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Microbiome and immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324425/investigating-the-aetiology-of-adverse-events-following-hpv-vaccination-with-systems-vaccinology
#1
REVIEW
Joan Campbell-Tofte, Aristidis Vrahatis, Knud Josefsen, Jesper Mehlsen, Kaj Winther
In contrast to the insidious and poorly immunogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, vaccination with the HPV virus-like particles (vlps) is non-infectious and stimulates a strong neutralizing-antibody response that protects HPV-naïve vaccinees from viral infection and associated cancers. However, controversy about alleged adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with the vlps have led to extensive reductions in vaccine acceptance, with countries like Japan dropping it altogether. The AEFIs are grouped into chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)...
October 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301469/profiling-the-airway-in-the-macaque-model-of-tuberculosis-reveals-variable-microbial-dysbiosis-and-alteration-of-community-structure
#2
Anthony M Cadena, Yixuan Ma, Tao Ding, MacKenzie Bryant, Pauline Maiello, Adam Geber, Philana Ling Lin, JoAnne L Flynn, Elodie Ghedin
BACKGROUND: The specific interactions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), and the lung microbiota in infection are entirely unexplored. Studies in cancer and other infectious diseases suggest that there are important exchanges occurring between host and microbiota that influence the immunological landscape. This can result in alterations in immune regulation and inflammation both locally and systemically. To assess whether Mtb infection modifies the lung microbiome, and identify changes in microbial abundance and diversity as a function of pulmonary inflammation, we compared infected and uninfected lung lobe washes collected serially from 26 macaques by bronchoalveolar lavage over the course of infection...
October 9, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294508/transkingdom-network-reveals-bacterial-players-associated-with-cervical-cancer-gene-expression-program
#3
Khiem Chi Lam, Dariia Vyshenska, Jialu Hu, Richard Rosario Rodrigues, Anja Nilsen, Ryszard A Zielke, Nicholas Samuel Brown, Eva-Katrine Aarnes, Aleksandra E Sikora, Natalia Shulzhenko, Heidi Lyng, Andrey Morgun
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide with human papillomavirus (HPV) being the main cause the disease. Chromosomal amplifications have been identified as a source of upregulation for cervical cancer driver genes but cannot fully explain increased expression of immune genes in invasive carcinoma. Insight into additional factors that may tip the balance from immune tolerance of HPV to the elimination of the virus may lead to better diagnosis markers. We investigated whether microbiota affect molecular pathways in cervical carcinogenesis by performing microbiome analysis via sequencing 16S rRNA in tumor biopsies from 121 patients...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30290791/the-palatine-tonsil-bacteriome-but-not-the-mycobiome-is-altered-in-hiv-infection
#4
Yuto Fukui, Kotaro Aoki, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kazuhiro Tateda
BACKGROUND: Microbial flora in several organs of HIV-infected individuals have been characterized; however, the palatine tonsil bacteriome and mycobiome and their relationship with each other remain unclear. Determining the palatine tonsil microbiome may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of oral and systemic complications in HIV-infected individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study to characterize the palatine tonsil microbiome in HIV-infected individuals. RESULTS: Palatine tonsillar swabs were collected from 46 HIV-infected and 20 HIV-uninfected individuals...
October 5, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30283047/the-contribution-of-the-gut-microbiome-to-neurodevelopment-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Barbara B Warner
Bidirectional communication between the gut and brain is well recognized, with data now accruing for a specific role of the gut microbiota in that link, referred to as the microbiome-gut-brain axis. This review will discuss the emerging role of the gut microbiota in brain development and behavior. Animal studies have clearly demonstrated effects of the gut microbiota on gene expression and neurochemical metabolism impacting behavior and performance. Based on these changes, a modulating role of the gut microbiota has been demonstrated for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and movement including Parkinson's, and importantly for the pediatric population autism...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267029/the-effect-of-early-life-environmental-exposures-on-disease-phenotype-and-clinical-course-of-crohn-s-disease-in-children
#6
Livia Lindoso, Kajari Mondal, Suresh Venkateswaran, Hari K Somineni, Cortney Ballengee, Thomas D Walters, Anne Griffiths, Joshua D Noe, Wallace Crandall, Scott Snapper, Shervin Rabizadeh, Joel R Rosh, Neal LeLeiko, Stephen Guthery, David Mack, Richard Kellermayer, Ajay S Gulati, Marian D Pfefferkorn, Dedrick E Moulton, David Keljo, Stanley Cohen, Maria Oliva-Hemker, Melvin B Heyman, Anthony Otley, Susan S Baker, Jonathan S Evans, Barbara S Kirschner, Ashish S Patel, David Ziring, Michael C Stephens, Robert Baldassano, Marla C Dubinsky, James Markowitz, Lee A Denson, Jeffrey Hyams, Subra Kugathasan, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
OBJECTIVES: Environmental factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of Crohn's Disease (CD). In particular, by virtue of the instability of the microbiome and development of immunologic tolerance, early life factors may exert the strongest influence on disease risk and phenotype. METHODS: We used data from 1119 CD subjects recruited from RISK inception cohort to examine the impact of early life environment on disease progression. Our primary exposures of interest were breastfeeding in infancy and exposure to maternal, active, or passive smoke...
September 28, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263058/moving-on-from-metchnikoff-thinking-about-microbiome-therapeutics-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Saman Maleki Vareki, Ryan M Chanyi, Kamilah Abdur-Rashid, Liam Brennan, Jeremy P Burton
Precision medicine now needs to also consider the microbiome in oncology treatment. Ingested substances, whether they are a carcinogenic or therapeutic agent, will likely come into contact with the microbiota. Even those delivered extra-intestinally can be influenced beyond xenobiotic metabolism by biochemical factors associated with the microbiota or by an immunological predisposition created by the microbiome. We need to undertake one of the largest paradigm shifts to ever occur in medicine, that is, every drug or ingested substance needs to be re-evaluated for its pharmacological effect post-microbiome interaction...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263057/lung-cancer-a-new-frontier-for-microbiome-research-and-clinical-translation
#8
REVIEW
Luis Aj Mur, Sharon A Huws, Simon Js Cameron, Paul D Lewis, Keir E Lewis
The lung microbiome has been shown to reflect a range of pulmonary diseases-for example: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis. Studies have now begun to show microbiological changes in the lung that correlate with lung cancer (LC) which could provide new insights into lung carcinogenesis and new biomarkers for disease screening. Clinical studies have suggested that infections with tuberculosis or pneumonia increased the risk of LC possibly through inflammatory or immunological changes...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247675/possibilities-of-early-life-programming-in-broiler-chickens-via-intestinal-microbiota-modulation
#9
Luis A Rubio
The strong selection in search for a higher growth rate in broilers has resulted in adverse effects such as metabolic disorders, low responsiveness of the immune system, and decreased resistance to pathogens. On the other hand, newly hatched chicks rely mostly on innate immune responses until their gut gets colonized with microbiota. In consequence, early access to active substances or bacteria (pre- and post-hatch) is particularly relevant here because in broilers much of the immune system development occurs early in life...
September 22, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240703/trans-maternal-helicobacter-pylori-exposure-reduces-allergic-airway-inflammation-in-offspring-through-regulatory-t-cells
#10
Andreas Kyburz, Angela Fallegger, Xiaozhou Zhang, Aleksandra Altobelli, Mariela Artola-Boran, Timothy Borbet, Sabine Urban, Petra Paul, Christian Münz, Stefan Floess, Jochen Huehn, Timothy L Cover, Martin J Blaser, Christian Taube, Anne Müller
BACKGROUND: The trans-maternal exposure to tobacco, microbes, nutrients and other environmental factors shapes the fetal immune system through epigenetic processes. The gastric microbe Helicobacter pylori represents an ancestral constituent of the human microbiota that causes gastric disorders on the one hand, and is inversely associated with allergies and chronic inflammatory conditions on the other. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigate the consequences of trans-maternal exposure to H...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240602/cvid-enteropathy-is-characterized-by-exceeding-low-mucosal-iga-levels-and-interferon-driven-inflammation-possibly-related-to-the-presence-of-a-pathobiont
#11
Natalia Shulzhenko, Xiaoxi Dong, Dariia Vyshenska, Renee L Greer, Manoj Gurung, Stephany Vasquez-Perez, Ekaterina Peremyslova, Stanislav Sosnovtsev, Martha Quezado, Michael Yao, Kim Montgomery-Recht, Warren Strober, Ivan J Fuss, Andrey Morgun
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most common symptomatic primary antibody deficiency, is accompanied in some patients by a duodenal inflammation and malabsorption syndrome known as CVID enteropathy (E-CVID).The goal of this study was to investigate the immunological abnormalities in CVID patients that lead to enteropathy as well as the contribution of intestinal microbiota to this process.We found that, in contrast to noE-CVID patients (without enteropathy), E-CVID patients have exceedingly low levels of IgA in duodenal tissues...
September 19, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239655/the-human-mesenteric-lymph-node-microbiome-differentiates-between-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis
#12
Miranda G Kiernan, J Calvin Coffey, Kieran McDermott, Paul D Cotter, Raul Cabrera-Rubio, Patrick A Kiely, Colum P Dunne
Background and Aims: Mesenteric lymph nodes are sites in which translocated bacteria incite and progress immunological responses. For this reason, understanding the microbiome of mesenteric lymph nodes in inflammatory bowel disease is important. The bacterial profile of Crohn's disease mesenteric lymph nodes has been analysed using culture-independent methods in only one previous study. This study aimed to investigate the mesenteric lymph node microbiota from both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234008/the-complex-puzzle-of-interactions-among-functional-food-gut-microbiota-and-colorectal-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Lígia A B M Mendonça, Rosângela Dos Santos Ferreira, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Alinne P de Castro, Octávio L Franco, Rosemary Matias, Cristiano M E Carvalho
Colorectal cancer exerts a strong influence on the epidemiological panorama worldwide, and it is directly correlated to etiologic factors that are substantiated by genetic and environmental elements. This complex mixture of factors also has a relationship involving the structural dependence and composition of the gut microbiome, leading to a dysbacteriosis process that may evolve to serious modifications in the intestinal lining, eventually causing the development of a neoplasm. The gastrointestinal tract presents defense strategies and immunological properties that interfere in intestinal permeability, inhibiting the bacterial translocation, thus maintaining the integrity of intestinal homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233586/emerging-developments-in-microbiome-and-microglia-research-implications-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Yeonwoo Lebovitz, Veronica M Ringel-Scaia, Irving C Allen, Michelle H Theus
From immunology to neuroscience, interactions between the microbiome and host are increasingly appreciated as potent drivers of health and disease. Epidemiological studies previously identified compelling correlations between perinatal microbiome insults and neurobehavioral outcomes, the mechanistic details of which are just beginning to take shape thanks to germ-free and antibiotics-based animal models. This review summarizes parallel developments from clinical and preclinical research that suggest neuroactive roles for gut bacteria and their metabolites...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211213/metagenomic-approaches-for-understanding-new-concepts-in-microbial-science
#15
REVIEW
Luana de Fátima Alves, Cauã Antunes Westmann, Gabriel Lencioni Lovate, Guilherme Marcelino Viana de Siqueira, Tiago Cabral Borelli, María-Eugenia Guazzaroni
Over the past thirty years, since the dawn of metagenomic studies, a completely new (micro) universe was revealed, with the potential to have profound impacts on many aspects of the society. Remarkably, the study of human microbiome provided a new perspective on a myriad of human traits previously regarded as solely (epi-) genetically encoded, such as disease susceptibility, immunological response, and social and nutritional behaviors. In this context, metagenomics has established a powerful framework for understanding the intricate connections between human societies and microbial communities, ultimately allowing for the optimization of both human health and productivity...
2018: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191183/pulmonary-epithelial-barrier-and-immunological-functions-at-birth-and-in-early-life-key-determinants-of-the-development-of-asthma-a-description-of-the-protocol-for-the-breathing-together-study
#16
Steve Turner, Adnan Custovic, Peter Ghazal, Jonathan Grigg, Mindy Gore, John Henderson, Clare M Lloyd, Ben Marsland, Ultan F Power, Graham Roberts, Sejal Saglani, Jurgen Schwarze, Michael Shields, Andrew Bush
Background.   Childhood asthma is a common complex condition whose aetiology is thought to involve gene-environment interactions in early life occurring at the airway epithelium, associated with immune dysmaturation.  It is not clear if abnormal airway epithelium cell (AEC) and cellular immune system functions associated with asthma are primary or secondary.  To explore this, we will (i) recruit a birth cohort and observe the evolution of respiratory symptoms; (ii) recruit children with and without asthma symptoms; and (iii) use existing data from children in established STELAR birth cohorts...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184549/immunological-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-potential-target-for-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Josemar Marchezan, Eduardo Geyer Arrussul Winkler Dos Santos, Iohanna Deckmann, Rudimar Dos Santos Riesgo
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown etiology and currently few effective therapies. Immune system alterations have being demonstrated in ASD, both in humans and via animal models; immune imbalance thus arises as a possible pathway for drug intervention. In this review, the studies were classified into 2 major groups: (1) clinical research whose authors classify therapies with primary anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions, making use of: sulforaphane, celecoxib, lenalidomide, pentoxifylline, spironolactone, flavonoid luteolin, corticosteroids, oral immunoglobulin, intravenous immunoglobulin, cell therapy, dialyzable lymphocyte extracts, minocycline, and pioglitazone; and (2) other ASD therapies already used or currently under study whose initial characteristics were neither anti-inflammatory nor immunomodulatory initially, but displayed a capacity for immunomodulation throughout the treatment: risperidone, vitamin D, omega-3, Ginkgo biloba, L-carnosine, N-acetylcysteine, and microbiome restoration...
September 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165069/the-hygiene-hypothesis-at-a-glance-early-exposures-immune-mechanism-and-novel-therapies
#18
REVIEW
Gabriel M Alexandre-Silva, Pablo A Brito-Souza, Ana C S Oliveira, Felipe A Cerni, Umberto Zottich, Manuela B Pucca
The hygiene hypothesis was proposed almost three decades ago. Nevertheless, its mechanism still remains with relevant controversies. Some studies defend that early exposures during childhood to microbes and parasites are key determinants to prevent allergies and autoimmune diseases; however, other studies demonstrated that these early exposures can even potentiate the clinical scenario of the diseases. Based on several studies covering the influences of microbiome, parasites, related theories and others, this review focuses on recent advances in the hygiene hypothesis field...
December 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131949/immunologically-active-components-in-human-milk-and-development-of-atopic-disease-with-emphasis-on-food-allergy-in-the-pediatric-population
#19
REVIEW
Puja S Rajani, Antti E Seppo, Kirsi M Järvinen
Breast-feeding is currently recommended to prevent the development of allergic diseases; however, data are conflicting and mechanisms are unclear. The immunomodulatory composition of human milk is poorly characterized and varies between mothers. We and others have shown that high levels of human milk IgA and certain cytokines and human milk oligosaccharides are associated with protection against food allergy in the infant, but it is unclear whether they are responsible for or simply biomarkers of the vertical transfer of protection...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128989/extraction-and-purification-of-viruses-from-fecal-samples-for-metagenome-and-morphology-analyses
#20
Josué L Castro-Mejía, Ling Deng, Finn K Vogensen, Alejandro Reyes, Dennis S Nielsen
The human enteric virome consists of endogenous retro elements and viruses that infect the host and members of the gut microbiome (GM). Mounting evidence suggests that the gut virome plays a central role in maintaining homeostasis and via the GM influences immunology of the host. To thoroughly characterize the gut virome, it is often very useful to first separate and concentrate extracellular viral-like particles (eVLPs) enabling an integrative characterization of them. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for extraction and concentration of the viral fraction from fecal samples based on a polyethylene glycol precipitation (PEG) approach...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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