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Unsaturated fatty acids

Aditya Abha Singh, S B Agrawal, J P Shahi, Madhoolika Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Tropospheric ozone (O3 ) being phytotoxic impacts global food security. Present study investigated yield responses and kernel quality traits of two maize cultivars [DHM117: normal maize (NM)] and [HQPM1: quality protein maize (QPM)]. Cultivars were exposed to two doses of elevated O3 viz. NFC+15 and NFC+30 ppb O3 above ambient level (NFC, non-filtered chambers) while filtered chambers served as control. RESULTS: Test weight (thousand kernel weight), weight of kernels m-2 and kernel starch content reduced more in NM than QPM due to elevated O3 exposure...
October 12, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Saeed Ahmad, Samya Perveen, Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Tayyeba Rehman
Background Euphorbia granulata is herb of family Euphorbiaceae having several traditional uses. The aim of the study is to summarize reported nutritional and medicinal value along with ethnomedical records. Methods The papers on nutritional and medicinal value of E. granulata are collected from electronic search engines (Google Scholar, PubMed). Synonyms are confirmed from "The plant List." Results Pharmacological studies suggest that the extracts of E. granulata possess antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, diuretic, antiulcerative colitis and spasmolytic properties...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Yuxin Liu, Yu Liu, Na Li, Yadi Lou, Xinda Zhao
Petroleum is one of the most important pollutants in the marine ecosystem, and oil spills have a long-term effect on the marine environment. After an oil spill, petroleum continues to diffuse, flowing to the intertidal zone where it accumulates. Ulva pertusa is the main macroalgae species in the intertidal zone of the ocean, and petroleum is toxic to marine macroalgae. Fatty acids, which are involved in various physiological activities, including metabolism, are indispensable substances in organisms. Thus, an organism's fatty acid composition reflects its physiological state...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Stefan Wallner, Evelyn Orsó, Margot Grandl, Tatiana Konovalova, Gerhard Liebisch, Gerd Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Plasmalogens are either phosphatidylcholine (PC P) or phosphatidylethanolamine (PE P) glycerophospholipids containing a vinyl ether moiety in sn-1-position and an esterified fatty acid in sn-2 position. Multiple functions have been proposed, including reservoir of precursors for inflammatory mediators, modulation of membrane fluidity, and anti-oxidative properties. They could therefore play a role under conditions of metabolic stress. Especially enzymatically modified LDL (eLDL) and oxidatively modified LDL (oxLDL) represent modifications of LDL that are taken up by macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques...
2018: PloS One
R Rodriguez-Sanchez, A Tres, R Sala, F Guardiola, A C Barroeta
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of the dietary fat saturation degree and age on the lipid class (TAG, DAG, MAG, and FFA) composition and fatty acid digestibility along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and excreta in broiler chickens. A total of 120 one-day-old female broiler chickens were randomly distributed in 2 dietary treatments (6 cages/treatment), which resulted from the supplementation of a basal diet with 6% of soybean oil or palm oil. Two digestibility balances were carried out at 14 and 35 d and fatty acid digestibility and lipid class composition were determined in the gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and excreta...
October 10, 2018: Poultry Science
Jörg Schlotterbeck, Agnes Kolb, Michael Lämmerhofer
Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame) alga contains high amounts of hexadeca-4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z-tetraenoic acid which was reported to decrease the efficiency of cisplatin chemotherapeutics. To obtain a fatty acid enriched extract of this ω-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid as an analytical standard, Wakame was used as source material for its extraction. A 2-step extraction protocol consisting of a liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction with 3-aminopropyl silica in accordance to a normal-phase elution mode was developed...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Gunjan Singh, Christine Jeyaseelan, K K Bandyopadhyay, Debarati Paul
This study investigated the potential of oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides strain (ATCC20409) for the sustainable production of microbial lipids as biodiesel feedstock and other economically important fatty acids in comparison to algal or plant-based biodiesel. The strain exhibited high lipid content (76% of dry cell weight biomass) through consolidated bioprocessing which was transesterified to produce biodiesel. Physico-chemical properties of the biodiesel produced showed that they were in accordance with ASTM standards, although few parameters such as acid value, calorific value and free fatty acid value differed to some extent, as also reported in plant-based/microalgal biodiesel...
October 2018: 3 Biotech
L Locatello, D Bertotto, R Cerri, A Parmeggiani, N Govoni, A Trocino, G Xiccato, O Mordenti
Sperm density and performance of wild and farmed male European eels were evaluated to investigate the effect of maintenance in captivity on ejaculate quality. Hormonal stimulation (with human chorionic gonadotropin) lasted for 17 weeks. Different origins of the male European eels partially influenced the quality of the ejaculates. Indeed, wild animals (i.e., collected at a natural site) had greater sperm longevity during the hormonal stimulation, whereas there was no significant effect of the origin on sperm density, spermatocrit, the percentage of motile sperm, and plasma testosterone concentrations...
September 29, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Lijun Wang, Hongguang Fan, Jingchun He, Lifang Wang, Zelong Tian, Chaoran Wang
OBJECTIVES: Omega-3 fatty acids are well-known unsaturated fatty acids that are essential for growth and development in animals. They primarily participate in the development of intelligence, the nervous system, and vision, and the metabolism of neurotransmitters. Omega-3 fatty acids have been widely studied in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Omega-3 fatty acids are known to have neuroprotective effects due to their antioxidant capacity. Rotenone has been shown to induce neurotoxicity in vitro...
October 8, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Dinh Duc Nguyen, Menghour Huy, Periyasamy Sivagurunathan, Péter Bakonyi, Guangyin Zhen, Takuro Kobayashi, Kai Qin Xu, Nándor Nemestóthy, Soon Woong Chang
This study investigated the effect of light intensity on three various microalga consortia collected from natural ecological water bodies (named A, B and C) towards their fatty acid profiling and fractions, carbohydrate and protein production at different light intensities of 100, 200 and 300 μmol m-2  s-1 . The results indicating that increasing light intensity positively correlated with the lipid production than carbohydrate and protein. Irrespective to the solids (Total and Volatile Solid) content, lipids and carbohydrate has varied significantly...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
U Tomažin, N Batorek-Lukač, M Škrlep, M Prevolnik-Povše, M Čandek-Potokar
Data on production traits of the only Slovenian autochthonous pig breed, the Krškopolje pig, is very scarce. Krškopolje pigs are reared in conventional and organic production systems, which were compared in the present study. After weaning, 24 barrows were assigned within litter to either conventional (CON) or organic (ECO) rearing system. Group CON (n=12) was housed indoors in two pens (7.5 m2) with partly slatted floor. Group ECO (n=12) was held in a sty with sheltered area (concrete floor, bedded with straw, 16 m2) and outdoor paddock area (100 m2)...
October 5, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Mitchell Roslin, Bugra Tugertimur, Sharon Zarabi, Daniel Cottam
The majority of bariatric surgical stapling procedure concepts were developed prior to the understanding of obesity as an energy storage disease. Conventional treatments did not consider the impact of macronutrients on hormones and glucose variability. Current recommendations suggest diets low in glycemic load, with moderate protein and unsaturated fat. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass promotes glucose variability which can be harmful for health and encourage weight regain. Classic duodenal switch with short common channels may prevent absorption of measurable fat-soluble vitamins and frequently untested essential fatty acids...
October 4, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Mmahiine Molepo, Ademola Ayeleso, Trevor Nyakudya, Kennedy Erlwanger, Emmanuel Mukwevho
Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of different disorders which include diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases, is a global epidemic that is growing at an alarming rate. The origins of disease can be traced back to early developmental stages of life. This has increased mortalities and continues to reduce life expectancies of individuals across the globe. The aim of this study was to investigate the sub-acute and long term effects of neonatal oral administration of oleanolic acid and metformin on lipids (free fatty acids, FFAs) and genes associated with lipid metabolism and glucose transport using a neonatal rat experimental model...
October 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chiranjit Ghosh, Sujit Pal, Akanksha Patel, Manmohan Kapur
The total synthesis of the proposed structure of mycobactin J (MJ), a metabolite of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is presented. The highlights of the synthesis include a careful control of the Z-stereochemistry of the unsaturated long chain fatty acid, a biomimetic construction of the oxazoline building block and the carriage of an unprotected phenol throughout the synthesis.
October 3, 2018: Organic Letters
Yuji Matsui, Hideo Iwahashi
This study examines oxidizability in individual aqueous solutions of oleic acid, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, γ-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid, and in their mixtures. We used electron spin resonance (ESR), high performance liquid chromatography-electron spin resonance (HPLC-ESR) and high performance liquid chromatography-electron spin resonance-mass spectrometries (HPLC-ESR-MS). We detected 4-carboxybutyl radical derived from γ-linolenic acid, ethyl and 7-carboxyheptyl radicals derived from α-linolenic acid, and pentyl and 7-carboxyheptyl radicals derived from linoleic acid...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
David Beriashvili, Robert Taylor, Braden Kralt, Nooran Abu Mazen, Scott D Taylor, Michael Palmer
Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic that binds and permeabilizes the cell membranes of Gram-positive bacteria. Membrane permeabilization requires both calcium and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) in the target membrane, and it correlates with the formation of an oligomer that likely comprises eight subunits, which are evenly distributed between the two membrane leaflets. In both bacterial cells and model membranes, changes in the fatty acyl composition of the membrane phospholipids can prevent permeabilization...
September 29, 2018: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Yingyu Mu, Xueyan Lin, Zhonghua Wang, Qiuling Hou, Yun Wang, Zhiyong Hu
Our aim was to simultaneously investigate the gut bacteria typical characteristic and conduct rumen metabolites profiling of high production dairy cows when compared to low-production dairy cows. The bacterial differences in rumen fluid and feces were identified by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The metabolite differences were identified by metabolomics profiling with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results indicated that the high-production dairy cows presented a lower rumen bacterial richness and species evenness when compared to low-production dairy cows...
September 11, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Hayley E Billingsley, Salvatore Carbone, Carl J Lavie
The role of dietary fat has been long studied as a modifiable variable in the prevention and treatment of noncommunicable cardiometabolic disease. Once heavily promoted to the public, the low-fat diet has been demonstrated to be non-effective in preventing cardiometabolic disease, and an increasing body of literature has focused on the effects of a relatively higher-fat diet. More recent evidence suggests that a diet high in healthy fat, rich in unsaturated fatty acids, such as the Mediterranean dietary pattern, may, in fact, prevent the development of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, but also reduce cardiovascular events...
September 30, 2018: Nutrients
Paulina Pauter, Maria Różańska, Paulina Wiza, Sandra Dworczak, Natalia Grobelna, Paulina Sarbak, Przemysław Ł Kowalczewski
BACKGROUND: Cricket powder (CP) is a cheap and valuable source of protein, unsaturated fatty acids and dietary fiber, as well as vitamins and minerals such as iron and calcium, which makes it useful for the enrich- ment of bakery products. METHODS: The ash, fat, moisture and protein contents of enriched muffins were analyzed ac- cording to PN-EN ISO and AACC methods. The proximate carbohydrate content was estimated by subtract- ing the total fat, protein, ash and moisture content from 100% of food composition...
July 2018: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Jung-Hwan Ko, Rodrigo Castaneda, Sun-Woo Joo, Hyoung-Geun Kim, Yeong-Geun Lee, Youn-Hyung Lee, Tong Ho Kang, Nam-In Baek
A preliminary study revealed that a 10 µg/mL n -BuOH fraction of Malva verticillata aerial parts significantly enhanced splenocyte proliferation and induced significant enhancement of natural-killer (NK) cell activity against tumor cells (YAC-1). This study was initiated to identify the principal components that exhibited these activities, and four glycerides were isolated through repeated SiO2 and ODS column chromatography. Structures of compounds 1 - 4 were determined to be (2 S )-1- O -palmitoyl glyceride, (2 S )-1- O -stearoyl glyceride, (2 S )-1- O -linolenoyl glyceride, and (2 S )-1,2-di- O -linoleoyl glyceride, respectively...
August 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
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