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Dániel Molnár, Tímea Nóra Török, Botond Sánta, Agnes Gubicza, András Magyarkuti, Roland Hauert, Gábor Kiss, András Halbritter, Miklós Csontos
The dynamical aspects of bipolar resistive switchings have been investigated in Nb/Nb2O5/PtIr nanojunctions. We found that the widely tuneable ON and OFF state resistances are well separated at low bias. On the other hand, the high-bias regime of the resistive switchings coincides with the onset of a high nonlinearity in the current-voltage characteristics, where the impedance of both states rapidly decreases and becomes equivalent around 50 Ω. This phenomenon enables the overriding of the RC limitations of fast switchings between higher resistance ON and OFF states...
October 16, 2018: Nanoscale
William P D Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Yipeng Ren, Qing Xi, Lei Zhang, Huawei Liu, Yueyi Shi, Ming Zhang
It is extremely difficult in clinical practice to accurately reset the physiologic positions of the mandibular condyle and ramus because of ongoing bone remodeling, muscle stretching, occlusal disorders, and other factors; this makes it difficult to obtain a good shape for a reconstructed mandible, as well as a good condylar position. The present study aimed to investigate a standardized method for mandibular reconstruction in cases of obsolete mandibular defects, using a 3-dimensional (3D)-printed surgical template enhanced by computer-aided design...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Leena Tähkämö, Timo Partonen, Anu-Katriina Pesonen
Light is necessary for life, and artificial light improves visual performance and safety, but there is an increasing concern of the potential health and environmental impacts of light. Findings from a number of studies suggest that mistimed light exposure disrupts the circadian rhythm in humans, potentially causing further health impacts. However, a variety of methods has been applied in individual experimental studies of light-induced circadian impacts, including definition of light exposure and outcomes. Thus, a systematic review is needed to synthesize the results...
October 12, 2018: Chronobiology International
Eugénie E Suter, Craig Weiss, John F Disterhoft
Many studies have focused on the function of hippocampal region CA1 as a critical site for associative memory, but much less is known about changes in the afferents to CA1. Here we report the activity of multiple single neurons from perirhinal and entorhinal cortex and from dentate gyrus during trace eyeblink conditioning as well as consolidated recall, and in pseudo-conditioned control rabbits. We also report an analysis of theta activity filtered from the local field potential (LFP). Our results show early associative changes in single-neuron firing rate as well as theta oscillations in lateral entorhinal cortex (EC) and dentate gyrus (DG), and increases in the number of responsive neurons in perirhinal cortex...
October 12, 2018: Hippocampus
Yasuhiro Oga, Keita Saku, Takuya Nishikawa, Takuya Kishi, Tomoyuki Tobushi, Kazuya Hosokawa, Takeshi Tohyama, Takafumi Sakamoto, Kenji Sunagawa, Hiroyuki Tsutsui
Although low pressure baroreflex (LPB) has been shown to elicit various cardiovascular responses, its impact on sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial baroreflex (ABR) function has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify how volume loading-induced acute LPB activation impacts on SNA and ABR function in normal rats. In 20 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, we isolated bilateral carotid sinuses, controlled carotid sinus pressure (CSP), and measured central venous pressure (CVP), splanchnic SNA, and arterial pressure (AP)...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Todd D Rozen
Objective To describe a new subtype of new daily persistent headache that is triggered by a single Valsalva event. Methods A case series of patients was evaluated in an academic headache clinic over a 3-year time period. Results A total of seven patients (four female and three male) were diagnosed with this new subtype of new daily persistent headache. The headaches all began after a single Valsalva event. Average age at time of headache onset was 41 years (males: 39 years; females: 43 years) with an age range of 20-62 years...
October 9, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Eva Hadadi, Lucas Eduardo Botelho de Souza, Annelise Bennaceur-Griscelli, Hervé Acloque
The circadian clock controls most of the physiological processes in the body throughout days and nights' alternation. Its dysregulation has a negative impact on many aspects of human health, such as obesity, lipid disorders, diabetes, skin regeneration, hematopoiesis and cancer. To date, poor is known on the molecular mechanisms that links mammary gland homeostasis to the circadian clock but recent reports highlight the importance of loss of circadian genes for mammary gland development and during tumour progression in breast cancer...
October 8, 2018: Chronobiology International
Kian F Wong, Stijn A A Massar, Michael W L Chee, Julian Lim
Despite calls for objective measures of mindfulness to be adopted in the field, such practices have not yet become established. Recently, a breath-counting task (BCT) was proposed as a reliable and valid candidate for such an instrument. In this study, we show that the psychometric properties of the BCT are reproducible in a sample of 127 Asian undergraduates. Specifically, accuracy on the BCT was associated with everyday lapses and sustained attention, and weakly associated with subjectively measured mindfulness...
2018: Mindfulness
Alfredo Mameli, Marcel A Verheijen, Adriaan J M Mackus, Wilhelmus M M Kessels, Fred Roozeboom
Atomic layer etching (ALE) provides Ångström-level control over material removal and holds potential for addressing the challenges in nanomanufacturing faced by conventional etching techniques. Recent research has led to the development of two main classes of ALE: ion-driven plasma processes yielding anisotropic (or directional) etch profiles and thermally-driven processes for isotropic material removal. In this work, we extend the possibilities to obtain isotropic etching by introducing a plasma-based ALE process for ZnO which is radical-driven and utilizes acetylacetone (Hacac) and O2 plasma as reactants...
October 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
D Zhao, Z G Jiang
Objective: The features and parameters of the relief of nystagmus during the restoration of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo(PC-BPPV) in the posterior semicircular canal were observed to explore its clinical significance and mechanism. Method: Sixty-eight patients with PC-BPPV were treated with the Epley method. According to the subject' nystagmus relief was present or not, they were divided into two groups: group A showed relief of nystagmus during the restoration process, and group B showed no relief of nystagmus during the restoration...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
T L Leise, Ariella Goldberg, John Michael, Grace Montoya, Sabrina Solow, P Molyneux, R Vetrivelan, M E Harrington
A single phase advance of the light:dark (LD) cycle can temporarily disrupt synchrony of neural circadian rhythms within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and between the SCN and peripheral tissues. Compounding this, modern life can involve repeated disruptive light conditions. To model chronic disruption to the circadian system, we exposed male mice to more than a month of a 20 h light cycle (LD10:10), which mice typically cannot entrain to. Control animals were housed under LD12:12. We measured locomotor activity and body temperature rhythms in vivo, and rhythms of PER2::LUC bioluminescence in SCN and peripheral tissues ex vivo...
September 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Bernhard Ross
Interaural time and intensity differences (ITD and IID) are important cues in binaural hearing and allow for sound localization, improving speech understanding in noise and reverberation, and integrating sound sources in the auditory scene. Whereas previous research showed that the upper-frequency limit for ITD detection in the fine structure of sound declines in aging, the processing of envelope ITD in low-frequency amplitude modulated (AM) sound and the related brain responses are less understood. This study investigated the cortical processing of envelope ITD and compared the results with previous findings about the fine-structure ITD...
September 6, 2018: Hearing Research
Tianqi Guo, Sannian Song, Yonghui Zheng, Yuan Xue, Shuai Yan, Yuxiang Liu, Tao Li, Guangyu Liu, Yong Wang, Zhitang Song, Mi Qi, Songlin Feng
The contradictory nature between transition speed and thermal stability of phase change materials has always been the key limitation to achieve wide applications under the harsh condition. Ge2.3Sb2.0Te phase change alloy is proposed here to feature high thermal stability (10-year data retention above 220 oC) and fast switching speed (SET programming speed up to 5 ns) for the electronic storage. In mushroom-shaped device cells, the nanocomposite materials implement an endurance life nearly 1×105 cycles. Such operation speed among alloys with high-temperature characteristic is the best ever reported...
September 28, 2018: Nanotechnology
Dominic C Rose, Hugo Touchette, Igor Lesanovsky, Juan P Garrahan
We study the spectral properties of classical and quantum Markovian processes that are reset at random times to a specific configuration or state with a reset rate that is independent of the current state of the system. We demonstrate that this simple reset dynamics causes a uniform shift in the eigenvalues of the Markov generator, excluding the zero mode corresponding to the stationary state, which has the effect of accelerating or even inducing relaxation to a stationary state. Based on this result, we provide expressions for the stationary state and probability current of the reset process in terms of weighted sums over dynamical modes of the reset-free process...
August 2018: Physical Review. E
Alexander V Milovanov, Jens Juul Rasmussen
We formulate the problem of confined Lévy flight on a comb. The comb represents a sawtoothlike potential field V(x), with the asymmetric teeth favoring net transport in a preferred direction. The shape effect is modeled as a power-law dependence V(x)∝|Δx|^{n} within the sawtooth period, followed by an abrupt drop-off to zero, after which the initial power-law dependence is reset. It is found that the Lévy flights will be confined in the sense of generalized central limit theorem if (i) the spacing between the teeth is sufficiently broad, and (ii) n>4-μ, where μ is the fractal dimension of the flights...
August 2018: Physical Review. E
Yuki Kutaragi, Atsushi Tokuoka, Yasuaki Tomiyama, Motoki Nose, Takayuki Watanabe, Tetsuya Bando, Yoshiyuki Moriyama, Kenji Tomioka
Background: Entrainment to the environmental light cycle is an essential property of the circadian clock. Although the compound eye is known to be the major photoreceptor necessary for entrainment in many insects, the molecular mechanisms of photic entrainment remain to be explored. Results: We found  that cryptochrome s ( cry s) and c-fos mediate photic entrainment of the circadian clock in a hemimetabolous insect, the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus . We examined the effects of RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the cry genes, Gb'cry1 and Gb'cry2 , on photic entrainment, and light-induced resetting of the circadian locomotor rhythm...
2018: Zoological Letters
Alexander M Milner, Jessica L Picken, Megan J Klaar, Anne L Robertson, Leonie R Clitherow, Lawrence Eagle, Lee E Brown
Floods have a major influence in structuring river ecosystems. Considering projected increases in high-magnitude rainfall events with climate change, major flooding events are expected to increase in many regions of the world. However, there is uncertainty about the effect of different flooding regimes and the importance of flood timing in structuring riverine habitats and their associated biotic communities. In addition, our understanding of community response is hindered by a lack of long-term datasets to evaluate river ecosystem resilience to flooding...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Naomi I Maria, Anne Davidson
Recent advances in the field of autoimmunity have identified numerous dysfunctional pathways in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), including aberrant clearance of nucleic-acid-containing debris and immune complexes, excessive innate immune activation leading to overactive type I IFN signalling, and abnormal B and T cell activation. On the background of genetic polymorphisms that reset thresholds for immune responses, multiple immune cells contribute to inflammatory amplification circuits. Neutrophils activated by immune complexes are a rich source of immunogenic nucleic acids...
September 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Xuechun Hu, Zheng Ding, Zhiwei Hong, Zhichuan Zou, Yuming Feng, Ruilou Zhu, Jinzhao Ma, Xie Ge, Chaojun Li, Bing Yao
BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma gonadotropins were associated with desensitization of Sertoli and Leydig cells in the male testis. Testis spermatogenesis ability would be improved via inhibiting high endogenous gonadotropin in patients with severe oligozoospermia. Whether it would be beneficial for non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) patients was still unclear. METHODS: Goserelin, a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHα) was used to suppress endogenous gonadotropin levels (gonadotropin reset) in the NOA patients, improving the sensitization of the Sertoli and Leydig cells...
September 22, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
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