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Teruhito Ishihara, Danielle Hickford, Geoff Shaw, Andrew J Pask, Marilyn B Renfree
Parent specific-DNA methylation is the genomic imprint that induces mono-allelic gene expression dependent on parental origin. Resetting of DNA methylation in the germ line is mediated by a genome-wide re-methylation following demethylation known as epigenetic reprogramming. Most of our understanding of epigenetic reprogramming in germ cells is based on studies in mice, but little is known about this in marsupials. We examined genome-wide changes in DNA methylation levels by measuring 5-methylcytosine expression, and mRNA expression and protein localization of the key enzyme DNA methyltransferase 3 L (DNMT3L) during germ cell development of the marsupial tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii...
December 7, 2018: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Carey D Balaban, Alex Kiderman, Mikhaylo Szczupak, Robin C Ashmore, Michael E Hoffer
This study examined the dynamic coordination between disconjugate, vergence eye movements, and pupil size in 52 normal subjects during binocular disparity stimulation in a virtual reality display. Eye movements and pupil area were sampled with a video-oculographic system at 100 Hz during performance of two tasks, (1) fusion of a binocular disparity step (±1.5° of visual angle in the horizontal plane) and (2) pursuit of a sinusoidally varying binocular disparity stimulus (0.1 Hz, ±2.6° of visual angle in the horizontal plane)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Navin Kuthiah, Chaozer Er
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality seen in hospitalised patients with up to 15-20% of patients having a sodium level of less than 135 mmol/L (Reddy and Mooradian, 2009). Cases of hyponatremia were first described in the 1950s (George et al., 1955). As the differential diagnosis for hyponatremia is broad, a systematic and logical approach is needed to identify the cause. We describe a case of a 30-year-old gentleman who was found to have chronic hyponatremia. After a thorough workup, he was diagnosed to have reset osmostat...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Sami Hamid, Ian A Donaldson, Yipeng Hu, Rachael Rodell, Barbara Villarini, Ester Bonmati, Pamela Tranter, Shonit Punwani, Harbir S Sidhu, Sarah Willis, Jan van der Meulen, David Hawkes, Neil McCartan, Ingrid Potyka, Norman R Williams, Chris Brew-Graves, Alex Freeman, Caroline M Moore, Dean Barratt, Mark Emberton, Hashim U Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI)-targeted prostate biopsies can improve detection of clinically significant prostate cancer and decrease the overdetection of insignificant cancers. It is unknown whether visual-registration targeting is sufficient or augmentation with image-fusion software is needed. OBJECTIVE: To assess concordance between the two methods. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a blinded, within-person randomised, paired validating clinical trial...
November 29, 2018: European Urology
Patrick E Crago
OBJECTIVE: Neuromuscular stimulation is a therapeutic approach to treat impairments such as stroke or pain, although the resulting inputs to the nervous system due to the stimulation are not well quantified. Stimulation activates both afferents and efferents, and the resulting neural activity is a mix of the effects of both: the changes in afferent activity due to efferent physiological actions plus the alterations due to afferent stimulation. This study quantitatively describes the resulting Golgi tendon organ Ib afferent activity in response to mixed afferent and efferent stimulation...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Matthew R Nassar, Joseph T McGuire, Harrison Ritz, Joseph Kable
Environmental change can lead decision makers to shift rapidly among different behavioral regimes. These behavioral shifts can be accompanied by rapid changes in the firing pattern of neural networks. However, it is unknown what the populations of neurons that participate in such "network reset" phenomena are representing. Here we examined 1) whether and where rapid changes in multivariate activity patterns are observable with fMRI during periods of rapid behavioral change, and 2) what types of representations give rise to these phenomena...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Gioia Lenzoni, Marc R Knight
Plants need to sense increases in temperature to be able to adapt their physiology and development to survive; however, the mechanisms of heat perception are currently relatively poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that in response to elevated temperature the free calcium concentration of the stroma of chloroplasts increases. This response is specific to the chloroplast, as no corresponding increase in calcium is seen in the cytosol. The chloroplast calcium response is dose-dependent above a threshold. The magnitude of this calcium response is dependent upon absolute temperature, not rate of heating...
December 4, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Stefano Stella, Pablo Mesa, Johannes Thomsen, Bijoya Paul, Pablo Alcón, Simon B Jensen, Bhargav Saligram, Matias E Moses, Nikos S Hatzakis, Guillermo Montoya
Cas12a, also known as Cpf1, is a type V-A CRISPR-Cas RNA-guided endonuclease that is used for genome editing based on its ability to generate specific dsDNA breaks. Here, we show cryo-EM structures of intermediates of the cleavage reaction, thus visualizing three protein regions that sense the crRNA-DNA hybrid assembly triggering the catalytic activation of Cas12a. Single-molecule FRET provides the thermodynamics and kinetics of the conformational activation leading to phosphodiester bond hydrolysis. These findings illustrate why Cas12a cuts its target DNA and unleashes unspecific cleavage activity, degrading ssDNA molecules after activation...
November 15, 2018: Cell
You-Yi Wang, Zhen-Yu Wang, Wei Peng, Ji-Yu Xu, Shi-Rong Chen, Bin Ye, Chun-Yan Wu
We report the fabrication of KCu7 S₄/Cu x O/Au devices with interfacial Cu x O layers of different thicknesses through the spontaneous oxidation of Cu film during deposition. Deposition was conducted with an electron-beam evaporation system under the deposition rate and the chamber pressure of 0.1 Å s-1 and 9.8×10-3 Pa, respectively. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations reveal that the interfacial Cu x O layers mostly comprise Cu₂O and CuO. Electrical characterization reveals that the devices exhibit remarkably thickness-dependent resistive switching behavior...
May 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
W Druml
Fever, arbitrarily defined as a core body temperature >38.3 °C, is present in 20-70 % of intensive care unit patients. Fever caused by infections is a physiologic reset of the thermostatic set-point and is associated with beneficial consequences, but may have negative sequelae with temperatures >39.5 °C. Fever of non-infectious and neurologic origin affects about 50 % of patients with elevated body temperature, presents as a pathologic loss of thermoregulation, and may be associated with untoward side effects at temperatures above 38...
November 28, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Sara-Jane Dunn, Meng Amy Li, Elena Carbognin, Austin Smith, Graziano Martello
During differentiation and reprogramming, new cell identities are generated by reconfiguration of gene regulatory networks. Here, we combined automated formal reasoning with experimentation to expose the logic of network activation during induction of naïve pluripotency. We find that a Boolean network architecture defined for maintenance of naïve state embryonic stem cells (ESC) also explains transcription factor behaviour and potency during resetting from primed pluripotency. Computationally identified gene activation trajectories were experimentally substantiated at single-cell resolution by RT-qPCR Contingency of factor availability explains the counterintuitive observation that Klf2, which is dispensable for ESC maintenance, is required during resetting...
November 27, 2018: EMBO Journal
Jonathan A Epstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Soichiro Fujiki, Shinya Aoi, Tetsuro Funato, Yota Sato, Kazuo Tsuchiya, Dai Yanagihara
To investigate the adaptive locomotion mechanism in animals, a split-belt treadmill has been used, which has two parallel belts to produce left-right symmetric and asymmetric environments for walking. Spinal cats walking on the treadmill have suggested the contribution of the spinal cord and associated peripheral nervous system to the adaptive locomotion. Physiological studies have shown that phase resetting of locomotor commands involving a phase shift occurs depending on the types of sensory nerves and stimulation timing, and that muscle activation patterns during walking are represented by a linear combination of a few numbers of basic temporal patterns despite the complexity of the activation patterns...
November 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephanie L Grella, Jonathan M Neil, Hilary T Edison, Vanessa D Strong, Irina V Odintsova, Susan G Walling, Gerard M Martin, Diano F Marrone, Carolyn W Harley
Locus coeruleus (LC) neurons, the source of hippocampal norepinephrine (NE) are activated by novelty and changes in environmental contingencies. Based on the role of monoamines in reconfiguring invertebrate networks, and data from mammalian systems, a network reset hypothesis for the effects of LC activation has been proposed.We utilized the cellular compartmental analysis of temporal fluorescence in situ hybridization ( catFISH ) technique based on the cellular distribution of immediate early genes (IEGs) to examine the effect of LC activation and inactivation, on regional hippocampal maps in male rats, when LC activity was manipulated just prior to placement in a second familiar (A/A) and/or novel environment (A/B)...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Aaron M Ellison, David A Orwig, Matthew C Fitzpatrick, Evan L Preisser
The nonnative hemlock woolly adelgid is steadily killing eastern hemlock trees in many parts of eastern North America. We summarize impacts of the adelgid on these forest foundation species; review previous models and analyses of adelgid spread dynamics; and examine how previous forecasts of adelgid spread and ecosystem dynamics compare with current conditions. The adelgid has reset successional sequences, homogenized biological diversity at landscape scales, altered hydrological dynamics, and changed forest stands from carbon sinks into carbon sources...
November 23, 2018: Insects
Ji-Yong Jang, Dong-Ho Shin, Jung-Sun Kim, Sung-Jin Hong, Chul-Min Ahn, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Young-Guk Ko, Donghoon Choi, Myeong-Ki Hong, Kyung Woo Park, Hyeon-Cheol Gwon, Hyo-Soo Kim, Yangsoo Jang
BACKGROUND: We evaluated optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From pooled analysis of three randomized clinical trials (EXCELLENT, IVUS-XPL, RESET), a total of 2,216 patient with ACS undergoing second-generation DES implantation were selected. Each study randomized patients to a short-duration DAPT arm (n = 1119; ≤6 months) or a standard-duration DAPT arm (n = 1097; ≥12 months)...
2018: PloS One
Tatjana Aue, Raphaël Guex, Léa A S Chauvigné, Hadas Okon-Singer, Patrik Vuilleumier
Recent behavioral observations suggest an influence of prior expectancies on attention to neutral targets, whereas the detection of threatening targets remains comparably immune to these expectancies. The origin of this asymmetry, however, remains unclear. Here, therefore, we investigated its neural basis by using fMRI. Specifically, we tested whether, in accordance with the idea of a resetting attentional system during phylogenetic threat detection, neural responses for threatening compared with neutral targets would remain largely unaffected by prior expectancies...
November 26, 2018: Emotion
Yin Wang, Pik-Yin Lai, Hao Song, Penger Tong
It is commonly believed that heat flux passing through a closed thermal convection system is balanced so that the convection system can remain at a steady state. Here, we report a new kind of convective instability for turbulent thermal convection, in which the convective flow stays over a long steady "quiet period" having a minute amount of heat accumulation in the convection cell, followed by a short and intermittent "active period" with a massive eruption of thermal plumes to release the accumulated heat...
November 2018: Science Advances
Amin Cheikhi, Callen Wallace, Claudette St Croix, Charles Cohen, Wan-Yee Tang, Peter Wipf, Panayiotis V Benos, Fabrisia Ambrosio, Aaron Barchowsky
Cellular memory underlies cellular identity, and thus constitutes a unifying mechanism of genetic disposition, environmental influences, and cellular adaptation. Here, we demonstrate that enduring physicochemical changes of mitochondrial networks invoked by transient stress, a phenomenon we term 'mitoengrams', underlie the transgenerational persistence of epigenetically scripted cellular behavior. Using C2C12 myogenic stem-like cells, we show that stress memory elicited by transient, low-level arsenite exposure is stored within a self-renewing subpopulation of progeny cells in a mitochondrial-dependent fashion...
November 22, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Tae-Wan Kim, Won-Ju Cho
In this study, we implemented a resistance change memory (ReRAM) device using a SiC layer with excellent physical properties. We fabricated devices composed of Ti/SiC/Pt and Ti/HfO x /SiC/Pt structures and investigated their memory characteristics. The Ti/SiC/Pt ReRAM devices exhibited stable bipolar resistive switching characteristics but had a relatively small memory window, whereas the Ti/HfO x /SiC/Pt ReRAM devices had a large memory window and low operating voltage. In addition, the Ti/HfO x /SiC/Pt ReRAM devices exhibited stable endurance characteristics over 500 cycles and excellent retention characteristics at room temperature and high temperatures for 1×10⁴ s...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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