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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309282/specific-conditions-for-a-selective-deficit-in-memory-for-order-in-children-with-dyslexia
#1
Marisa Giorgetti, Maria Luisa Lorusso
Short-term memory (STM) models distinguish between item and order memorization. The present study aims to explore how item and order STM are affected by the nature of the stimuli, the sequential versus simultaneous mode of presentation, the visual versus auditory presentation modality, the possibility of verbal recoding. A total of 20 children with dyslexia were matched one-by-one with 20 typically reading children on sex, age (8-14 years), and grade. Computerized STM tasks were administered while manipulating type (item vs...
October 11, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301899/a-hippocampal-circuit-linking-dorsal-ca2-to-ventral-ca1-critical-for-social-memory-dynamics
#2
Torcato Meira, Felix Leroy, Eric W Buss, Azahara Oliva, Jung Park, Steven A Siegelbaum
Recent results suggest that social memory requires the dorsal hippocampal CA2 region as well as a subset of ventral CA1 neurons. However, it is unclear whether dorsal CA2 and ventral CA1 represent parallel or sequential circuits. Moreover, because evidence implicating CA2 in social memory comes largely from long-term inactivation experiments, the dynamic role of CA2 in social memory remains unclear. Here, we use pharmacogenetics and optogenetics in mice to acutely and reversibly silence dorsal CA2 and its projections to ventral hippocampus...
October 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289154/-cognitive-neurorehabilitation-the-foundations-and-applications-of-neurologic-music-therapy
#3
REVIEW
J A Jauset-Berrocal, G Soria-Urios
INTRODUCTION: Music is the result of a perception in the brain involving a number of cortical and subcortical areas in both brain hemispheres. Increased knowledge about brain plasticity and the numerous neuroimaging studies conducted in recent years have made it possible to further our understanding of the processing of musical stimuli in the brain. This has led to an interest in analysing and studying its application in the non-invasive treatment of certain dysfunctions or diseases with the aim of helping to achieve an improved quality of life...
October 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30283458/nematode-infected-mice-acquire-resistance-to-subsequent-infection-with-unrelated-nematode-by-inducing-highly-responsive-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-the-lung
#4
Koubun Yasuda, Takumi Adachi, Atsuhide Koida, Kenji Nakanishi
The immune responses against helminths have been investigated individually, and it is well-established that infected hosts develop an immunological memory to resist reinfection by the same pathogen. In contrast, it is poorly understood how the host immune system responds to subsequent infection by unrelated parasites after elimination of the first infection. We previously reported that infection of mice with Strongyloides venezuelensis induces the accumulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in the lung...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30282039/cd8-t-cell-activation-leads-to-constitutive-formation-of-liver-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-that-seed-a-large-and-flexible-niche-in-the-liver
#5
Lauren E Holz, Julia E Prier, David Freestone, Thiago M Steiner, Kieran English, Darryl N Johnson, Vanessa Mollard, Anton Cozijnsen, Gayle M Davey, Dale I Godfrey, Katsuyuki Yui, Laura K Mackay, Mireille H Lahoud, Irina Caminschi, Geoffrey I McFadden, Patrick Bertolino, Daniel Fernandez-Ruiz, William R Heath
Liver tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells migrate throughout the sinusoids and are capable of protecting against malaria sporozoite challenge. To gain an understanding of liver Trm cell development, we examined various conditions for their formation. Although liver Trm cells were found in naive mice, their presence was dictated by antigen specificity and required IL-15. Liver Trm cells also formed after adoptive transfer of in vitro-activated but not naive CD8+ T cells, indicating that activation was essential but that antigen presentation within the liver was not obligatory...
October 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281499/nonuniformly-sampled-data-processing-using-lstm-networks
#6
Safa Onur Sahin, Suleyman Serdar Kozat
We investigate classification and regression for nonuniformly sampled variable length sequential data and introduce a novel long short-term memory (LSTM) architecture. In particular, we extend the classical LSTM network with additional time gates, which incorporate the time information as a nonlinear scaling factor on the conventional gates. We also provide forward-pass and backward-pass update equations for the proposed LSTM architecture. We show that our approach is superior to the classical LSTM architecture when there is correlation between time samples...
October 1, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269971/hiv-superinfection-drives-de-novo-antibody-responses-and-not-neutralization-breadth
#7
Daniel J Sheward, Jinny Marais, Valerie Bekker, Ben Murrell, Kemal Eren, Jinal N Bhiman, Molati Nonyane, Nigel Garrett, Zenda L Woodman, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim, Lynn Morris, Penny L Moore, Carolyn Williamson
Eliciting antibodies that neutralize a broad range of circulating HIV strains (broadly neutralizing antibodies [bnAbs]) represents a key priority for vaccine development. HIV superinfection (re-infection with a second strain following an established infection) has been associated with neutralization breadth, and can provide insights into how the immune system responds to sequential exposure to distinct HIV envelope glycoproteins (Env). Characterizing the neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses in four superinfected women revealed that superinfection does not boost memory nAb responses primed by the first infection or promote nAb responses to epitopes conserved in both infecting viruses...
October 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30268089/exploring-spatial-frequency-sequential-relationships-for-motor-imagery-classification-with-recurrent-neural-network
#8
Tian-Jian Luo, Chang-le Zhou, Fei Chao
BACKGROUND: Conventional methods of motor imagery brain computer interfaces (MI-BCIs) suffer from the limited number of samples and simplified features, so as to produce poor performances with spatial-frequency features and shallow classifiers. METHODS: Alternatively, this paper applies a deep recurrent neural network (RNN) with a sliding window cropping strategy (SWCS) to signal classification of MI-BCIs. The spatial-frequency features are first extracted by the filter bank common spatial pattern (FB-CSP) algorithm, and such features are cropped by the SWCS into time slices...
September 29, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30256740/pathway-mechanism-for-excitatory-and-inhibitory-control-in-working-memory
#9
Helen Barbas, Jingyi Wang, Mary Kate P Joyce, Miguel Angel Garcia-Cabezas
Humans engage in many daily activities that rely on working memory ─ the ability to hold and sequence information temporarily to accomplish a task. We focus on the process of working memory, based on circuit mechanisms for attending to relevant signals and suppressing irrelevant stimuli. We discuss that connections critically depend on the systematic variation in laminar structure across all cortical systems. Laminar structure is used to group areas into types regardless of their placement in the cortex, ranging from low type agranular areas that lack layer IV, to high type areas that have six well-delineated layers...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30245010/integration-of-parallel-opposing-memories-underlies-memory-extinction
#10
Johannes Felsenberg, Pedro F Jacob, Thomas Walker, Oliver Barnstedt, Amelia J Edmondson-Stait, Markus W Pleijzier, Nils Otto, Philipp Schlegel, Nadiya Sharifi, Emmanuel Perisse, Carlas S Smith, J Scott Lauritzen, Marta Costa, Gregory S X E Jefferis, Davi D Bock, Scott Waddell
Accurately predicting an outcome requires that animals learn supporting and conflicting evidence from sequential experience. In mammals and invertebrates, learned fear responses can be suppressed by experiencing predictive cues without punishment, a process called memory extinction. Here, we show that extinction of aversive memories in Drosophila requires specific dopaminergic neurons, which indicate that omission of punishment is remembered as a positive experience. Functional imaging revealed co-existence of intracellular calcium traces in different places in the mushroom body output neuron network for both the original aversive memory and a new appetitive extinction memory...
September 6, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229478/confidence-carryover-during-interleaved-memory-and-perception-judgments
#11
Justin Kantner, Lisa A Solinger, David Grybinas, Ian G Dobbins
Recognition memory tests typically consist of randomly intermixed studied and nonstudied items that subjects classify as old or new, often while indicating their confidence in these classifications. Under most decision theories, confidence ratings index an item's memory strength-the extent to which it elicits evidence of prior occurrence. Because the test probes are randomly ordered, these theories predict that confidence judgments should be sequentially independent: confidence on trial n should not predict confidence on n + 1...
September 18, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221376/vision-and-academic-performance-in-primary-school-children
#12
Joanne M Wood, Alex A Black, Shelley Hopkins, Sonia L J White
PURPOSE: Vision is considered important for academic performance in children; however, the evidence in this area tends to be inconsistent and inconclusive. This study explored the association between vision function and visual information processing measures and standardised academic achievement scores in Grade 3 Australian children. METHODS: Participants included 108 Grade 3 primary school children (M = 8.82 ± 0.32 years) from three state primary schools in South-East Queensland...
September 16, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218913/working-memory-training-and-perceptual-discrimination-training-impact-overlapping-and-distinct-neurocognitive-processes-evidence-from-event-related-potentials-and-transfer-of-training-gains
#13
Thomas J Covey, Janet L Shucard, David W Shucard
There is emerging evidence that working memory (WM) can potentially be enhanced via targeted training protocols. However, the differential effects of targeted training of WM vs. training of general attentional processes on distinct neurocognitive mechanisms is not well understood. In the present study, we compared adaptive n-back WM training to an adaptive visual search training task that targeted perceptual discrimination, in the absence of demands on WM. The search task was closely matched to the n-back task on difficulty and participant engagement...
September 12, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217116/developing-an-intelligent-virtual-agent-to-stratify-people-with-cognitive-complaints-a-comparison-of-human-patient-and-intelligent-virtual-agent-patient-interaction
#14
Traci Walker, Heidi Christensen, Bahman Mirheidari, Thomas Swainston, Casey Rutten, Imke Mayer, Daniel Blackburn, Markus Reuber
Previous work on interactions in the memory clinic has shown that conversation analysis can be used to differentiate neurodegenerative dementia from functional memory disorder. Based on this work, a screening system was developed that uses a computerised 'talking head' (intelligent virtual agent) and a combination of automatic speech recognition and conversation analysis-informed programming. This system can reliably differentiate patients with functional memory disorder from those with neurodegenerative dementia by analysing the way they respond to questions from either a human doctor or the intelligent virtual agent...
September 14, 2018: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215669/priority-switches-in-visual-working-memory-are-supported-by-frontal-delta-and-posterior-alpha-interactions
#15
Ingmar E J de Vries, Joram van Driel, Merve Karacaoglu, Christian N L Olivers
Visual working memory (VWM) distinguishes between representations relevant for imminent versus future perceptual goals. We investigated how the brain sequentially prioritizes visual working memory representations that serve consecutive tasks. Observers remembered two targets for a sequence of two visual search tasks, thus making one target currently relevant, and the other prospectively relevant. We show that during the retention interval prior to the first search, lateralized parieto-occipital EEG alpha (8-14 Hz) suppression is stronger for current compared with prospective search targets...
September 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30196431/general-intelligence-is-associated-with-working-memory-related-brain-activity-new-evidence-from-a-large-sample-study
#16
Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Rui Nouchi, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Kunio Iizuka, Sugiko Hanawa, Tsuyoshi Araki, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Kohei Sakaki, Yuko Sassa, Takayuki Nozawa, Shigeyuki Ikeda, Susumu Yokota, Magistro Daniele, Ryuta Kawashima
Psychometric intelligence is closely related to working memory capacity. Here we aim to determine the associations of neural activation patterns during the N-back working memory paradigm with psychometric intelligence and working memory performance. We solved the statistical problems of previous studies using (1) a large cohort of 1235 young adults and (2) robust voxel-by-voxel permutation-based statistics at the whole-brain level. Many of the significant correlations were weak, and our findings were not consistent with those of previous studies...
September 8, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193989/detrimental-effects-of-a-high-dose-alcohol-intoxication-on-sequential-cognitive-flexibility-are-attenuated-by-practice
#17
Nicolas Zink, Rui Zhang, Witold X Chmielewski, Christian Beste, Ann-Kathrin Stock
It is well-known that alcohol impairs behavioral control and motor response inhibition, but it has remained rather unclear whether it also impairs cognitive inhibition. As automatized behavior is less vulnerable towards the detrimental effects of alcohol than cognitive control processes, potential cognitive inhibition deficits might however improve with training. We investigated the effect of an acute, binge-like alcohol intoxication in a balanced within-subjects design, asking n=32 healthy young males to perform a backward inhibition paradigm once sober and once while intoxicated (~1...
September 5, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177907/cognitive-function-recovery-pattern-in-adult-patients-with-severe-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-a-longitudinal-study
#18
Zhongqin Chen, Dengchang Wu, Kang Wang, Benyan Luo
Objective: To observe the dynamic characteristics of cognitive function following early application of immunotherapy in adult patients with severe anti N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. Methods: Serial neuropsychological assessments were performed at three sequential time points in five adult patients with severe anti-NMDAR encephalitis following early-initiated immunotherapy. The three sequential points were 1-2, 6, and 11-12 months after treatment. Five normal subjects without psychological or neurological diseases were assessed as a control group...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176988/a-neural-level-model-of-spatial-memory-and-imagery
#19
Andrej Bicanski, Neil Burgess
We present a model of how neural representations of egocentric spatial experiences in parietal cortex interface with viewpoint-independent representations in medial temporal areas, via retrosplenial cortex, to enable many key aspects of spatial cognition. This account shows how previously reported neural responses (place, head-direction and grid cells, allocentric boundary- and object-vector cells, gain-field neurons) can map onto higher cognitive function in a modular way, and predicts new cell types (egocentric and head-direction-modulated boundary- and object-vector cells)...
September 4, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174425/construction-of-an-arabic-computerized-battery-for-cognitive-rehabilitation-of-children-with-specific-learning-disabilities
#20
Wafaa Ma Farghaly, Mohamed A Ahmed, Hamdy N El-Tallawy, Taha Ah Elmestikawy, Reda Badry, Mohammed Sh Farghaly, Montaser S Omar, Amr Sayed Ramadan Hussein, Mohammed Salamah, Adel T Mohammed
Purpose: The aim of this study was to design an Arabic computerized battery of cognitive skills for training children with specific learning disabilities (SLD). Subjects and methods: Nineteen students from fourth grade primary schools in Assiut, Egypt, who were previously diagnosed with SLD, agreed to participate in the rehabilitation program. The study passed through four stages: first stage, detailed analysis of the cognitive profile of students with SLD (n=19), using a previously constructed diagnostic cognitive skill battery, to identify deficits in their cognitive skills; second stage, construction of an Arabic computerized battery for cognitive training of students with SLD; third stage, implementation of the constructed training program for the students, each tailored according to his/her previously diagnosed cognitive skill deficit/deficits; and fourth stage, post-training re-evaluation of academic achievement and cognitive skills' performance...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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