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Streptococcal group A

Eric R Coon, Raj Srivastava, Greg Stoddard, Jacob Wilkes, Andrew T Pavia, Samir S Shah
: media-1vid110.1542/5804909691001PEDS-VA_2018-0345 Video Abstract BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend a prolonged course (10 days) of intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy for infants with uncomplicated, late-onset group B Streptococcus (GBS) bacteremia. Our objective was to determine the frequency with which shorter IV antibiotic courses are used and to compare rates of GBS disease recurrence between prolonged and shortened IV antibiotic courses. METHODS: We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study of infants aged 7 days to 4 months who were admitted to children's hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System database from 2000 to 2015 with GBS bacteremia...
October 11, 2018: Pediatrics
Marie Hlavničková, Milan Kuchař, Radim Osička, Lucie Vaňková, Hana Petroková, Michal Malý, Jiří Černý, Petr Arenberger, Petr Malý
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) and its cognate receptor A (IL-17RA) play a crucial role in Th17 cells-mediated pro-inflammatory pathway and pathogenesis of several autoimmune disorders including psoriasis. IL-17 is mainly produced by activated Th-17 helper cells upon stimulation by IL-23 and, via binding to its receptors, mediates IL-17-driven cell signaling in keratinocytes. Hyper-proliferation of keratinocytes belongs to major clinical manifestations in psoriasis. To modulate IL-17-mediated inflammatory cascade, we generated a unique collection of IL-17RA-targeting protein binders that prevent from binding of human IL-17A cytokine to its cell-surface receptor...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Erla S Björnsdóttir, Elisabete R Martins, Helga Erlendsdóttir, Gunnsteinn Haraldsson, José Melo-Cristino, Mário Ramirez, Karl G Kristinsson
BACKGROUND: Despite a risk-based peripartum chemoprophylaxis approach in Iceland since 1996, Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) remains an important cause of early-onset (<7 days, EOD) and late-onset disease (7 days to 3 months, LOD). METHODS: We studied GBS invasive disease in children <1 year in Iceland in 1976-2015. Bacteria (n=98) were characterized by susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials, capsular serotyping, resistance genes, surface protein and pilus-locus profiling, and multilocus sequence typing...
October 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Kyriaki Giorgakoudi, Catherine O'Sullivan, Paul T Heath, Shamez Ladhani, Theresa Lamagni, Mary Ramsay, Hareth Al-Janabi, Caroline Trotter
BACKGROUND: There is a considerable global burden of invasive group B streptococcal (GBS) disease. Vaccines are being developed for use in pregnant women to offer protection to neonates. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of maternal immunisation against neonatal and maternal invasive GBS disease in the UK. METHODS: We developed a decision-tree model encompassing GBS-related events in infants and mothers, following a birth cohort with a time horizon equivalent to average life expectancy (81 years)...
October 3, 2018: Vaccine
Caris A Price, Lionel Green-Thompson, Vijay G Mammen, Shabir A Madhi, Sanjay G Lala, Ziyaad Dangor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate obstetric healthcare provider knowledge regarding the prevention of group B streptococcal disease in South African infants. METHODS: Questionnaires exploring knowledge, attitudes and beliefs around group B streptococcal prevention were administered to consenting doctors and maternity nurses in a tertiary academic hospital. Qualitative assessments (focus groups) were undertaken with junior doctors and nurses. RESULTS: 238 participants completed the questionnaire: 150 (63...
2018: PloS One
Rhiannon Evans, Sylvia Lin
Cancer diagnosis in pregnancy is rare, with incidence ranging from 0.07% to 0.1% [1]. With the patient's consent, we report a case of atypical presentation of colorectal cancer that highlights the challenge of timely diagnosis due to significant overlap of symptoms with those common in pregnancy, such as hemorrhoids, abdominal pain, and anemia [2]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Brenna L Hughes
Group A Streptococcal (GAS) puerperal sepsis is considered, by most obstetricians, to be a rare disease. And it is. But it is a devastating one. The presentation is one that once seen, will literally never be forgotten. It is also one, that initially, can be so vague and nondescript as to only be obvious in the infamous "retrospectoscope". This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 3, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Kristina Roloff, Gohar Stepanyan, Guillermo Valenzuela
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and serotype of oropharyngeal Group B Streptococcal (GBS) colonization of mothers, their family & friends, and health care providers of recently delivered patients as a potential reservoir of neonatal exposure to GBS. METHODS: This is a prospective, single-center observational study of: (1) patients, (2) their family and friends, and (3) health care providers all of whom may come in close contact with neonates. Oropharyngeal GBS colonization and serotype was determined...
2018: PloS One
J M S Martis, L A Bok, F J J Halbertsma, H L M van Straaten, L S de Vries, F Groenendaal
AIM: The association between cranial ultrasound (CUS) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions and neonatal Group B streptococcal (GBS) meningitis outcome has not been studied in detail. METHODS: This retrospective study, assessed CUS, cranial MRI, and neurodevelopmental outcome in 50 neonates with GBS meningitis admitted to three neonatal intensive care units in The Netherlands between 1992 and 2014. Death, cognitive and motor outcome below -1SD were considered as adverse outcomes...
September 26, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Susan Jack, Nicole J Moreland, Jess Meagher, Marea Fittock, Yvonne Galloway, Anna P Ralph
BACKGROUND: Globally, there is wide variation in streptococcal titer upper limits of normal (ULN) for antistreptolysin O (ASO) and anti-deoxyribonuclease B (ADB) used as evidence of recent group A streptococcal (GAS) infection to diagnose acute rheumatic fever (ARF). METHODS: We audited ASO and ADB titers among individuals with ARF in New Zealand (NZ), and in Australia's Northern Territory (NT). We summarized streptococcal titers by different ARF clinical manifestations, assessed application of locally-recommended serology guidelines where NZ uses high ULN cut-offs, and calculated the proportion of cases fulfilling alternative serologic diagnostic criteria...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jerry J Fong, Chih-Ming Tsai, Sudeshna Saha, Victor Nizet, Ajit Varki, Jack D Bui
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune lymphocytes that recognize and destroy abnormal host cells, such as tumor cells or those infected by viral pathogens. To safely accomplish these functions, NK cells display activating receptors that detect stress molecules or viral ligands displayed at the cell surface, balanced by inhibitory receptors that bind to self-molecules. To date, such activating and inhibitory receptors on NK cells are not known to recognize bacterial determinants. Moreover, NK cell responses to direct interactions with extracellular bacteria are poorly explored...
October 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Clovis Nkoke, Engelbert Bain Luchuo, Ahmadou Musa Jingi, Christelle Makoge, Ba Hamadou, Anastase Dzudie
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and adequate treatment of Group A streptococcal throat infection is an important initial stage in the primary prevention of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. This preventable condition associated with high mortality rates mandates a thorough understanding by the general public and the health. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the level of awareness about different aspects of rheumatic heart disease in patients coming to the outpatient department of the Buea regional Hospital, South West region of Cameroon...
2018: PloS One
Anuradha Vajjala, Debabrata Biswas, Wei Hong Tay, Emanuel Hanski, Kimberly A Kline
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human pathogen that causes infections ranging from mild to fulminant and life-threatening. Biofilms have been implicated in acute GAS soft-tissue infections such as necrotising fasciitis (NF). However, most in vitro models used to study GAS biofilms have been designed to mimic chronic infections and insufficiently recapitulate in vivo conditions along with the host-pathogen interactions that might influence biofilm formation. Here, we establish and characterise an in vitro model of GAS biofilm development on mammalian cells that simulates microcolony formation observed in a mouse model of human NF...
September 21, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Sagar Nayak, Inna Khozin-Goldberg, Guy Cohen, Dina Zilberg
Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n -6) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA, 20:3 n -6) are omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), which are key precursors for lipid mediators of the immune system and inflammatory response. The microalga Lobosphaera incisa (WT) and its Δ5-desaturase mutant P127 (MUT) are unique photosynthetic sources for ARA and DGLA, respectively. This study explores the effect of dietary supplementation with L. incisa and P127 biomass on tissue fatty acid composition, immune function, and disease resistance in zebrafish ( Danio rerio )...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Marylin Schmitz, Xavier Roux, Benedikt Huttner, Jérôme Pugin
The streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is a severe complication associated with invasive infections by group A streptococci. In spite of medical progresses in the care of patients with septic shock during the last decades, this condition has remained associated with a high mortality. Early recognition and multidisciplinary management are key to the care of patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, with intensive and appropriate intensive support of failing organs, rapid diagnosis of infectious source(s), and surgical management...
September 17, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Suba Nookala, Santhosh Mukundan, Alexander Fife, Jeyashree Alagarsamy, Malak Kotb
Invasive Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections include necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). We have previously shown that host HLA class-II allelic variations determine the risk for necrotizing fasciitis (NF), a dominant subgroup of NSTI, and STSS by modulating responses to GAS superantigens (SAgs). SAgs are pivotal mediators of uncontrolled T-cell activation, triggering a pro-inflammatory cytokine storm in the host. FoxP3-expressing CD4+ CD25+ T-regulatory cells (Tregs) comprise phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous subsets with a profound ability to suppress inflammatory responses...
September 17, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Kimberly McCullor, Brandon Postoak, Maliha Rahman, Catherine King, W Michael McShan
Lytic bacteriophage A25, which infects Streptococcus pyogenes and several related species, has been used to better understand phage-microbial interactions due to its ability to mediate high efficiency transduction. Most of these studies, however, are decades old and were conducted prior to the advent of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics. The aim of our study was to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of high efficiency transduction through analysis of the A25 genome. We show here that phage A25 is related to a family of genome prophages and became a lytic phage following escape from lysogeny...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Maryam Pourhajibagher, Leili Beytollahi, Roghayeh Ghorbanzadeh, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: Dental caries is a disease caused by a group of oral streptococcal microorganisms, primarily Strptococcus mutans. Photoactivated disinfection (PAD) has been proposed as a conservative method for treatment of carious lesions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of indocyanine green (ICG)- and toluidine blue O (TBO)-PAD as supplementary tools in reducing the bacterial load and expression profiling of the gene associated with the biofilm formation in S...
September 14, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Mohamed Y Mahmoud, Donald R Demuth, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis adherence to oral streptococci is a key point in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases (Honda in Cell Host Microbe 10:423-425, 2011). Previous work in our groups has shown that a region of the streptococcal antigen denoted BAR (SspB Adherence Region) inhibits P. gingivalis/S. gordonii interaction and biofilm formation both in vitro and in a mouse model of periodontitis (Daep et al. in Infect Immun 74:5756-5762, 2006; Daep et al. in Infect immun 76:3273-3280, 2008; Daep et al...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Dudley H McNitt, Livingston Van De Water, Daniela Marasco, Rita Berisio, Slawomir Lukomski
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The outlook for an effective global vaccine is reduced because of significant antigenic variation among GAS strains worldwide. Other challenges in GAS therapy include the lack of common access to antibiotics in developing countries, as well as allergy to and treatment failures with penicillin and increasing erythromycin resistance in the industrialized world. At the portal of entry, GAS binds to newly deposited extracellular matrix, which is rich in cellular fibronectin isoforms with extra domain A (EDA, also termed EIIIA) via the surface adhesin, the streptococcal collagen-like protein 1 (Scl1)...
August 31, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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