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Hyo Myung Kim, Youngsub Eom, Jong Suk Song
Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a leading cause of dry eye disease (DED). Meibomian gland dysfunction is divided into two major categories based on meibomian gland secretion: low delivery and high delivery. The low-delivery states are further classified as either hyposecretory or obstructive subtype, and the high-delivery state is termed "hypersecretory MGD." Two parameters are commonly used to evaluate meibomian gland function: lipid layer thickness and meibum quality and expressibility. To evaluate the morphology of meibomian glands, meibography is used to detect meibomian gland dropout...
October 13, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Yue Yin, Lan Gong
PURPOSE: To observe reversibility of meibomian gland (MG) dropout and analyze correlated factors and to compare the treatment efficiency with and without eyelid hygiene in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). METHODS: Consecutive 78 eyes of 78 MGD (stage 2-3) patients who finished follow-up examination after 1-month of treatment were recruited in this retrospective study. All patients were treated with artificial lubricant and eyelid hygiene. Related ocular surface evaluation and meibomian gland assessment were examined...
October 14, 2016: Cornea
Kang Won Lee, Jung Yong Kim, Hee Seung Chin, Kyoung Yul Seo, Tae-Im Kim, Ji Won Jung
PURPOSE: We aimed to compare the tear meniscus measurements using strip meniscometry (SM) and Keratograph5M (K5M) between 3 subtypes of dry eye disease patient groups, classified according to the presence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and normal subjects. METHODS: We enrolled 145 eyes from 145 subjects and measured the tear meniscus using SM and K5M, tear film breakup time, ocular surface staining, and ocular surface disease index; the Schirmer test; and examined lid margins and meibomian glands...
October 5, 2016: Cornea
Martina Friede, Stephan Unger, Christine Hellmann, Wolfram Beyschlag
Interactions of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may range along a broad continuum from strong mutualism to parasitism, with mycorrhizal benefits received by the plant being determined by climatic and edaphic conditions affecting the balance between carbon costs vs. nutritional benefits. Thus, environmental conditions promoting either parasitism or mutualism can influence the mycorrhizal growth dependency (MGD) of a plant and in consequence may play an important role in plant-plant interactions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Moayyad E Suleiman, Mark F McEntee, Lucy Cartwright, Jennifer Diffey, Patrick C Brennan
INTRODUCTION: This work aims to explore radiation doses delivered in screening mammography in Australia, with a focus on whether compressed breast thickness should be used as a guide when determining patient derived diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). METHODS: Anonymized mammograms (52,405) were retrieved from a central database, and DICOM headers were extracted using third party software. Women with breast implants, breast thicknesses outside 20-110 mm and images with incomplete exposure or quality assurance (QA) data were excluded...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Minako Kaido, Osama M A Ibrahim, Motoko Kawashima, Reiko Ishida, Enrique A Sato, Kazuo Tsubota
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of eyelid margin cleansing with ofloxacin ophthalmic ointment in obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) patients. METHODS: Thirty-one eyes of 31 patients diagnosed with obstructive MGD were enrolled. All subjects were instructed to rub the eyelid edge with ofloxacin eye ointment once daily prior to bathing. Lid margin abnormalities, meibum properties, and tear stability were observed before and 3 months after ointment treatment...
October 3, 2016: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Raghu S Ramareddy, Anand Alladi
AIM: To report a series of scrotal abscess, a rare problem, their etiology, and management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of children who presented with scrotal abscess between January 2010 and March 2015, analyzed with respect to clinical features, pathophysiology of spread and management. RESULTS: Eight infants and a 3-year-old phenotypically male child presented with scrotal abscess as a result of abdominal pathologies which included mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) [1]; three anorectal malformations with ectopic ureter [1], urethral stricture [1], and neurogenic bladder [1]; meconium peritonitis with meconium periorchitis [2], ileal atresia [1], and intra-abdominal abscess [1]; posturethroplasty for Y urethral duplication with metal stenosis [1] and idiopathic pyocele [1]...
October 2016: Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Yuli Park, Hyung Bin Hwang, Hyun Seung Kim
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate meibomian gland function, changes of lacrimal tears and ocular surface parameters and tear inflammatory mediators following cataract surgery. METHODS: 48 eyes of 34 patients who underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification were involved and divided into 2 groups with those who had preexisting dry-eye before cataract surgery and those who did not. Ocular symptom score, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal sensitivity threshold, corneal staining, inflammatory cytokine activities, lid margin abnormalities, meibum expressibility, meibum quality and meibomian gland imaging were evaluated preoperatively, at 1 day, 1 and 2 months postoperatively...
2016: PloS One
Q F Liang, C Gao, H Liang, X H Du, N L Wang, Antoine Labbe
Objective: To observe the morphology, fibrosis grade and inflammatory infiltration of meibomian glands using in vivo confocal microscopy(IVCM)in meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD)patients. Methods: A prospective case-controlled study. According to the diagnostic criteria of MGD, 20 MGD patients(20 eyes)were included in our study from August to October 2015. Fifteen normal subjects(15 eyes)were also studied. Methods All subjects completed the questionnaire of the Ocular Surface Disease Index(OSDI), lid margin and ocular surface examination by slit lamp microscropy, tear film break-up time(TBUT)test, corneal and conjunctival staining(Oxford scale), Schirmer I test, infrared meibomian photography and IVCM...
September 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Jin Sun Kim, Hun Lee, Seonghee Choi, Eung Kweon Kim, Kyoung Yul Seo, Tae-Im Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in the tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT) after cataract surgery and the effects of cataract surgery on dry eye syndrome (DES) and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). METHODS: LLT measurements obtained using the LipiView interferometer, tear break-up time (TBUT) measurements, Schirmer's tests, Oxford staining scores, lid margin and meibomian gland findings, and the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire scores were evaluated before and one and three months after cataract surgery...
September 14, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
David R Dance, Ioannis Sechopoulos
The estimation of the mean glandular dose to the breast (MGD) for x-ray based imaging modalities forms an essential part of quality control and is needed for risk estimation and for system design and optimisation. This review considers the development of methods for estimating the MGD for mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and dedicated breast CT (DBCT). Almost all of the methodology used employs Monte Carlo calculated conversion factors to relate the measurable quantity, generally the incident air kerma, to the MGD...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Won Woong Kim, Yumie Rhee, Eun Jeong Ban, Cho Rok Lee, Sang-Wook Kang, Jong Ju Jeong, Kee-Hyun Nam, Woong Youn Chung, Cheong Soo Park
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether focused or complete parathyroidectomy was more appropriate and to compare follow-up data in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 225 operations for PHPT at Yonsei University Health System between 2000 and 2012. After excluding 93 patients, the remaining 132 were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent focused parathyroidectomy (FP) and those who underwent conventional parathyroidectomy (CP)...
September 2016: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
Antje Schröder, Daniel B Abrar, Ulrike Hampel, Martin Schicht, Friedrich Paulsen, Fabian Garreis
Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is considered the most common cause of dry eye disease (DED). Sex hormones seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of MGD although their involvement is not completely understood. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the effect of dihydrotestosteron (DHT) and estradiol (β-Est) on an immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cell line (HMGEC). Protein expression of sex hormone receptors in HMGEC was investigated by western blot. Ultrastructural morphology, Sudan III lipid staining, cell proliferation as well as vitality assays were performed...
October 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Katarzyna Pasicz, Ewa Fabiszewska, Iwona Grabska, Witold Skrzyński
The purpose of this work is to compare the mean glandular dose (MGD) displayed by the mammography system and the MGD calculated according to the method proposed by Dance for women. This study also attempts to analyse whether the relationship between the calculated and the displayed values is constant and what factors influence this relationship. Material for this study included data from 1200 exposures (i.e. six series; each series consisting of 200 exposures) performed with one full-field digital mammography unit...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Wendy R Kam, Yang Liu, Juan Ding, David A Sullivan
PURPOSE: Researchers have hypothesized that treatment with cyclosporine A (CyA), interleukin-1 receptor antagonists (IL-1RA; e.g., anakinra), P2Y2 receptor agonists (e.g., uridine triphosphate; UTP), and rebamipide may alleviate human meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and/or dry eye disease. Investigators have also proposed that prostaglandin analogues (e.g., bimatoprost) may induce MGD. Our goal was to determine whether these compounds directly influence human meibomian gland epithelial cell (HMGEC) function...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ji Won Jung, Si Yoon Park, Jin Sun Kim, Eung Kweon Kim, Kyoung Yul Seo, Tae-Im Kim
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of clinical variables, including age, sex, history of refractive or cataract surgery, contact lens use, and ocular surface and meibomian gland parameters on the lipid layer thickness (LLT) in normal subjects and patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). METHODS: A total of 64 normal subjects and 326 patients with DES were enrolled, and they underwent measurements of LLT with a LipiView interferometer and tear meniscus height using optical coherence tomography, tear film break-up time (TBUT) determination, ocular surface staining, Schirmer's test, examination of the lid margins and meibomian glands, and assessment using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI)...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Preeya K Gupta, Gargi K Vora, Cynthia Matossian, Michelle Kim, Sandra Stinnett
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical outcomes of intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy for the treatment of evaporative dry eye disease (DED). DESIGN: Multicentre cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with a diagnosis of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dry eye presenting to the ophthalmology clinic at either the Duke Eye Center, Durham, NC, or Matossian Eye Associates' private practice in Pennington, NJ, and Doylestown, PA. METHODS: Clinical data were reviewed from 100 patients with diagnosis of MGD and DED who underwent IPL therapy from September 2012 through December 2014 at 1 of 2 centres (Duke Eye Center or Matossian Eye Associates)...
August 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Anaïs Rameau, Soo Eng, Joseph Vu, Ramin Saket, Peter Jun, Michael Friduss
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The prevalence of multiglandular disease (MGD) of the parathyroid has been reported to be higher in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and low baseline intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (<100 pg/mL). Low baseline PTH is associated with lower localization rate and positive predictive value with both preoperative sestamibi and ultrasound. This study sought to evaluate our experience with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for the localization of abnormal parathyroid glands, including MGD, in patients with low baseline intact PTH (LBiPTH)...
August 12, 2016: Laryngoscope
Mehmet C Mocan, Enes Uzunosmanoglu, Sibel Kocabeyoglu, Jale Karakaya, Murat Irkec
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association of long-term prostaglandin analog (PGA) use with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in medically treated glaucoma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at a single academic setting. In total, 70 eyes of 70 patients with a medical diagnosis of glaucoma who were on long-term (>12 mo) topical hypotensive medication(s) were included. Patients were classified based on whether they were on PGA or non-PGA class of medication(s)...
September 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
M J Fartaria, C Reis, J Pereira, M F Pereira, J V Cardoso, L M Santos, C Oliveira, V Holovey, A Pascoal, J G Alves
The aim of this paper is the characterization of four thermoluminescence detectors (TLD), namely, LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, Li2B4O7:Mn and Li2B4O7:Cu for the measurement of the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and estimation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) in digital mammography examinations at hospitals and clinics. Low-energy x-ray beams in the typical energy ranges of mammography, produced with a tungsten target and additional 60 µm molybdenum filtration were implemented and characterized at the Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation at Instituto Superior Técnico...
September 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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