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Working memory capacity

Keyvan Mahjoory, Elena Cesnaite, Friederike U Hohlefeld, Arno Villringer, Vadim V Nikulin
Resting state neuronal activity in EEG/MEG recordings is primarily characterized by the presence of alpha oscillations (approx. 8-12 Hz). However, their functional significance and link to cognitive task performance remains elusive. We investigated resting state neuronal activity and its relation to task performance by assessing traditional measures of alpha activity (power and individual alpha peak frequency) and dynamic properties of the signal measured by long-range temporal correlations (LRTC). Multichannel EEG was recorded at rest in 82 healthy male adults and compared to their cognitive performance, measured by tests involving executive functions, working memory, short- and long-term memory demands...
December 2, 2018: NeuroImage
Rebecca Holt, Carmen Kung, Katherine Demuth
Foreign accents have been shown to have considerable impact on how language is processed [1]. However, the impact of a foreign accent on semantic processing is not well understood. Conflicting results have been reported by previous event-related potential (ERP) studies investigating the impact of foreign-accentedness on the N400 effect elicited by semantic violations. Furthermore, these studies have only examined a subset of the four characteristics of the N400 (i.e. onset latency, latency, amplitude, and scalp distribution), and have been conducted in linguistic environments where foreign-accented speech is relatively uncommon...
2018: PloS One
Eli J Cornblath, Evelyn Tang, Graham L Baum, Tyler M Moore, Azeez Adebimpe, David R Roalf, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur, Fabio Pasqualetti, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Danielle S Bassett
Executive function is a quintessential human capacity that emerges late in development and displays different developmental trends in males and females. Sex differences in executive function in youth have been linked to vulnerability to psychopathology as well as to behaviors that impinge on health, wellbeing, and longevity. Yet, the neurobiological basis of these differences is not well understood, in part due to the spatiotemporal complexity inherent in patterns of brain network maturation supporting executive function...
November 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Darren Tanner
Many neurocognitive accounts of language processing presume that neural responses detected in grand mean analyses of cortical electrophysiological activity reflect the normative brain response in the population under investigation. However, emerging work now shows that individuals' brain responses can vary systematically in both the size and type of effect elicited. The present research therefore examined individual differences in neural activity elicited by grammatical agreement anomalies during language comprehension in a large cohort of highly literate, monolingual English speakers (N = 114), a population generally assumed to be relatively homogenous in terms of linguistic knowledge and processing...
November 1, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Heinrich René Liesefeld, Anna M Liesefeld, Hermann J Müller
Visual working memory (VWM) is a central bottleneck in human information processing. Its capacity is most often measured in terms of how many individual-item representations VWM can hold (k). In the standard task employed to estimate k, an array of highly discriminable colour patches is maintained and, after a short retention interval, compared to a test display (change detection). Recent research has shown that with more complex, structured displays, change-detection performance is, in addition to individual-item representations, supported by ensemble representations formed as a result of spatial subgroupings...
December 2, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Tal Yatziv, Yoav Kessler, Naama Atzaba-Poria
Maternal mentalization refers to a mother's capacity to understand mental-states of herself and her child and to regard her child as a psychological agent. In mother-infant interactions, this capacity is commonly conceptualized as maternal mind-mindedness, which can be divided into two dimensions: appropriate and nonattuned interpretations of the infants' mental-states. Appropriate mind-mindedness refers to interpretations that seem to be compatible with the infant's behaviors, whereas nonattuned mind-mindedness refers to noncompatible interpretations...
2018: PloS One
Marina Pidal-Miranda, Alberto Jacobo González-Villar, María Teresa Carrillo-de-la-Peña, Elena Andrade, Dolores Rodríguez-Salgado
Background: Cognitive dysfunction in fibromyalgia (FM) encompasses objective cognitive difficulties, as measured in neuropsychological tests, and self-reported cognitive complaints. Although it has been suggested that FM patients display problems in working memory, the data are inconsistent, and the overall working memory status of the patients is unclear. It is also not clear whether the working memory problems are related to cognitive complaints or how the dyscognition is affected by the characteristic clinical symptoms of FM...
2018: PeerJ
Tom B Davidson, Alexander H Lee, Melody Hsu, Shaina Sedighim, Joey Orpilla, Janet Treger, Maximilian Mastall, Saskia Roesch, Carmen Rapp, Mildred Galvez, Aaron Y Mochizuki, Joseph P Antonios, Alejandro J Garcia, Nikesh Kotecha, Nicholas L Bayless, David A Nathanson, Anthony C Wang, Richard G Everson, William H Yong, Timothy F Cloughesy, Linda M Liau, Christel C Herold-Mende, Robert M Prins
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant tumor in the central nervous system. Our recent pre-clinical work has suggested that PD-1/PD-L1 plays an important immunoregulatory role to limit effective anti-tumor T cell responses induced by active immunotherapy. However, little is known about the functional role that PD-1 plays on human T lymphocytes in malignant glioma patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study, we examined the immune landscape and function of PD-1 expression on T cells from the tumor and peripheral blood in malignant glioma patients...
November 29, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Jacques van Lankveld, Kenny Wolfs, Andrea Grauvogl
The present study aimed to investigate associations of automatic and controlled cognition with sexual functioning, and moderation of these associations by working memory capacity in a community sample of heterosexual women (N = 65) and men (N = 51). Participants performed two single-target Implicit Association Tests (ST-IATs) to assess implicit liking and wanting of erotic stimuli. The Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) was used to assess explicit liking of sex. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) were used to assess sexual function...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
Jennifer F Louie, Mustapha Mouloua
The present study investigated the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in predicting distracted driving performance using a working memory distractor. Forty-nine participants (including one with missing data) completed four working memory complex spans prior to completing a distracted and non-distracted simulated driving trial. During the distracted driving trial, participants drove while simultaneously completing the grocery list task (GLT), a semi-naturalistic working memory task developed by the authors...
January 2019: Applied Ergonomics
Chaolin Teng, Yao Cheng, Chao Wang, Yijing Ren, Weiyong Xu, Jin Xu
Differences of EEG synchronization between normal old and young people during a working memory (WM) task were investigated. The synchronization likelihood (SL) is a novel method to assessed synchronization in multivariate time series for non-stationary systems. To evaluate this method to study the mechanisms of WM, we calculated the SL values in brain electrical activity for both resting state and task state. EEG signals were recorded from 14 young adults and 12 old adults during two different states, respectively...
December 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Paul D Loprinzi
Background: The purpose of this review was to evaluate whether acute exercise intensities have unique effects on memory function, and whether this is influenced by memory type as well as the temporality of the acute exercise bout. Methods: A systematic review was employed, using several databases (PubMed, PsychInfo,Sports Discus, Google Scholar, Embase). Results: In total, 9 articles met the study criteria. All 9 studies evaluated either working memory capacity or episodic-related memory function. The main findings across these studies were 1) when acute exercise occurs before the memory task, high-intensity exercise may be less favorable for working memory but may favor episodic memory; 2) when acute exercise occurs during the memory task, high-intensity exercise may be less favorable for working memory capacity; and 3) high-intensity exercise may not associate with long-term memory function when it occurs shortly after memory encoding...
2018: Health Promotion Perspectives
Alexandra Volckaert, Marie-Pascale Noël
Various factors may contribute to the emergence of externalizing behavior (EB) problems in the preschool period. At the child level, temperament and executive function (EF) seem to play an important role, as well as environmental variables such as household chaos. In this study, we examined the profiles of 49 EB preschoolers compared to 49 typically developing (TD) preschoolers matched on age and gender. To evaluate the behavioral aspect of EB, we asked teachers and parents to fill out questionnaires, but we also used an observational paradigm...
August 22, 2018: Psychologica Belgica
Alireza Salami, Douglas D Garrett, Anders Wåhlin, Anna Rieckmann, Goran Papenberg, Nina Karalija, Lars Jonasson, Micael Andersson, Jan Axelsson, Jarkko Johansson, Katrine Riklund, Martin Lövdén, Ulman Lindenberger, Lars Bäckman, Lars Nyberg
Dopamine (DA) modulates cortico-striatal connections. Studies in which imaging of the DA system is integrated with functional imaging during cognitive performance have yielded mixed findings. Some work has shown a link between striatal DA measured by PET and fMRI activations, whereas others have failed to observe such a relation. A possible reason for the discrepant findings is differences in task demands, such that a more demanding task, with greater prefrontal activations, may yield a stronger association with DA...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Xin Du, Yang Ji, Tianyong Chen, Yi Tang, Buxin Han
Working memory updating (updating) and working memory capacity (WMC) have been assumed to share a common mechanism. However, it is unclear whether WMC can be expanded by boosting the efficiency of updating, particularly during late adulthood. In this randomized controlled study, 33 older adults (aged 60 years and above, M = 69.53, SD = 5.21) were assigned to updating training (n = 17) and contact control (n = 16) groups. In the training group, updating was targeted by a running memory task and a chess game in each training session; whereas in the control group, motivational effects were estimated by their attendance to a series of mental health-related lectures...
November 26, 2018: Psychology and Aging
Yin-Hai Li, Wen-Tan Fang, Zhi-Yuan Zhou, Shi-Long Liu, Shi-Kai Liu, Zhao-Huai Xu, Chen Yang, Yan Li, Li-Xin Xu, Guang-Can Guo, Bao-Sen Shi
Silicon-on-chip photonic circuits are among some very promising platforms for generating nonclassical photonic quantum state, because of its low loss, small footprint, and compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and telecommunications techniques. Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is a leading technique for enhancing the transmission capacity of both classical and quantum communications. To bridge the frequency gap between silicon-chip and other quantum systems, such as quantum memories, a quantum interface is indispensable...
October 29, 2018: Optics Express
Giampaolo Perna, Paolo Cavedini, Alice Riva, Nunzia Valentina Di Chiaro, Mara Bellotti, Giuseppina Diaferia, Daniela Caldirola
INTRODUCTION: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) showed impaired spatial working memory (SWM). We evaluated whether patients and healthy controls (HCs) differed in spatial store capacity, and whether they differed in the relative weight of spatial store capacity and/or executive strategy in SWM. METHODS: Thirty inpatients with OCD and 31 age- and education-matched HCs underwent the CANTAB SWM, SRM (a measure of spatial store). The severity of OC symptoms was assessed using the Y-BOCS...
November 21, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Guy Koplovitz, Gregory Leitus, Supriya Ghosh, Brian P Bloom, Shira Yochelis, Dvir Rotem, Fabio Vischio, Marinella Striccoli, Elisabetta Fanizza, Ron Naaman, David H Waldeck, Danny Porath, Yossi Paltiel
The rapid growth in demand for data and the emerging applications of Big Data require the increase of memory capacity. Magnetic memory devices are among the leading technologies for meeting this demand; however, they rely on the use of ferromagnets that creates size reduction limitations and poses complex materials requirements. Usually magnetic memory sizes are limited to 30-50 nm. Reducing the size even further, to the ≈10-20 nm scale, destabilizes the magnetization and its magnetic orientation becomes susceptible to thermal fluctuations and stray magnetic fields...
November 21, 2018: Small
Sebastian Waechter, Linda Hallendorf, Emelie Malmstein, Anna Olsson, K Jonas Brännström
BACKGROUND: Tinnitus sufferers commonly report concentration difficulties. Despite several previous studies investigating this, the underlying cause and the role of hearing status remains unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate whether there are any differences between normal hearing individuals with and without tinnitus in terms of working memory capacity, and whether working memory capacity correlates with high-frequency hearing thresholds. RESEARCH DESIGN: Participants had their hearing thresholds measured (0...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Mei Yu, Xuwei Chen, Jihong Liu, Quan Ma, Zhan Zhuo, Hao Chen, Lin Zhou, Sen Yang, Lifeng Zheng, Chengqing Ning, Jing Xu, Tianming Gao, Sheng-Tao Hou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment represents one of the largest unmet medical needs. Developing small molecules targeting Aβ aggregation is an effective approach to prevent and treat AD. Here, we show that gallic acid (GA), a naturally occurring polyphenolic small molecule rich in grape seeds and fruits, has the capacity to alleviate cognitive decline of APP/PS1 transgenic mouse through reduction of Aβ1-42 aggregation and neurotoxicity. Oral administration of GA not only improved the spatial reference memory and spatial working memory of 4-month-old APP/PS1 mice, but also significantly reduced the more severe deficits developed in the 9-month-old APP/PS1 mice in terms of spatial learning, reference memory, short-term recognition and spatial working memory...
November 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
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