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Microbiome and immunology

Sajad Moshkelgosha, Giulia Masetti, Utta Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Hedda Luise Verhasselt, Mareike Horstmann, Salvador Diaz-Cano, Alistair Noble, Barbel Edelman, Danila Covelli, Sue Plummer, Julian R Marchesi, Marian Ludgate, Filippo Biscarini, Anja Eckstein, J Paul Banga
Experimental models of hyperthyroid Graves' disease (GD) and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) are efficiently developed by genetic immunisation by electroporation with human thyrotropin hormone receptor (hTSHR) A-subunit plasmid in female BALB/c (H-2d) mice. We investigated susceptibility in C57BL/6 J (H-2b) animals to allow studies on disease mechanisms in transgenic and immune response gene knock-out mice. Higher numbers of female C57BL/6 J were positive for pathogenic thyroid stimulating antibodies, but induced hyperthyroidism remained at a low frequency compared to BALB/c animals...
August 14, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Gabrielle L Davidson, Amy C Cooke, Crystal N Johnson, John L Quinn
Research into proximate and ultimate mechanisms of individual cognitive variation in animal populations is a rapidly growing field that incorporates physiological, behavioural and evolutionary investigations. Recent studies in humans and laboratory animals have shown that the enteric microbial community plays a central role in brain function and development. The 'gut-brain axis' represents a multi-directional signalling system that encompasses neurological, immunological and hormonal pathways. In particular it is tightly linked with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), a system that regulates stress hormone release and influences brain development and function...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Valentina Di Caro, Jessica L Cummings, Alicia M Alcamo, Jon D Piganelli, Robert S B Clark, Michael J Morowitz, Rajesh K Aneja
The role of dietary fiber in chronic inflammatory disorders has been explored, but very little is known about its benefits in acute inflammation. Previously, we have demonstrated that dietary cellulose supplementation confers protection in a murine model of sepsis by promoting the growth of the gut microbiota that are linked to metabolic health. The survival benefit is associated with a decrease in serum concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduced neutrophil infiltration in the lungs, and diminished hepatic inflammation...
May 8, 2018: Shock
Emilie H Regner, Neha Ohri, Andrew Stahly, Mark E Gerich, Blair P Fennimore, Diana Ir, Widian K Jubair, Carsten Görg, Janet Siebert, Charles E Robertson, Liron Caplan, Daniel N Frank, Kristine A Kuhn
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis occurs in spondyloarthritis (SpA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is subdivided into Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The immunologic consequences of alterations in microbiota, however, have not been defined. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are T cells within the intestinal epithelium that are in close contact with bacteria and are likely to be modulated by changes in microbiota. We examined differences in human gut-associated bacteria and tested correlation with functional changes in IELs in patients with axial SpA (axSpA), CD, or UC, and in controls...
July 20, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Daniel Borda-Molina, Jana Seifert, Amélia Camarinha-Silva
The microbial communities inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of chickens are essential for the gut homeostasis, the host metabolism and affect the animals' physiology and health. They play an important role in nutrient digestion, pathogen inhibition and interact with the gut-associated immune system. Throughout the last years high-throughput sequencing technologies have been used to analyze the bacterial communities that colonize the different sections of chickens' gut. The most common methodologies are targeted amplicon sequencing followed by metagenome shotgun sequencing as well as metaproteomics aiming at a broad range of topics such as dietary effects, animal diseases, bird performance and host genetics...
2018: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Charles N Bernstein, Jessica D Forbes
Background: Since the description of the normal human gut microbiome in healthy individuals using broad-range polymerase chain reaction, there has been great advancement in the techniques used to conduct microbiome research and applications of this research across health, gastrointestinal diseases, and nongastrointestinal diseases. Summary and Key Messages: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), studies have reported gut dysbiosis meaning that the microbial composition, diversity, and richness are altered...
November 2017: Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases
Jose Oteros, Elke Bartusel, Francesca Alessandrini, Andrés Núñez, Diego Alejandro Moreno, Heidrun Behrendt, Carsten Schmidt-Weber, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Jeroen Buters
BACKGROUND: Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) released from Gram-negative bacteria causes strong immunologic and inflammatory effects and when airborne may contribute to respiratory conditions such as allergic asthma. OBJECTIVES: To identify the source of airborne endotoxin and the effect of this endotoxin on allergic sensitization. METHODS: We determined LPS in outdoor air on a daily basis for 4 consecutive years in Munich (Germany) and Davos (Switzerland)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jamie Lorimer
Historians of science have identified an ecological turn underway in immunology, driven by the mapping of the human microbiome and wider environmentalist anxieties. A figure is emerging of the human as a holobiont, composed of microbes and threatened by both microbial excess and microbial absence. Antimicrobial approaches to germ warfare are being supplemented by probiotic approaches to restoring microbial life. This article examines the political ecology of this probiotic turn in Western health care. It focuses on Necator americanus-a species of human hookworm-and its relations with immunologists...
July 13, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
Pranab K Mukherjee, Jyotsna Chandra, Mauricio Retuerto, Curtis Tatsuoka, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: The effect of smoking on microbial dysbiosis and the potential consequence of such shift on markers of HIV disease is unknown. Here we assessed the relationship of microbial dysbiosis with smoking and markers of HIV disease. METHODS: Oral wash was collected from: (1) HIV-infected smokers (HIV-SM, n = 48), (2) HIV-infected non-smokers (HIV-NS, n = 24), or (3) HIV-uninfected smokers (UI-SM, n = 24). Microbial DNA was extracted and their bacterial and fungal microbiota (bacteriome and mycobiome, respectively) were characterized using Ion-Torrent sequencing platform...
2018: PloS One
Eline Haspeslagh, Ines Heyndrickx, Hamida Hammad, Bart N Lambrecht
The hygiene hypothesis was initially proposed as an explanation for the alarming rise in allergy prevalence in the last century. The immunological idea behind this hypothesis was a lack of infections associated with a Western lifestyle and a consequential reduction in type 1 immune responses. It is now understood that the development of tolerance to allergens depends on microbial colonization and immunostimulatory environmental signals during early-life or passed on by the mother. These environmental cues are sensed and integrated by barrier epithelial cells of the lungs and possibly skin, which in turn instruct dendritic cells to regulate or impede adaptive T cell responses...
July 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Kazumichi Abe, Atsushi Takahashi, Masashi Fujita, Hiromichi Imaizumi, Manabu Hayashi, Ken Okai, Hiromasa Ohira
The gut microbiota has recently been recognized to play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune liver disease (AILD), mainly primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). This study aimed to analyze and compare the composition of the oral microbiota of 56 patients with AILD and 15 healthy controls (HCs) and to evaluate its association with salivary immunological biomarkers and gut microbiota. The subjects included 39 patients with PBC and 17 patients with AIH diagnosed at our hospital. The control population comprised 15 matched HCs...
2018: PloS One
Marlies Elderman, Floor Hugenholtz, Clara Belzer, Mark Boekschoten, Bart de Haan, Paul de Vos, Marijke Faas
Hormones and placental factors are thought to underlie the maternal immunological changes during pregnancy. However, as several intestinal microbiota are linked to immune modulations, we hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota are altered during pregnancy in favor of species associated with pregnancy associated immune modulations. We studied the fecal microbiota composition (MITchip) and intestinal and peripheral immune cells (microarray and flow cytometry) in pregnant and non-pregnant C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice...
July 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexander J Adami, Sonali J Bracken, Linda A Guernsey, Ektor Rafti, Kendra R Maas, Joerg Graf, Adam P Matson, Roger S Thrall, Craig M Schramm
INTRODUCTION: Early-life exposure to antibiotics (ABX) has been linked to increases in asthma severity and prevalence in both children and laboratory animals. We explored the immunologic mechanisms behind this association using a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma and early-life ABX exposure. METHODS: Mice were exposed to three short courses of ABX following weaning and experimental asthma was thereafter induced. Airway cell counts and differentials; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE); pulmonary function; lung histopathology; pulmonary regulatory T cells (Tregs); and the fecal microbiome were characterized following ABX exposure and induction of experimental asthma...
July 2, 2018: Pediatric Research
María Callejo, Gema Mondejar-Parreño, Bianca Barreira, José L Izquierdo-Garcia, Daniel Morales-Cano, Sergio Esquivel-Ruiz, Laura Moreno, Ángel Cogolludo, Juan Duarte, Francisco Perez-Vizcaino
We have analysed whether pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) alters the rat faecal microbiota. Wistar rats were injected with the VEGF receptor antagonist SU5416 (20 mg/kg s.c.) and followed for 2 weeks kept in hypoxia (10% O2 , PAH) or injected with vehicle and kept in normoxia (controls). Faecal samples were obtained and microbiome composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. No effect of PAH on the global microbiome was found (α- or β-diversity). However, PAH-exposed rats showed gut dysbiosis as indicated by a taxonomy-based analysis...
June 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vanessa C Harris
Despite unprecedented advances in understanding the intestinal microbiome, its potential to improve fields such as vaccinology has yet to be realized. This review briefly outlines the immunologic potential of the intestinal microbiome for vaccinology and highlights areas where the microbiome holds specific promise in vaccinology. Oral rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in low-income countries is used as a case study to describe how the intestinal microbiome may be employed to improve a vaccine's immunogenicity...
June 26, 2018: Drugs
Marlies Elderman, Floor Hugenholtz, Clara Belzer, Mark Boekschoten, Adriaan van Beek, Bart de Haan, Huub Savelkoul, Paul de Vos, Marijke Faas
BACKGROUND: A dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiome plays a role in the pathogenesis of several immunological diseases. These diseases often show a sex bias, suggesting sex differences in immune responses and in the intestinal microbiome. We hypothesized that sex differences in immune responses are associated with sex differences in microbiota composition. METHODS: Fecal microbiota composition (MITchip), mRNA expression in intestinal tissue (microarray), and immune cell populations in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were studied in male and female mice of two mouse strains (C57B1/6OlaHsd and Balb/cOlaHsd)...
June 18, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Valentina Caputi, Maria Cecilia Giron
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressively debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by α-synucleinopathy, which involves all districts of the brain-gut axis, including the central, autonomic and enteric nervous systems. The highly bidirectional communication between the brain and the gut is markedly influenced by the microbiome through integrated immunological, neuroendocrine and neurological processes. The gut microbiota and its relevant metabolites interact with the host via a series of biochemical and functional inputs, thereby affecting host homeostasis and health...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jun Wang, Alexander Kurilshikov, Djawad Radjabzadeh, Williams Turpin, Kenneth Croitoru, Marc Jan Bonder, Matthew A Jackson, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Fabian Frost, Georg Homuth, Malte Rühlemann, David Hughes, Han-Na Kim, Tim D Spector, Jordana T Bell, Claire J Steves, Nicolas Timpson, Andre Franke, Cisca Wijmenga, Katie Meyer, Tim Kacprowski, Lude Franke, Andrew D Paterson, Jeroen Raes, Robert Kraaij, Alexandra Zhernakova
BACKGROUND: In recent years, human microbiota, especially gut microbiota, have emerged as an important yet complex trait influencing human metabolism, immunology, and diseases. Many studies are investigating the forces underlying the observed variation, including the human genetic variants that shape human microbiota. Several preliminary genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been completed, but more are necessary to achieve a fuller picture. RESULTS: Here, we announce the MiBioGen consortium initiative, which has assembled 18 population-level cohorts and some 19,000 participants...
June 8, 2018: Microbiome
David N O'Dwyer, Xiaofeng Zhou, Carol A Wilke, Meng Xia, Nicole R Falkowski, Katy C Norman, Kelly B Arnold, Gary B Huffnagle, Susan Murray, John R Erb-Downward, Gregory A Yanik, Beth B Moore, Robert P Dickson
RATIONALE: Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a common treatment for hematological neoplasms and autoimmune disorders. Among HCT recipients, pulmonary complications are common, morbid, and/or lethal, and have recently been associated with gut dysbiosis. The role of lung microbiota in post-HCT pulmonary complications is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of lung microbiota in post-HCT pulmonary complications using animal modeling and human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Keehoon Lee, Steven D Pletcher, Susan V Lynch, Andrew N Goldberg, Emily K Cope
Recent studies leveraging next-generation sequencing and functional approaches to understand the human microbiota have demonstrated the presence of diverse, niche-specific microbial communities at nearly every mucosal surface. These microbes contribute to the development and function of physiologic and immunological features that are key to host health status. Not surprisingly, several chronic inflammatory diseases have been attributed to dysbiosis of microbiota composition or function, including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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