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Unsaturated fatty acids

Benjamin M Vincent, Daniel F Tardiff, Jeff S Piotrowski, Rebecca Aron, Matthew C Lucas, Chee Yeun Chung, Helene Bacherman, YiQun Chen, Michelle Pires, Radha Subramaniam, Dimple B Doshi, Heather Sadlish, Waseem K Raja, Eric J Solís, Vikram Khurana, Bertrand Le Bourdonnec, Robert H Scannevin, Kenneth J Rhodes
The lack of disease-modifying treatments for neurodegenerative disease stems in part from our rudimentary understanding of disease mechanisms and the paucity of targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we used an integrated discovery paradigm to identify a new therapeutic target for diseases caused by α-synuclein (α-syn), a small lipid-binding protein that misfolds and aggregates in Parkinson's disease and other disorders. Using unbiased phenotypic screening, we identified a series of compounds that were cytoprotective against α-syn-mediated toxicity by inhibiting the highly conserved enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Karen E Assmann, Moufidath Adjibade, Serge Hercberg, Pilar Galan, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
Background: Given the drastic demographic changes characterized as "population aging," the disease burden related to dementia is a major public health problem. The scientific literature documenting the link between mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, PUFAs) and cognitive function during aging is plentiful, but findings are inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the association between intakes of unsaturated fatty acids at midlife and cognitive performance 13 y later in French adults, and to test for a modulating effect of antioxidant supplementation...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Samira Asghari, Amir Valizadeh Dizajeykan, Majid Ahmadi, Abolfazl Barzegari, Reza Rikhtegar, Sanam Dolati, Shahla Danaii, Sedigheh Abdollahi-Fard, Mohammad Nouri, Mahdi Mahdipour, Mehdi Yousefi
BACKGROUND: Despite at the beginning known as a benign disease, endometriosis is defined as a risk factor for developing ovarian carcinoma. The effect of endometriosis on ovarian malignancy is known but its role in granulosa cell tumor is still unclear. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this study, serum samples were collected from patients with endometriosis and divided into whole and steroid-depleted groups. Desertification was performed according to the charcoal-dextran protocol and sera were added to the culture media of granulosa cells retrieved from tubal or male factor infertile women...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Sanket Anaokar, Ravindra Kodali, Benjamin Jonik, Mike F Renne, Jos F H M Brouwers, Ida Lager, Anton I P M de Kroon, Jana Patton-Vogt
Phospholipase B-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) results in the formation of free fatty acids and glycerophosphocholine (GPC) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. GPC can be reacylated by the glycerophosphocholine acyltransferase Gpc1, which produces lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and LPC can be converted to PC by the lysophospholipid acyltransferase Ale1. Here, we further characterized the regulation and function of this distinct PC deacylation/reacylation pathway in yeast. Through in vitro and in vivo experiments, we show that Gpc1 and Ale1 are the major cellular GPC and LPC acyltransferases, respectively...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Aline Boveto Santamarina, Giovana Jamar, Laís Vales Mennitti, Helena de Cássia César, Verdiana Vera de Rosso, José Ronnie Vasconcelos, Lila Missae Oyama, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani
Nutrigenomics is an emerging field in obesity since epigenetic markers can be modified by environmental factors including diet. Considering juçara composition-rich in anthocyanins, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and fibers-it has the potential for epigenetic modulation. We evaluated the juçara supplementation modulating the serum fatty acids profile and epigenetic markers in monocytes of adult obese humans. It was a randomized double-blind, controlled trial with 27 obese (Body mass index between 30.0 and 39...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Susiane S Moreira-Oliveira, Lucas Amaral-Machado, Wógenes Nunes de Oliveira, Éverton N Alencar, Kelly Cristine Zatta, Luanda B F C de Souza, Aldo da Cunha Medeiros, Guilherme Maranhão Chaves, Eryvaldo S T Egito
Oral candidiasis (OC) is an infectious disease caused by microorganisms of the genus Candida , leading to lesions in the buccal cavity. Its treatment consists of the administration of topical or systemic antifungal agents, which may compromise the patient compliance due to its side effects, highlighting the need for alternative treatments. In this scenario, bullfrog oil, an animal oil composed of a pool of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, is introduced as a potential antifungal raw material. Thus, the aim of this work was to produce a mucoadhesive emulsified system able to deliver the bullfrog oil in the buccal cavity to treat the OC...
December 3, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Simona Terzo, Gaetano Felice Caldara, Vincenzo Ferrantelli, Roberto Puleio, Giovanni Cassata, Flavia Mulè, Antonella Amato
Pistachios contain beneficial substances such as unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, and polyphenols. In the present study, we investigated if pistachio consumption is able to prevent or to revert hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and adipose tissue morphological alterations caused by high fat diet (HFD) in the mouse. Moreover, the impact of pistachio intake on the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ( PPAR-γ ), fatty acid transport proteins ( FAT-P ), fatty acid synthase ( FAS ), stearoyl-CoA desaturase ( SCD1 ), and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c ( SREBP-1c ) in liver and adipose tissue was also analyzed...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Stelia Ntika, Ketan Thombare, Masood Aryapoor, Hjalti Kristinsson, Peter Bergsten, Camilla Krizhanovskii
BACKGROUND: Fatty acids (FAs), and especially monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) stimulate GLP-1 release. However, lipotoxicity is indicated in GLP-1 secreting cells following long-term exposure to elevated levels of saturated FAs (SFAs) in vivo and in vitro, where in vitro studies indicate that cosupplementation with MUFAs confers lipoprotection. SFAs and MUFAs differentially affect the fate of cells in ways that depend on the cell type, concentration and ratio of the FAs. The present study was designed to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of SFAs/MUFAs on GLP-1-producing cells in terms of lipotoxicity/lipoprotection and GLP-1 secretion...
December 1, 2018: Biochimie
Agnieszka Kicel, Joanna Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Aleksandra Owczarek, Magdalena Rutkowska, Anna Wajs-Bonikowska, Sebastian Granica, Pawel Nowak, Monika A Olszewska
The work presents the results of an investigation into the molecular background of the activity of Cotoneaster fruits, providing a detailed description of their phytochemical composition and some of the mechanisms of their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. GS-FID-MS and UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3 methods were applied to identify the potentially health-beneficial constituents of lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, leading to the identification of fourteen unsaturated fatty acids (with dominant linoleic acid, 375...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Pierpaolo Maisano Delser, Metka Ravnik-Glavač, Paolo Gasparini, Damjan Glavač, Massimo Mezzavilla
The Slovenian territory played a crucial role in the past serving as gateway for several human migrations. Previous studies used Slovenians as a source population to interpret different demographic events happened in Europe but not much is known about the genetic background and the demographic history of this population. Here, we analyzed genome-wide data from 96 individuals to shed light on the genetic role and history of the Slovenian population. Y chromosome diversity splits into two major haplogroups R1b and R1a with the latter suggesting a genetic contribution from the steppe...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Kazem Seifi, Mansour Rezaei, Asad Teimouri Yansari, Gholam Hossein Riazi, Mohammad Javad Zamiri, Reza Heidari
Heat stress decreases performance of poultry. The novel strategies to maintain production level, or at least minimizing the decrease in productivity during hot days need to be elucidated. This study was conducted to determine the effect of four fat types on mitochondrial energetics in heat-stressed broilers. In experiment 1, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) content of four supplemental fat sources, including olive oil, soybean oil, coconut oil and beef tallow, all supplemented at 3%, 6%, and 9% in the basal diet, was evaluated...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Maria Oczkowicz, Tomasz Szmatoła, Małgorzata Świątkiewicz, Klaudia Pawlina-Tyszko, Artur Gurgul, Tomasz Ząbek
BACKGROUND: Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (cDDGS) are a byproduct of biofuel and alcohol production. cDDGS have been used in pig feed for many years, because they are readily available and rich in protein, fiber, unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols. However, feed mixtures too high in cDDGS result in the worsening of backfat quality. We performed RNA-sequencing analysis of backfat from crossbred pigs fed different diets. The diets were isoenergetic but contained different amounts of cDDGS and various sources of fats...
December 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
Makoto Kanauchi
Hydroxyl fatty acids (HFAs) are used in widely diverse industrial applications, healthy functional foods, artificial food flavorings, and alcoholic beverages. A lactic acid bacterium (LAB), Lactobacillus sakei, hydroxylates oleic acid. Furthermore, the hydroxyl fatty acid was identified by GC-MS as 10-hydroxystearic acid. The Lactobacillus sakei hydroxylated more than 90% of the oleic acid in the medium at 15 °C after 30-48 h. The hydroxyl enzyme needs a coenzyme for an electron donor as NADPH. The enzyme is useful for assay with monitoring NADPH concentration used an A340 device...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
H S Nagendra Prasad, C S Karthik, H M Manukumar, L Mallesha, P Mallu
The synthesized potent piperazine analog ChDiPiCa was characterised by various spectroscopic techniques and for the first time evaluated functional membrane microdomain (FMM) disassembly in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The ChDiPiCa showed excellent in vitro biocidal activity against MRSA at 26 μg/mL compared to the antibiotic streptomycin and bacitracin 14 μg/mL and 13 μg/mL at 10 μg concentration respectively. The membrane damaging property was confirmed by the SEM analysis...
November 29, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Kota Sekiguchi, Kohta Kurohane, Masato Tsutsumi, Narumi Mochizuki, Akimasa Orii, Mutsumi Nose, Yasuyuki Imai
The prevalence of skin allergies could be partly due to the increased exposure to chemicals from consumer products. Chemicals that can enhance hypersensitivity caused by other chemicals are the focus of this study. We have demonstrated that phthalate esters with short chain alcohols enhance fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in a mouse model. We have also found that tributyrin, a triacylglycerol (TAG) with three butyric acids, enhances sensitization to FITC. To elucidate such an enhanced skin sensitization might be based on a general feature of TAG, we compared tributyrin and triolein, a natural TAG, as to an adjuvant effect on FITC-CHS...
November 29, 2018: Toxicology
Nan Jiang, Jiabin Wang, Wenbang Li, Jianhua Xiao, Jianhua Li, Xucong Lin, Zenghong Xie, Lijun You, Qiqing Zhang
Based on our developed sodium hyaluronate-functionalized urea-formaldehyde (HA-UF) monolith, a silver nanoparticles-coated monolithic column has been fabricated via the interaction between silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and HA. The successful coating of Ag NPs on the parent monolith was proven by SEM, EDAX, UV-vis spectrum and XPS. Nitrogen adsorption desorption isotherms and Barret-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore size distributions of the parent and resultant monolith were also performed. Due to the Ag+ -like affinity interaction caused by the contact of unsaturated compounds and Ag NPs, the Ag NPs-coated monolith showed satisfactory extraction efficiency towards these compounds, and was applied for in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of monounsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (MUFAMEs)...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Nathalie Arnal, Gustavo Morel, Carlos A Marra, Mariana Astiz
Dimethoate (DMT), a widely used Organophosphorous insecticide, was administered for 5 weeks (sub-chronic) at low dose (15 mg/kg b.w.) to male Wistar rats with the aim to simulate potential exposure to pesticide residues in food and water. The induction of cell death programs was investigated in two brain regions, cortex (Cx) and substantia nigra (SN), after the exposure period. We found that DMT increased cytochrome C (CytC) release from mitochondria, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, the activity of caspase-3 and calpains, in both brain regions compared to VEH injected ones...
November 28, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Jiu-Qiang Xiong, Sanjay Govindwar, Mayur B Kurade, Ki-Jung Paeng, Hyun-Seog Roh, Moonis Ali Khan, Byong-Hun Jeon
A comprehensive ecotoxicological evaluation of a sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) mixture was conducted using an indicator microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus. The toxicological effects of this mixture were studied using microalgal growth patterns, biochemical characteristics (total chlorophyll, carotenoid, carbohydrate, fatty acid methyl ester), and elemental and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The 96-h half maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) of the SMZ and SMX mixture was calculated to be 0...
November 24, 2018: Chemosphere
Michael J D'Occhio, Pietro S Baruselli, Giuseppe Campanile
Nutrition is of fundamental importance in reproductive function of female beef cattle. Nutrition determines live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCs) and both were found more than 50 years ago to underpin fertility in pubertal heifers and postpartum cows. In heifers, LW at weaning and average daily gain (ADG) after weaning determines age and LW at puberty, and subsequent lifetime fertility. In cows, BCS at parturition is the most important factor that determines the period to re-conception postpartum...
November 20, 2018: Theriogenology
A Bougouin, C Martin, M Doreau, A Ferlay
Optimizing milk production efficiency implies diets allowing low methane (CH4) emissions and high dairy performance. We hypothesize that nature of energy (starch v. lipids) and lipid supplement types (monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) v. polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) mitigate CH4 emissions and can induce low milk fat content via different pathways. The main objective of this experiment was to study the effects of starch-rich or lipid-supplemented diets that induce milk fat depression (MFD) on rumen biohydrogenation (RBH) of unsaturated fatty acids (FA) and enteric CH4 emissions in dairy cows...
November 29, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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