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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343343/the-role-of-working-memory-language-proficiency-and-learners-age-in-second-language-english-learners-processing-and-comprehension-of-anaphoric-sentences
#1
Mohammad Nowbakht
This study is designed to explore the role of second language (L2) English learners' working memory (WM), language proficiency, and age in the processing and comprehension of English anaphoric sentences. To this end, 40 EFL learners participated in the study. The proficiency levels of the participants varied from elementary to high-intermediate, as measured by the Quick Placement Test. A first-language Operation Span Task and a self-paced reading task were employed to measure the participants' WM capacity and anaphoric sentence processing and comprehension respectively...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333774/keeping-emotions-in-mind-the-influence-of-working-memory-capacity-on-parent-reported-symptoms-of-emotional-lability-in-a-sample-of-children-with-and-without-adhd
#2
Daniel André Jensen, Marie Farstad Høvik, Nadja Josefine Nyhammer Monsen, Thale Hegdahl Eggen, Heike Eichele, Steinunn Adolfsdottir, Kerstin Jessica Plessen, Lin Sørensen
Emotional lability (EL) often co-occurs with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. However, difficulties of regulating intense emotions in ADHD are still poorly understood. We investigated the potential role of working memory (WM) as a protective factor against EL in children with ADHD by building on models describing the close relationship between WM and regulation of emotions. The parents of 41 children with ADHD and 34 typically developing children (TDC) filled out the emotional control scale (ECS) from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning and the child behavior checklist (CBCL)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333772/procedural-memory-working-memory-and-declarative-memory-skills-are-each-associated-with-dimensional-integration-in-sound-category-learning
#3
Carolyn Quam, Alisa Wang, W Todd Maddox, Kimberly Golisch, Andrew Lotto
This paper investigates relationships between procedural-memory, declarative-memory, and working-memory skills and adult native English speakers' novel sound-category learning. Participants completed a sound-categorization task that required integrating two dimensions: one native (vowel quality), one non-native (pitch). Similar information-integration category structures in the visual and auditory domains have been shown to be best learned implicitly (e.g., Maddox et al., 2006). Thus, we predicted that individuals with greater procedural-memory capacity would better learn sound categories, because procedural memory appears to support implicit learning of new information and integration of dimensions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327635/how-working-memory-provides-representational-change-during-insight-problem-solving
#4
Sergei Korovkin, Ilya Vladimirov, Alexandra Chistopolskaya, Anna Savinova
Numerous studies of insight problem solving are focused on both the control and storage systems of working memory. We obtained contradictory data about how working memory systems are involved in insight problem solving process. We argue that measuring the dynamics of the control system and storage systems through the course of problem solving can provide a more refined view on the processes involved, as a whole, and explain the existing controversies. We theorize that specific insight mechanisms require varying working memory capacities at different stages of the problem solving process...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326774/written-expression-in-boys-with-adhd-the-mediating-roles-of-working-memory-and-oral-expression
#5
Samuel J Eckrich, Mark D Rapport, Catrina A Calub, Lauren M Friedman
The written expression difficulties experienced by children with ADHD are widely recognized; however, scant empirical evidence exists concerning the cognitive mechanisms and processes underlying these deficiencies. The current study investigated the independent and potentially interactive contributions of two developmentally antecedent cognitive processes - viz., working memory (WM) and oral expression - hypothesized to influence written expression ability in boys. Thirty-three boys with ADHD-Combined Presentation and 27 neurotypical (NT) boys 8-12 years of age were administered standardized measures of oral and written expression, and multiple counterbalanced tasks to assess WM central executive (CE) processes, WM phonological short-term memory (PH STM), and WM visuospatial short-term memory (VS STM)...
October 17, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326430/trait-anxiety-is-associated-with-a-decreased-visual-working-memory-capacity-for-faces
#6
Nisha Yao, Siqi Chen, Mingyi Qian
Recent work has suggested that anxiety restricts working memory capacity, which may underlie a wide range of cognitive symptoms in anxiety. However, previous literature on the anxiety-visual working memory association yielded mixed results, with some studies demonstrating an anxiety-related increase in visual working memory capacity. In an attempt to gain a more thorough understanding of the relationship between anxiety and visual working memory maintenance function, the current study examined the influence of trait anxiety on visual working memory capacity and resolution for negative, positive, and neutral faces in a large unselected sample, by conducting two different experiments...
October 10, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315362/effects-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-dopamine-on-digit-span-measures-of-working-memory
#7
John Patrick Grogan, Lisa Emily Knight, Laura Smith, Nerea Irigoras Izagirre, Alexandra Howat, Brogan Elizabeth Knight, Anastasia Bickerton, Hanna Kristiina Isotalus, Elizabeth Jane Coulthard
RATIONALE: Parkinson's disease (PD) impairs working memory (WM)-the ability to maintain items in memory for short periods of time and manipulate them. There is conflicting evidence on the nature of the deficits caused by the disease, and the potential beneficial and detrimental effects of dopaminergic medication on different WM processes. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that PD impairs both maintenance and manipulation of items in WM and dopaminergic medications improve this in PD patients but impair it in healthy older adults...
October 12, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314263/effects-of-an-integrated-neurofeedback-system-with-dry-electrodes-eeg-acquisition-and-cognition-assessment
#8
Guangying Pei, Jinglong Wu, Duanduan Chen, Guoxin Guo, Shuozhen Liu, Mingxuan Hong, Tianyi Yan
Electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback improves cognitive capacity and behaviors by regulating brain activity, which can lead to cognitive enhancement in healthy people and better rehabilitation in patients. The increased use of EEG neurofeedback highlights the urgent need to reduce the discomfort and preparation time and increase the stability and simplicity of the system's operation. Based on brain-computer interface technology and a multithreading design, we describe a neurofeedback system with an integrated design that incorporates wearable, multichannel, dry electrode EEG acquisition equipment and cognitive function assessment...
October 11, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306828/visuospatial-working-memory-auditory-discrimination-and-attention
#9
Zach Shipstead, Jessie D Martin, Ashley Nespodzany
The present study examined the degree to which tests of visuospatial storage capacity tap into domain-general storage and attention processes. This was done by comparing performance of visuospatial memory tasks with performance on sound-based sensory discrimination tasks. We found that memory task- and discrimination task performance both tapped into a cross-modality factor (visual and auditory). We further examined the degree to which this common variance could be explained by attention control and sustained attention...
October 11, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298045/neuropsychological-and-psychological-functioning-aspects-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-patients-in-italy
#10
Edward Callus, Enrico G Bertoldo, Maria Beretta, Sara Boveri, Rosanna Cardani, Barbara Fossati, Elisa Brigonzi, Giovanni Meola
Introduction: Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant genetic illness, characterized by a progressive loss of strength. Important deficits in cognitive functioning and a significant prevalence of psychiatric disorders have been previously reported. Methods: A neuropsychological and psychological assessment was carried out in 31 DM1 patients (61% males) in order to measure the cognitive functioning and explore their personality profiles. The MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), ENB-2 Battery assessing memory (short term, long term and working memory), integration capacities, visual-spatial ability, attention (selective, divided, shifting/switching) executive functions, praxis, discrimination and logic capabilities and psychopathology Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R) were administered...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292967/brain-modelling-in-the-framework-of-anisotropic-hyperelasticity-with-time-fractional-damage-evolution-governed-by-the-caputo-almeida-fractional-derivative
#11
George Z Voyiadjis, Wojciech Sumelka
In this paper the human brain tissue constitutive model for monotonic loading is developed. The model in this work is based on the anisotropic hyperelasticity assumption (the transversely isotropic case) together with modelling of the evolving load-carrying capacity (scalar damage) whose change is governed by the Caputo-Almeida fractional derivative. This allows the brain constitutive law to include the memory during progressive damage, due to the characteristic time length scale which is an inherent attribute of the fractional operator...
September 21, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291264/unusual-bidirectional-frequency-dependence-of-dynamical-susceptibility-in-hexagonal-intermetallic-pr-2-ni-0-95-si-2-95
#12
Santanu Pakhira, Chandan Mazumdar, Abhik Basu, R Ranganathan, R N Bhowmik, Biswarup Satpati
In this study, the synthesis of a novel ternary intermetallic compound Pr2 Ni0.95 Si2.95 forming in single phase only by deliberately introducing vacancies in Ni/Si site is reported. The detailed studies on dc magnetization, heat capacity, ac magnetization & associated dynamical scaling, different types of non-equilibrium dynamical behaviour, viz., magnetic relaxation behaviour as a function of wait time and temperature, aging phenomena, and magnetic memory effect firmly establish that the compound exhibits spin freezing behaviour below 3...
October 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281622/searching-for-answers-in-an-uncertain-world-meaning-threats-lead-to-increased-working-memory-capacity
#13
Daniel Randles, Rachele Benjamin, Jason P Martens, Steven J Heine
The Meaning Maintenance Model posits that individuals seek to resolve uncertainty by searching for patterns in the environment, yet little is known about how this is accomplished. Four studies investigated whether uncertainty has an effect on people's cognitive functioning. In particular, we investigated whether meaning threats lead to increased working memory capacity. In each study, we exposed participants to either an uncertain stimulus used to threaten meaning in past studies, or a control stimulus. Participants then completed a working memory measure, where they either had to recall lists of words (Studies 1, 2), or strings of digits (Studies 3, 4)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279020/place-identity-autobiographical-memory-and-life-path-trajectories-the-development-of-a-place-time-identity-model
#14
Charis Lengen, Christian Timm, Thomas Kistemann
The ability to remember, recognize and reconstruct places is a key component of episodic autobiographical memory. In this respect, place forms an essential basis for the unfolding of experiences in memory and imagination. The autobiographical memory is seen to contribute to a sense of self and place identity. The aim of this study was to concertedly analyze paintings, autobiographical narrations and places of birth and life of clients under treatment at a psychiatric clinic in Switzerland who were manifesting psychiatric disorders, e...
September 22, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277430/the-sources-of-dual-task-costs-in-multisensory-working-memory-tasks
#15
Tobias Katus, Martin Eimer
We investigated the sources of dual-task costs arising in multisensory working memory (WM) tasks, where stimuli from different modalities have to be simultaneously maintained. Performance decrements relative to unimodal single-task baselines have been attributed to a modality-unspecific central WM store, but such costs could also reflect increased demands on central executive processes involved in dual-task coordination. To compare these hypotheses, we asked participants to maintain two, three, or four visual items...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276638/probabilistic-retro-cues-do-not-determine-state-in-visual-working-memory
#16
Blaire Dube, Alanna Lumsden, Naseem Al-Aidroos
The effective use of our capacity-limited visual working memory (VWM) requires mechanisms that govern how it represents information. Validly cueing an item in VWM after encoding, for instance, enhances memory performance for that item and biases its state in VWM, bringing its representation to an active state such that attentional selection is biased towards perceptually similar inputs. Critically, when the retro-cue is less than 100% valid (i.e., probabilistic rather than deterministic), the effect of the cue on memory performance varies...
October 1, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264544/the-cognitive-underpinnings-of-option-generation-in-everyday-life-decision-making-a-latent-variable-analysis
#17
Johannes Leder, Jan A Häusser, Stefan Krumm, Markus Germar, Alexander Schlemmer, Stefan Kaiser, Annemarie Kalis, Andreas Mojzisch
The ability to generate options for action is crucial for everyday life decision-making. In this article, we propose and test a model of the cognitive underpinnings of option generation in everyday life situations. We carried out a laboratory study using measures of a wide range of cognitive functions and asked participants (N = 157) to generate options for actions for different everyday life decision-making scenarios. The results of a latent variable analysis show that the cognitive underpinnings of option generation are consistent across different everyday life situations and, hence, option generation can be conceptualized as a general construct...
September 27, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30260448/working-memory-impairment-across-psychotic-disorders
#18
James M Gold, Deanna M Barch, Leah M Feuerstahler, Cameron S Carter, Angus W MacDonald, J Daniel Ragland, Steven M Silverstein, Milton E Strauss, Steven J Luck
Background: Working memory (WM) has been a central focus of cognitive neuroscience research because WM is a resource that is involved in many different cognitive operations. The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of WM paradigms developed in the basic cognitive neuroscience literature, including methods designed to estimate storage capacity without contamination by lapses of attention. Methods: A total of 61 people with schizophrenia, 49 with schizoaffective disorder, 47 with bipolar disorder with psychosis, and 59 healthy volunteers were recruited...
September 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247753/predictors-of-effective-working-memory-training-in-individuals-with-alcohol-use-disorders
#19
Rachel L Gunn, Kyle R Gerst, Elizabeth A Wiemers, Thomas S Redick, Peter R Finn
BACKGROUND: Low working memory (WM) capacity is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The importance of WM to adaptive functioning has led to a recent influx of studies attempting to improve individual WM capacity using various cognitive training methods. The present study aimed to examine the efficacy of complex WM training for improving WM capacity among individuals with AUD. METHODS: Individuals were randomized to complete either adaptive WM training or active control training...
September 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247045/statistical-learning-for-speech-segmentation-age-related-changes-and-underlying-mechanisms
#20
Shekeila D Palmer, James Hutson, Sven L Mattys
Statistical learning (SL) is a powerful learning mechanism that supports word segmentation and language acquisition in infants and young adults. However, little is known about how this ability changes over the life span and interacts with age-related cognitive decline. The aims of this study were to: (a) examine the effect of aging on speech segmentation by SL, and (b) explore core mechanisms underlying SL. Across four testing sessions, young, middle-aged, and older adults were exposed to continuous speech streams at two different speech rates, both with and without cognitive load...
September 24, 2018: Psychology and Aging
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