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Microbiome and immunology

Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Wojciech Marlicz, Agata Misera, Anastasios Koulaouzidis, Igor Łoniewski
The central nervous system (CNS) and the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract communicate through the gut-brain axis (GBA). Such communication is bi-directional and involves neuronal, endocrine, and immunological mechanisms. There is mounting data that gut microbiota is the source of a number of neuroactive and immunocompetent substances, which shape the structure and function of brain regions involved in the control of emotions, cognition, and physical activity. Most GI diseases are associated with altered transmission within the GBA that are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Erika von Mutius
The early life formation of the immunological and microbial environment of the human lower airways remains unknown. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Pattaroni et al. (2018) shed light on this critical period, which is important for maturation or dysregulation of the microbiome and immune responses and disease development.
December 12, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
José E Belizário, Joel Faintuch
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the residence of trillions of microorganisms that include bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. The collective genomes of whole microbial communities (microbiota) integrate the gut microbiome. Up to 100 genera and 1000 distinct bacterial species were identified in digestive tube niches. Gut microbiomes exert permanent pivotal functions by promoting food digestion, xenobiotic metabolism and regulation of innate and adaptive immunological processes. Proteins, peptides and metabolites released locally and at distant sites trigger many cell signalling and pathways...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Simone Rampelli, Kathrin Guenther, Silvia Turroni, Maike Wolters, Toomas Veidebaum, Yiannis Kourides, Dénes Molnár, Lauren Lissner, Alfonso Benitez-Paez, Yolanda Sanz, Arno Fraterman, Nathalie Michels, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela, Wolfgang Ahrens
It is widely accepted that the intestinal microbiome is connected to obesity, as key mediator of the diet impact on the host metabolic and immunological status. To investigate whether the individual gut microbiome has a potential in predicting the onset and progression of diseases, here we characterized the faecal microbiota of 70 children in a two-time point prospective study, within a four-year window. All children had normal weight at the beginning of this study, but 36 of them gained excessive weight at the subsequent check-up...
2018: Communications biology
John M Carethers
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent and second deadliest cancer in the U.S. with 140,250 cases and 50,630 deaths for 2018. Prevention of CRC through screening is effective. Among categorized races in the U.S., African Americans (AAs) show the highest incidence and death rates per 100,000 when compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), American Indian/Alaskan Natives, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders, with an overall AA:NHW ratio of 1.13 for incidence and 1.32 for mortality (2010-2014, seer...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
S König, K May
In dairy cattle, resistance, tolerance and resilience refer to the adaptation ability to a broad range of environmental conditions, implying stable performances (e.g. production level, fertility status) independent from disease or infection pressure. All three mechanisms resistance, tolerance and resilience contribute to overall robustness, implying the evaluation of phenotyping and breeding strategies for improved robustness in dairy cattle populations. Classically, breeding approaches on improved robustness rely on simple production traits, in combination with detailed environmental descriptors and enhanced statistical modelling to infer possible genotype by environment interactions...
December 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Hiroki Kiyohara, Tomohisa Sujino, Toshiaki Teratani, Kentaro Miyamoto, Mari Mochizuki Arai, Ena Nomura, Yosuke Harada, Ryo Aoki, Yuzo Koda, Yohei Mikami, Shinta Mizuno, Makoto Naganuma, Tadakazu Hisamatsu, Takanori Kanai
Background & Aims: Psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are both chronic inflammatory diseases occurring in the skin and gut, respectively. It is well established that psoriasis and IBD have high concordance rates, and similar changes in immune cells and microbiome composition have been reported in both conditions. To study this connection, we used a combination murine model of psoriatic dermatitis and colitis in which mice were treated topically with the Toll-like receptor 7 agonist imiquimod (IMQ) and fed dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)...
2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Amy Flaxman, Yuko Yamaguchi, Pauline M van Diemen, Christine Rollier, Elizabeth Allen, Elizaveta Elshina, David H Wyllie
INTRODUCTION: S. aureus is a pathogen to which individuals are exposed shortly after birth, with immune responses to S. aureus increasing during childhood. There is marked heterogeneity between the anti- S. aureus immune responses of different humans, the basis of which is not fully understood. METHODS: To investigate development of anti-S. aureus immune responses, we studied S. aureus colonised mice under controlled conditions. Mice were either acquired colonised from breeding colonies, or experimentally colonised by exposure to a cage environment which had been sprayed with a S...
November 28, 2018: Vaccine
Narges Dargahi, Joshua Johnson, Osaana Donkor, Todor Vasiljevic, Vasso Apostolopoulos
As a person ages, physiological, immunological and gut microbiome changes collectively result in an array of chronic conditions. According to the 'hygiene hypothesis' the increasing prevalence of immune-mediated disorders may be related to intestinal dysbiosis, leading to immune dysfunction and associated conditions such as eczema, asthma, allergies and autoimmune diseases. Beneficial probiotic bacteria can be utilized by increasing their abundance within the gastrointestinal lumen, which in turn will modulate immune cells, such as, T helper (Th)-1, Th2, Th17, regulatory T (Treg) cells and B cells, which have direct relevance to human health and the pathogenesis of immune disorders...
January 2019: Maturitas
L Kolátorová, O Lapčík, L Stárka
The microflora of the digestive tract is composed of a unique set of bacteria, yeasts, viruses and other microorganisms, generally known as the microbiome. The microbiome exhibits considerable inter-individual variability, with up to two-thirds of the microflora differing between individuals. Because of this, the variable intestinal microflora is responsible for many differences in metabolic, hormonal and immunological processes in humans and animals. Significant differences have been observed in the metabolism of phytoestrogens, naturally occurring substances that possess estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity...
November 28, 2018: Physiological Research
Maureen Cowan, William A Petri
Microglia, the tissue-resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), have characterized roles in combating infection, clearing cellular debris, and maintaining tissue homeostasis. In addition to these typical immunological roles, microglia have been revealed to be active players in complex neurodevelopmental programs such as neurogenesis and synaptic pruning, during which they interact with neurons and macroglia to provide trophic support, respond to cytokine, and metabolic signals derived from the local neural environment, and drive the refinement of functional neuronal circuits...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Dominik Langgartner, Carolyn A Vaihinger, Melanie Haffner-Luntzer, Julia F Kunze, Anna-Lena J Weiss, Sandra Foertsch, Stephanie Bergdolt, Anita Ignatius, Stefan O Reber
Chronic psychosocial stress is a risk factor for the development of physical and mental disorders accompanied or driven by an activated immune system. Given that chronic stress-induced systemic immune activation is lacking in germ-free and antibiotics-treated mice, a causal role of the gut microbiome in the development of stress-related disorders is likely. To address this hypothesis in the current study we employed the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC, 19 days) paradigm, a pre-clinically validated mouse model for chronic psychosocial stress, known to alter the gut microbial signature and to induce systemic low-grade inflammation, as well as physical and mental abnormalities...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Tuang Yeow Poh, Nur A'tikah Binte Mohamed Ali, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Mustafa Hussain Kathawala, Magdiel Inggrid Setyawati, Kee Woei Ng, Sanjay Haresh Chotirmall
Our development and usage of engineered nanomaterials has grown exponentially despite concerns about their unfavourable cardiorespiratory consequence, one that parallels ambient ultrafine particle exposure from vehicle emissions. Most research in the field has so far focused on airway inflammation in response to nanoparticle inhalation, however, little is known about nanoparticle-microbiome interaction in the human airway and the environment. Emerging evidence illustrates that the airway, even in its healthy state, is not sterile...
November 20, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Elena Minakova, Barbara B Warner
Maternal immune activation (MIA) refers to a maternal immune system triggered by infectious or infectious-like stimuli. A cascade of cytokines and immunologic alterations are transmitted to the fetus, resulting in adverse phenotypes most notably in the central nervous system. Epidemiologic studies implicate maternal infections in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. In animal models, MIA causes neurochemical and anatomic changes in the brain that correspond to those found in humans with the disorders...
November 14, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Qiyun Zhu, Christopher L Dupont, Marcus B Jones, Kevin M Pham, Zhi-Dong Jiang, Herbert L DuPont, Sarah K Highlander
BACKGROUND: Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is often caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, other bacterial pathogens, Norovirus, and occasionally parasites. Nevertheless, standard diagnostic methods fail to identify pathogens in more than 40% of TD patients. It is predicted that new pathogens may be causative agents of the disease. RESULTS: We performed a comprehensive amplicon and whole genome shotgun (WGS) metagenomic study of the fecal microbiomes from 23 TD patients and seven healthy travelers, all of which were negative for the known etiologic agents of TD based on standard microbiological and immunological assays...
November 8, 2018: Microbiome
Marina Sirota, Cristel G Thomas, Rebecca Liu, Maya Zuhl, Payal Banerjee, Ronald J Wong, Cecele C Quaintance, Rite Leite, Jessica Chubiz, Rebecca Anderson, Joanne Chappell, Mara Kim, William Grobman, Ge Zhang, Antonis Rokas, Sarah K England, Samuel Parry, Gary M Shaw, Joe Leigh Simpson, Elizabeth Thomson, Atul J Butte
Preterm birth, or the delivery of an infant prior to 37 weeks of gestation, is a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality. In the last decade, the advent and continued development of molecular profiling technologies has enabled researchers to generate vast amount of 'omics' data, which together with integrative computational approaches, can help refine the current knowledge about disease mechanisms, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Here we describe the March of Dimes' Database for Preterm Birth Research (http://www...
November 6, 2018: Scientific Data
Mindy S Christianson, José Bellver
Innovations in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have driven progress in the donor egg field since the birth of the first baby derived from a donor egg in 1983. Over time, donor oocytes have become an increasingly used option for patients unable to conceive with autologous oocytes. In donor egg, the unique separation of the oocyte source and recipient uterus has created a model that has propelled advances in ART. Progressive ART innovations that have optimized the oocyte donor and resulting embryo include the following: evaluation of ovarian reserve, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation regimens that reduce the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, blastocyst culture, oocyte cryopreservation, and preimplantation genetic testing...
November 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Stefan M Gold, Anne Willing, Frank Leypoldt, Friedemann Paul, Manuel A Friese
Stronger adaptive immune responses in females can be observed in different mammals, resulting in better control of infections compared to males. However, this presumably evolutionary difference likely also drives higher incidence of autoimmune diseases observed in humans. Here, we summarize sex differences in the most common autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and discuss recent advances in the understanding of possible underlying immunological and CNS intrinsic mechanisms. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common inflammatory disease of the CNS, but also in rarer conditions, such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or neuronal autoantibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis (AE), sex is one of the top risk factors, with women being more often affected than men...
October 25, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Luis Vitetta, Gemma Vitetta, Sean Hall
Post-birth there is a bacterial assault on all mucosal surfaces. The intestinal microbiome is an important participant in health and disease. The pattern of composition and concentration of the intestinal microbiome varies greatly. Therefore, achieving immunological tolerance in the first 3-4 years of life is critical for maintaining health throughout a lifetime. Probiotic bacteria are organisms that afford beneficial health effects to the host and in certain instances may protect against the development of disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Preethi Balan, Yap Seng Chong, Shivshankar Umashankar, Sanjay Swarup, Wong Mun Loke, Violeta Lopez, Hong Gu He, Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne
It is well known that pregnancy is under the constant influence of hormonal, metabolic and immunological factors and this may impact the oral microbiota toward pregnancy gingivitis. However, it is still not clear how the oral microbial dysbiosis can modulate oral diseases as oral microbiome during pregnancy is very poorly characterized. In addition, the recent revelation that placental microbiome is akin to oral microbiome further potentiates the importance of oral dysbiosis in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hence, leveraging on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology, we present a snapshot of the variations in the oral microbial composition with the progression of pregnancy and in the postpartum period and its association with pregnancy gingivitis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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