-Zhong Jing, Yu Tong, Kai Xu, Mei-Qin Zheng, Dong Chen, Zhen Wang
In recent years, group B streptococcus (GBS) has become an important pathogen that causes infections in many neonatal organs, including the brain, lung, and eye (Ballard et al., 2016). A series of studies performed on GBS infections in western countries have revealed that GBS is one of the primary pathogens implicated in perinatal infection, and GBS infections are a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States (Decheva et al., 2013). In China, GBS is mainly found by screens for adult urogenital tract and perinatal infections, and neonatal GBS infections have been rarely reported...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Amal A Al Hazzani, Reham A B Bawazeer, Afaf I Shehata
Group B streptococcal infection ( Streptococcus agalactiae ) is one of the leading causes of life-threatening disease in the early neonatal period, resulting in sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. During invasive infections, an excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokine, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), thus IL-6 gene is significant, as a diagnostic marker of systemic infection of the newborns. The present study aimed to describe the epidemiology diagnostic of GBS disease in neonatal by phenotypic and genotypic methods...
November 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Catherine P O'Sullivan, Theresa Lamagni, Darshana Patel, Androulla Efstratiou, Robert Cunney, Mary Meehan, Shamez Ladhani, Arlene J Reynolds, Ruth Campbell, Lorraine Doherty, Margaret Boyle, Georgia Kapatai, Victoria Chalker, Diane Lindsay, Andrew Smith, Eleri Davies, Christine E Jones, Paul T Heath
BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus is a leading cause of serious infection in young infants in many countries worldwide. We aimed to define the burden and clinical features of invasive group B streptococcal disease in infants younger than 90 days in the UK and Ireland, together with the characteristics of disease-causing isolates. METHODS: Prospective, active national surveillance of invasive group B streptococcal disease in infants younger than 90 days was done from April 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015, through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit, microbiology reference laboratories, and national public health agencies in the UK and Ireland...
November 26, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Tatiana Belokrinitskaya, Oleg Filippov, Olesya Chugai
This report presents the relapse and treatment of streptococcal infection in the postpartum period in a patient with severe group A streptococcal sepsis. Maternal sepsis was estimated to cause around 10.7% of maternal deaths worldwide between 2003 and 2009 [1]. Puerperal sepsis caused by group A streptococci (GAS) is associated with 40% of septic deaths among patients with postpartum endometritis, necrotizing fasciitis, and toxic shock syndrome [2,3]. Here we describe a case of recurrent GAS sepsis in the postpartum period...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Ruth Link-Gelles, Karrie-Ann Toews, William Schaffner, Kathryn M Edwards, Carolyn Wright, Bernard Beall, Brenda Barnes, Brenda Jewell, Lee H Harrison, Pam D Kirley, Lauren Lorentzson, Deborah Aragon, Susan Petit, Joseph Bareta, Nancy L Spina, Paul R Cieslak, Chris Van Beneden
Background: Few data on intracranial group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection in children are available. Here, we describe the demographic, clinical, and diagnostic characteristics of 91 children with intracranial GAS infection. Methods: Cases of intracranial GAS infection in persons ≤18 years of age reported between 1997 and 2014 were identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's population- and laboratory-based Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) system...
November 21, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Mark Turrentine
An effective screening program identifies risk factors that increase disease likelihood, and reduces disease development through risk modification or intervention strategies tailored to the population. No screening program exemplifies this more than the prevention of newborn early-onset group B streptococcal (EOGBS) disease. From the 1990s, guidelines advocated either a risk-based or a screening approach for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Unfortunately, no randomized trials have evaluated risk factor based intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis versus universal screening approaches for the prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal infection...
November 19, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Elizabeth A K Hunt, Michael J G Somers
Acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis or infection-related glomerulonephritis has been associated with several viral or bacterial infections. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection is the prototypical cause of postinfectious glomerulonephritis and the main focus of this discussion. The clinical spectrum can vary widely, from asymptomatic microscopic hematuria incidentally detected on routine urinalysis to rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with acute kidney injury requiring emergent dialysis. Other important causes include glomerulonephritis associated with endocarditis and ventriculoatrial shunt infections...
February 2019: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Alexandra Chitty, Kevin Taylor
Historically epiglottitis has been considered a childhood disease. However, the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine has decreased the incidence of epiglottitis in children. It is important to recognize modern epiglottitis as a disease of adults. This report describes a case of acute bacterial epiglottitis in an adult patient secondary to infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes , a group A streptococcal infection. This case demonstrates the importance of early recognition of epiglottitis in adults, as they can experience rapid clinical decline...
November 2018: Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
Brenda Cabrera, César Romero-Rebollar, Luis Jiménez-Ángeles, Alma D Genis-Mendoza, Julio Flores, Nuria Lanzagorta, María Arroyo, Camilo de la Fuente-Sandoval, Daniel Santana, Verónica Medina-Bañuelos, Emilio Sacristán, Humberto Nicolini
OBJECTIVE: An obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) subtype has been associated with streptococcal infections and is called pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococci (PANDAS). The neuroanatomical characterization of subjects with this disorder is crucial for the better understanding of its pathophysiology; also, evaluation of these features as classifiers between patients and controls is relevant to determine potential biomarkers and useful in clinical diagnosis...
November 15, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Marjan Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Jaime Lora-Tamayo, Eric Senneville, Matthew Scarbourough, Tristan Ferry, Ilker Uçkay, Mauro J Salles, Karina O'Connell, Josean A Iribarren, Dace Vigante, Rihard Trebse, Cedric Arvieux, Alex Soriano, Javier Ariza
We describe a case of a 60-year old male who developed an acute prosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the knee, secondary to erysipelas of the lower leg due to beta-hemolytic Group G streptococci. As it is unknown how often this phenomenon occurs in patients with prosthetic implants and which patients are most prone to develop this complication, we analyzed: i) the incidence of the development of a PJI in these patients and ii) the clinical characteristics of streptococcal PJI during an episode of erysipelas/cellulitis...
2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
T Nh Leung, K L Hon, A Kc Leung
Group A β-haemolytic Streptococcus or Streptococcus pyogenes is a gram-positive coccus that tends to grow in chains. Streptococcus pyogenes is the cause of many important human diseases, ranging from pharyngitis and mild superficial skin infections to life-threatening systemic diseases. Infections typically begin in the throat or skin. Mild Streptococcus pyogenes infections include pharyngitis (strep throat) and localised skin infections (impetigo). Erysipelas and cellulitis are characterised by multiplication and lateral spread of Streptococcus pyogenes in deep layers of the skin...
November 9, 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Maud Fléchard, Céline Lucchetti-Miganeh, Bernard Hallet, Pascal Hols, Philippe Gilot
Competence for natural transformation is a widespread developmental process of streptococci. By allowing the uptake and recombination of exogenous naked DNA into the genome, natural transformation, as transposable elements, plays a key role in the plasticity of bacterial genomes. We previously analysed the insertion sites of IS1548, an insertion sequence present in Streptococcus agalactiae and S. pyogenes, and showed that some targeted loci are involved in competence induction. In this work, we investigated on a large scale if loci coding for early competence factors (ComX and the two pheromone-dependent signalling systems ComCDE and ComRS) of streptococci are especially targeted by transposable elements...
November 7, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Dong Eun Min, Do Hee Kim, Mi Young Han, Sung Ho Cha, Kyung Lim Yoon
Purpose: In Kawasaki disease(KD) patients, coronary artery complications, incomplete and refractory types occur more frequently in patients with streptococcal or other bacterial/viral infections. Recently, we observed a higher incidence of coronary lesions in KD patients with high anti-streptolysin O(ASO) titer. Therefore, we hypothesized that KD patients diagnosed with concurrent streptococcal infection have poor prognosis, with respect to treatment response and development of coronary artery lesions...
November 7, 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Swasti Chaturvedi, Rowena Boyd, Vicki Krause
Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) is an inflammatory kidney disease following infection with nephritogenic strains of group A Streptococcus . In 1991, APSGN became notifiable in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia with cases recorded on the NT Notifiable Disease Database (NTNDS). The case definition of a confirmed case requires laboratory definitive evidence or laboratory suggestive evidence in conjunction with a clinically compatible illness. Probable cases require clinical evidence only...
November 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Andreia N Horácio, Catarina Silva-Costa, Elísia Lopes, Mário Ramirez, José Melo-Cristino
Non-invasive pneumococcal pneumonia (NIPP) is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was included in the national immunization program of children living in Portugal in 2015. Until then, PCV7 (since late 2001) and PCV13 (since early 2010) were given through the private market. We determined the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates causing adult NIPP in 2012-2015 and compared the results with previously published data (2007-2011)...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer M Dan, Jorge Silva Enciso, Lars H Lund, Saima Aslam
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD), an autoimmune sequela of Group A streptococcal infection, is a chronic valvular disease affecting 32 million people worldwide, predominantly in developing nations. As the predisposition to autoimmune sequela still remains post transplantation, our primary objective was to assess if there were differences in mortality and rejection rates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) adult heart transplant registry, we identified 42 RHD patients who had undergone heart transplantation between 1988-2014...
November 1, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Michelle Nguyen, Venkata Sunil Bendi, Mounika Guduru, Evan Olson, Renuga Vivekanandan, Pamela A Foral, Manasa Velagapudi
The overall incidence of postpartum invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) disease is low in the United States. However, postpartum women are much more likely to develop GAS disease than nonpregnant women. Additionally, postpartum GAS has the potential to develop into a severe disease and a delay in diagnosis can have deadly consequences. This case describes a patient with invasive postpartum endometritis in the setting of diastases of the pubic symphysis. Sepsis secondary to the endometritis develops along with bilateral pneumonia...
August 22, 2018: Curēus
Katherine Lavelle, Ines Martinez, Horst Neve, Gabriele A Lugli, Charles M A P Franz, Marco Ventura, Fabio Dal Bello, Douwe van Sinderen, Jennifer Mahony
Streptococcus thermophilus strains are among the most widely employed starter cultures in dairy fermentations, second only to those of Lactococcus lactis . The extensive application of this species provides considerable opportunity for the proliferation of its infecting (bacterio)phages. Until recently, dairy streptococcal phages were classified into two groups ( cos and pac groups), while more recently, two additional groups have been identified (5093 and 987 groups). This highlights the requirement for consistent monitoring of phage populations in the industry...
October 22, 2018: Viruses
Patricia C García, Braulio A Paillavil, Natalia Scioscia, James B Dale, Paulette Legarraga, Francisco J Salazar-Echegarai, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis, Aniela Wozniak
Protein subunit vaccines are often preferred because of their protective effcacy and safety. Lactic acid bacteria expressing heterologous antigens are a promising aproach for vaccine development. However, their safety in terms of toxicity and bacterial clearance must be evaluated. Anti-Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) vaccines face additional safety concerns because they may elicit autoimmune responses. We report here the assessment of toxicity, clearance and autoimmunity of an anti-streptococcal vaccine based in Lactococcus lactis (L...
October 25, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
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