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A Chechkin, I M Sokolov
We provide a unified renewal approach to the problem of random search for several targets under resetting. This framework does not rely on specific properties of the search process and resetting procedure, allows for simpler derivation of known results, and leads to new ones. Concentrating on minimizing the mean hitting time, we show that resetting at a constant pace is the best possible option if resetting helps at all, and derive the equation for the optimal resetting pace. No resetting may be a better strategy if without resetting the probability of not finding a target decays with time to zero exponentially or faster...
August 3, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Mónica M C González
The influence of light on mammalian physiology and behavior is due to the entrainment of circadian rhythms complemented with a direct modulation of light that would be unlikely an outcome of circadian system. In mammals, physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms are regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. This central control allows organisms to predict and anticipate environmental change, as well as to coordinate different rhythmic modalities within an individual. In adult mammals, direct retinal projections to the SCN are responsible for resetting and synchronizing physiological and behavioral rhythms to the light-dark (LD) cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Myoung Kyun Choi, Woo Kyum Kim, Sihyun Sung, Chaoxing Wu, Hyoun Woo Kim, Tae Whan Kim
Flexible memristive devices with a structure of Al/polyimide:mica/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate/indium-tin-oxide/polyethylene glycol naphthalate showed electrical bistability characteristics. The maximum current margin of the devices with mica nanosheets was much larger than that of the devices without mica nanosheets. For these devices, the current vs. time curves showed nonvolatile characteristics with a retention time of more than 1 × 104  s, and the current vs. number-of-cycles curves demonstrated an endurance for high resistance state/low resistance state switchings of 1 × 102 cycles...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Giulia Acconcia, Alessandro Cominelli, Massimo Ghioni, Ivan Rech
Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) is an essential tool in many scientific applications, where the recording of optical pulses with picosecond precision is required. Unfortunately, a key issue has to be faced: distortion phenomena can affect TCSPC experiments at high count rates. In order to avoid this problem, TCSPC experiments have been commonly carried out by limiting the maximum operating frequency of a measurement channel below 5% of the excitation frequency, leading to a long acquisition time...
June 11, 2018: Optics Express
Chung-Wei Kung, Ana E Platero-Prats, Riki J Drout, Junmo Kang, Timothy C Wang, Cornelius O Audu, Mark C Hersam, Karena W Chapman, Omar K Farha, Joseph T Hupp
A representative mesoporous metal-organic-framework (MOF) material, NU-1000, has been rendered electronically conductive via a robust inorganic approach that permits retention of MOF crystallinity and porosity. The approach is based on condensed-phase grafting of molecular tin species onto the MOF nodes via irreversible reaction with hydroxyl and aqua ligands presented at the node surface, a self-limiting process termed Solvothermal Installation (of metal ions) in MOFs (SIM, a solution-phase analog of atomic layer deposition in MOFs)...
August 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Guilhem Faure, Sergey A Shmakov, Kira S Makarova, Yuri I Wolf, Alexandra B Crawley, Rodolphe Barrangou, Eugene V Koonin
Trans-activating CRISPR (tracr) RNA is a distinct RNA species that interacts with the CRISPR (cr) RNA to form the dual guide (g) RNA in type II and subtype V-B CRISPR-Cas systems. The tracrRNA-crRNA interaction is essential for pre-crRNA processing as well as target recognition and cleavage. The tracrRNA consists of an antirepeat, which forms an imperfect hybrid with the repeat in the crRNA, and a distal region containing a Rho-independent terminator. Exhaustive comparative analysis of the sequences and predicted structures of the Class 2 CRISPR guide RNAs shows that all these guide RNAs share distinct structural features, in particular, the nexus stem-loop that separates the repeat-antirepeat hybrid from the distal portion of the tracrRNA and the conserved GU pair at that end of the hybrid...
August 14, 2018: RNA Biology
Christina L Ruby, Gerneleh Paye, Jason L Fabi, Jiawen Zhang, Megan O Risinger, Kaitlyn N Palmer, Natalie M Verbanes, Ariana D'Angelo, Tia M Watts, Lauren Mabe, H Scott Swartzwelder
BACKGROUND: Evidence supports a role for the circadian system in alcohol use disorders, but the impact of adolescent alcohol exposure on circadian timing later in life is unknown. Acute ethanol attenuates circadian photic phase-resetting in adult, but not adolescent, rodents. However, nearly all studies have focused on males and it is unknown whether this adolescent-typical insensitivity to ethanol persists into adulthood after adolescent drinking. METHODS: Circadian activity was monitored in C57BL6/J mice receiving adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure (15% ethanol and water every other day throughout adolescence) or water alone followed by 24 days wherein ethanol was not available (washout)...
August 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Lingsheng Bao, Jianhua Wang, Shiyu Bin, Yulong Li, Wuying Chu, Jianshe Zhang
Molecular oscillators exist in peripheral tissues like pacemaker cells. Food intake is a dominant zeitgeber for peripheral clocks in vertebrates. Fasting is a physiological stress that elicits well-known metabolic adaptations, however, little is known about the effects of the rhythmic expression of clock components in skeletal muscle following short-term fasting in goldfish. Here, we characterized the molecular clock components and their daily transcription in COSINOR, and assessed the effect of 7-day fasting on the circadian patterns of the candidate genes expression in goldfish skeletal muscle...
August 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Raaja Ganapathy Subramanian, Vinodh Kumar Elumalai
According to Bode's gain-phase relationship, in linear time-invariant controllers, introducing an integral action to eliminate the steady-state error has an adverse effect of increased phase delay and overshoot, leading to performance deterioration. Moreover, increasing the bandwidth of the closed-loop system to enhance the low-frequency disturbance rejection invariably amplifies the sensitivity to high-frequency disturbances. Hence, the performance of the linear controllers is always limited due to these fundamental frequency- and time-domain limitations...
August 6, 2018: ISA Transactions
M Davanipour, A R Khayatian, M Dehghani, M M Arefi
In this paper, an adaptive controller based on barrier Lyapunov function combined with an optimal reset rule is devised in order to improve the transient performance of nonlinear adaptive control. A novel reset rule is designed such that the estimated parameters of the adaptive controller jump to the optimal values in a way that optimizes a cost function representing the transient performance index. It is proved that asymptotic tracking is achieved and the output remains in a desired bound by ensuring boundedness of the barrier Lyapunov function...
August 6, 2018: ISA Transactions
Michael Pietsch, Alexandra Irrgang, Nicole Roschanski, Geovana Brenner Michael, Axel Hamprecht, Heime Rieber, Annemarie Käsbohrer, Stefan Schwarz, Uwe Rösler, Lothar Kreienbrock, Yvonne Pfeifer, Stephan Fuchs, Guido Werner
BACKGROUND: Resistance to 3rd-generation cephalosporins in Escherichia coli is mostly mediated by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or AmpC beta-lactamases. Besides overexpression of the species-specific chromosomal ampC gene, acquisition of plasmid-encoded ampC genes, e.g. blaCMY-2 , has been described worldwide in E. coli from humans and animals. To investigate a possible transmission of blaCMY-2 along the food production chain, we conducted a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based analysis of 164 CMY-2-producing E...
August 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Hehe Zhang, Sijung Yoo, Stephan Menzel, Carsten Funck, Felix Cüppers, Dirk J Wouters, Cheol Seong Hwang, Rainer Waser, Susanne Hoffmann-Eifert
Redox-type resistive random access memories (ReRAM) based on transition metal oxides are studied as adjustable two-terminal devices for integrated network applications beyond von Neumann computing. The prevailing, so-called, counter-eight-wise (c8w) polarity of the switching hysteresis in filamentary-type valence change mechanism (VCM) devices originates from a temperature and field controlled drift-diffusion process of mobile ions, predominantly oxygen vacancies in the switching oxide. Recently, a bipolar resistive switching (BRS) process with opposite polarity, so-called, eight-wise (8w) switching has been reported that, especially for TiO2 cells, is still not completely understood...
August 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Junhao Lei, Chunhua Luo, Xinghuan Wang, Xinjun Su
INTRODUCTION: The buried penis, if not treated before adolescence, will lead to psychological and physical disorders in adulthood. Therefore, early surgical intervention is necessary. At present, the common surgical methods include the penile corpus fixation, the Johnson's operation, the Devine's method, the modified Devine's method, Shiraki's method, etc. However, we found that these traditional surgeries showed various postoperative complications, such as long-term prepuce edema, avascular necrosis of skin flaps, stenotic prepuce, scarring, and poor appearance...
July 30, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Sarah Hartley, Yves Dauvilliers, Maria-Antonia Quera-Salva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep timing, quantity, and quality are controlled by homeostatic and circadian systems. Circadian clock systems are present in all cells and organs and their timing is determined by a transcriptional-translational feedback loop of circadian genes. Individual cellular clocks are synchronized by the central body clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which communicates with them through humoral and neural signals including melatonin. The circadian system controls both the circadian period: (i...
August 6, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Floriana Costanzo, Deny Menghini, Antonella Maritato, Maria C Castiglioni, Alberta Mereu, Cristiana Varuzza, Valeria Zanna, Stefano Vicari
Poor treatment outcomes are available for anorexia nervosa (AN) and treatment innovations are urgently needed. Recently, non-invasive neuromodulation tools have suggested to have potential for reducing an symptomatology targeting brain alterations. The objective of the study was to verify whether left anodal/right cathodal prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), may aid in altering/resetting inter-hemispheric balance in patients with AN, re-establishing control over eating behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Jeff R Jones, Tatiana Simon, Lorenzo Lones, Erik D Herzog
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) synchronizes circadian rhythms in behavior and physiology to the external light cycle, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. As the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is important for circadian light responses, we tested the hypothesis that rhythmic VIP-producing SCN neurons mediate circadian light responses in male and female mice. Using in vivo fiber photometry over multiple days, we found daily rhythms in spontaneous calcium events of SCN VIP neurons that peaked during the subjective day and were disrupted by constant light...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Carolin Göbel, Roman Goetzke, Thomas Eggermann, Wolfgang Wagner
Replicative senescence hampers application of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) because it limits culture expansion, impairs differentiation potential, and hinders reliable standardization of cell products. MSCs can be rejuvenated by reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which is associated with complete erasure of age- and senescence-associated DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns. However, this process is also associated with erasure of cell-type and tissue-specific epigenetic characteristics that are not recapitulated upon re-differentiation towards MSCs...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andreia Carvalho, Mariana Rocha, Marta Rodrigues, Tiago Gregório, Henrique Costa, André Cunha, Sérgio Castro, Miguel Veloso, Manuel Ribeiro, Pedro Jorge Gonçalves Barros
BACKGROUND: A 2013 consensus statement recommended the use of the modified Treatment In Cerebral Ischemia (mTICI) scale to evaluate angiographic revascularization after endovascular treatment (EVT) of acute ischemic stroke due to its higher inter-rater agreement and capacity of clinical outcome prediction. The current definition of successful revascularization includes the achievement of grades mTICI 2b or 3. However, mTICI 2b grade encompasses a large heterogeneity of revascularization states, and prior studies suggested that the magnitude of benefit derived from mTICI 2b and mTICI 3 does not seem to be equivalent...
July 31, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Mihajlo Novakovic, Samuel F Cousin, Michael J Jaroszewicz, Rina Rosenzweig, Lucio Frydman
Cross-relaxation and isotropic mixing phenomena leading to the Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) and to the TOCSY experiment, lie at the center of structural determinations by NMR. 2D TOCSY and NOESY exploit these polarization transfer effects to determine inter-site connectivities and molecular geometries under physiologically-relevant conditions. Among these sequences' drawback, particularly for the case of NOEs, are a lack of sensitivity arising from small structurally-relevant cross peaks. The present study explores the application of multiple Zeno-like projective measurements, to enhance the cross-peaks between spectrally distinct groups in proteins -in particular between amide and aliphatic protons...
September 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Sven Teurlincx, Michiel J J M Verhofstad, Elisabeth S Bakker, Steven A J Declerck
The presence of a high diversity of different successional stages in a landscape may help to conserve and promote landscape-wide biodiversity. A strategy to achieve this is using Cyclic Rejuvenation through Management (CRM), an approach employed in a variety of different ecosystems. CRM periodically resets the successional stages in a landscape. For aquatic systems this constitutes vegetation removal and dredging. For this approach to be useful (a) successional stages are required to be different in community composition and (b) these differences need to be caused by true replacement of species between stages...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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