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glucose challenge test

Z-X Zhang, H Li, J-S He, H-J Chu, X-T Zhang, L Yin
OBJECTIVE: The myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a significant challenge, and the clinical significance of remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) in cardioprotection has been confirmed. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to explore the regulatory mechanism of RIPostC in myocardial I/R. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mouse model of myocardial I/R injury and cell model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/re-oxygenation (OGD/R) injury were constructed...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Henrika Jodeleit, Omar Al-Amodi, Janina Caesar, Christina Villarroel Aguilera, Lesca Holdt, Roswitha Gropp, Florian Beigel, Matthias Siebeck
Glucose is the preferred source of energy in activated inflammatory cells. Glucose uptake into the cell is ensured by a family of glucose uptake transporters (GLUT) which have been identified as off target molecules of the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir. In this study, we examined the effect of ritonavir on inflammation in vitro and in vivo Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were activated with anti CD3 in the presence or absence of ritonavir and analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. Frequencies of CD4+ cells were significantly affected by ritonavir (CD69+ p=3E-05; CD134 p=4E-06; CD25+ p= E-07; central memory p=0...
October 15, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Katrien Benhalima, Paul Van Crombrugge, Carolien Moyson, Johan Verhaeghe, Sofie Vandeginste, Hilde Verlaenen, Chris Vercammen, Toon Maes, Els Dufraimont, Christophe De Block, Yves Jacquemyn, Farah Mekahli, Katrien De Clippel, Annick Van Den Bruel, Anne Loccufier, Annouschka Laenen, Caro Minschart, Roland Devlieger, Chantal Mathieu
This study determines if a modified two-step screening strategy with a glucose challenge test (GCT) ≥ 7.2 mmol/L and clinical risk factors improves the diagnostic accuracy for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), based on 2013 WHO criteria, while limiting the number of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). This was a prospective multicentric cohort study with 1811 participants receiving both GCT and 75 g OGTT in pregnancy. Participants and health care providers were blinded for GCT. Characteristics were analyzed across four glucose tolerance groups: abnormal (≥7...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Danielle T Vannan, Marc R Bomhof, Raylene A Reimer
The obesity epidemic is driving interest in identifying strategies that enhance appetite control by altering the secretion of hormones that regulate satiety and food intake. An appropriate nutrient stimulus, such as a meal or oral nutrient solution, is needed to elicit the secretion of satiety hormones in order to evaluate the impact of dietary and other interventions. Our objective was to compare the effects of oral glucose vs. mixed nutrients on plasma concentrations of glucose and appetite-regulating hormones to determine the most appropriate oral nutrient challenge to trigger robust hormone secretion...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Katrien Benhalima, Caro Minschart, Dries Ceulemans, Annick Bogaerts, Bart Van Der Schueren, Chantal Mathieu, Roland Devlieger
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a frequent medical complication during pregnancy. This is partly due to the increasing prevalence of obesity in women of childbearing age. Since bariatric surgery is currently the most successful way to achieve maintained weight loss, increasing numbers of obese women of childbearing age receive bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery performed before pregnancy significantly reduces the risk to develop GDM but the risk is generally still higher compared to normal weight pregnant women...
October 11, 2018: Nutrients
Amy L Kimball, Patrick M McCue, Michael A Petrie, Richard K Shields
AIM: Exercise modulates glucose tolerance and homeostasis in both healthy and diabetic individuals. Heat stress is a fundamental element of exercise. The acute glycemic response and alterations in glucose clearance following whole body passive heat stress in the absence of muscle activity has yet to be examined in humans. Knowledge of this relationship may prove useful, particularly in populations with compromised glucoregulation from reduced activity. PURPOSE: To determine insulin/glucose levels before and after an acute bout of heat stress in healthy, lean individuals and examine the effects of whole body heat stress (WBHS) and exercise on acute glucose tolerance in an expanded cohort...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Sadia Mehmood, Chang Ye, Philip W Connelly, Anthony J Hanley, Bernard Zinman, Ravi Retnakaran
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes (GDM) and milder gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) identify women at risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Accordingly, the postpartum years after gestational dysglycemia can provide insight into early events in the natural history of these disorders. We thus sought to prospectively evaluate the relationship between gestational glucose tolerance and emerging cardiometabolic biomarkers [adiponectin, chemerin, retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4), C-reactive protein (CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)] at both 1- and 3-years postpartum in a cohort reflecting the full spectrum of gestational dysglycemia (from normal to GIGT to GDM)...
October 9, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Chichi Li, Kewei Chen, Minghui Jia, Xi Ding, Zipei Jiang, Liqun Li, Dan Zhang
Some studies have shown that transplanted fat tissues usually cannot survive for long if adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are removed from the tissues in advance. It is more meaningful to explore the mechanism mediating survival and differentiation of ADSCs in the transplanted microenvironment. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to be one of the energy receptors that regulate many aspects of cellular metabolism. AMPK activation has been implicated in models of adult ischemic injury, but the mechanism and the regulating effects of AMPK on survival and adipogenesis of transplanted ADSCs are still little known...
October 6, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids
Carla Scaroni, Nora Albiger, Andrea Daniele, Francesca Dassie, Chiara Romualdi, Giovanni Vazza, Daniela Regazzo, Francesco Ferraù, Valeria Barresi, Valeria Maffeis, Marina Paola Gardiman, Salvatore Cannavò, Pietro Maffei, Filippo Ceccato, Marco Losa, Gianluca Occhi
CONTEXT: The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is considered the most useful method for diagnosing active acromegaly and for patient follow-up after neurosurgery. Despite its widespread use, only a few small studies have so far focused on patients' clinical features associated with different GH responsiveness to OGTT. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between glucose-induced GH response and endocrine profiles, clinical manifestations, and response to therapy in a large cohort of patients with acromegaly...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
F J Mendoza, C A Gonzalez-Cara, R Aguilera-Aguilera, R E Toribio, A Perez-Ecija
Metabolic disorders are highly prevalent in donkeys. Differences in energy regulatory hormones and glucose dynamic testing, including the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT), have been documented between donkeys and horses. The aims of this study were to characterise the insulin:glucagon (IGR) and glucagon:insulin (GIR) molar ratios, at baseline and in response to the IVGTT and CGIT in healthy donkeys, and to determine their correlation with endocrine (leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin) and morphometric variables...
October 2018: Veterinary Journal
Taofeek O Usman, Emmanuel D Areola, Olufunto O Badmus, InKyeom Kim, Lawrence A Olatunji
Nutritional challenges and androgen excess have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes and poor fetal outcome, but the mechanisms are not well delineated. The effects of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) on glucose dysmetabolism and poor fetal outcome induced by gestational androgen excess is also not known. We tested the hypothesis that blockade of androgen receptor (AR) and suppression of late gestational androgen excess prevents glucose dysmetabolism and poor fetal outcome through suppression of adenosine deaminase (ADA)/xanthine oxidase (XO) pathway...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Kang Nian Yap, Morag F Dick, Christopher G Guglielmo, Tony D Williams
Despite widely held assumptions that hematocrit (Hct) is a key determinant of aerobic capacity and exercise performance, this relationship has not often been tested rigorously in birds and results to date are mixed. Migration in birds involves high intensity exercise for long durations at various altitudes. Therefore, it provides a good model system to examine the effect of Hct on flight performance and physiological responses of exercise at high altitude. We treated yellow-rumped warblers ( Setophaga coronata ) with avian erythropoietin (EPO) and anti-EPO to experimentally manipulate Hct and assessed flight performance at low and high altitudes using a hypobaric wind tunnel...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Benjamin Kramer, Lucas Martins Franca, Youhua Zhang, Antonio Marcus de Andrade Paes, A Martin Gerdes, Maria Alicia Carrillo-Sepulveda
Overconsumption of a diet rich in fat and carbohydrates, called the western diet, is a major contributor to the global epidemic of cardiovascular disease. Despite previously documented cardiovascular protection exhibited in female rats, this safeguard may be lost under certain metabolic stressors. We hypothesized that female Wistar rats challenged by a western diet composed of 21% fat and 50% carbohydrate (34.1% sucrose) for 17-weeks would develop endothelial dysfunction via endothelial Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling...
September 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Dittakarn Boriboonhirunsarn, Prasert Sunsaneevithayakul
The study aimed to compare the incidence of large for gestational age (LGA) infants between women with a false positive and normal glucose challenge test (GCT), and to evaluate the factors associated with LGA. A total of 480 pregnant women at risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); 160 with a false positive GCT and 320 with normal GCT results were included. The incidence of LGA and other pregnancy outcomes were compared between the two groups. Possible associated factors for LGA were also evaluated. Women with a false positive GCT were significantly older and more likely to be multiparous...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Rebecca A Hubbard, Jing Huang, Joanna Harton, Arman Oganisian, Grace Choi, Levon Utidjian, Ihuoma Eneli, L Charles Bailey, Yong Chen
Phenotyping, ie, identification of patients possessing a characteristic of interest, is a fundamental task for research conducted using electronic health records. However, challenges to this task include imperfect sensitivity and specificity of clinical codes and inconsistent availability of more detailed data such as laboratory test results. Despite these challenges, most existing electronic health records-derived phenotypes are rule-based, consisting of a series of Boolean arguments informed by expert knowledge of the disease of interest and its coding...
September 3, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Melanie Cree-Green, Ninghe Cai, Jessica E Thurston, Gregory V Coe, Lindsay Newnes, Yesenia Garcia-Reyes, Amy D Baumgartner, Laura Pyle, Kristen J Nadeau
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) includes insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in youth, and a greatly elevated risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Identifying IR is challenging and documenting IGT requires an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). OBJECTIVE: Identify an easily applied surrogate measures for IR and IGT in girls with PCOS. METHODS: We studied 28 girls with PCOS [BMI percentile 98 (83,99); 15...
September 23, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
K Ungethüm, M Jolink, M Hippich, L Lachmann, F Haupt, C Winkler, S Hummel, A Pitchika, O Kordonouri, A-G Ziegler, A Beyerlein
AIMS: Children and adolescents with a family history of diabetes are at increased risk of overweight, but little is known about the potentially beneficial effects of physical activity on these children. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and metabolic and inflammatory risks in children and adolescents with a family background of Type 1 diabetes or gestational diabetes. METHODS: Valid MVPA measurements, made with accelerometers, were available from 234 participants (median age, 10...
September 22, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Rocío Escartín, Nuria Brun, M Nieves García Monforte, Joan Carles Ferreres, Raquel Corripio
BACKGROUND Insulinomas are pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors that cause non-ketotic hypoglycemia due to hyperinsulinism; they are extremely rare, especially in children. CASE REPORT We present a case of a sporadic insulinoma in an 11-year-old boy who had episodes of self-limited drowsiness and behavior changes over a 3-month period, thought to be caused by psychological issues. Non-ketotic hypoglycemia was confirmed at our center. A fasting blood test found inappropriately elevated insulin levels during hypoglycemia, undetectable β-hydroxybutyrate, and increased C-peptide levels in line with insulin levels...
September 21, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Yaniv Zipori, Roy Lauterbach, Emad Matanes, Ron Beloosesky, Zeev Weiner, Amir Weissman
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to determine whether daily vaginal progesterone use for the prevention of preterm birth has an effect on the incidence of abnormal glucose challenge test or gestational diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study in a large referral center. Women with cervical length ≤ 25 mm were given 200 mg vaginal micronized progesterone capsules daily at bed time until 36 weeks` gestation or delivery. Each progesterone-treated woman was matched randomly with three untreated controls...
September 11, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Aaron Hodes, Jerrold Meyer, Maya B Lodish, Constantine A Stratakis, Mihail Zilbermint
The diagnosis of endogenous Cushing syndrome is often challenging and requires multiple repeated blood, urine, and saliva tests to detect elevated cortisol levels. Hair cortisol concentration has been described as a marker of long-term exposure to systemic cortisol in patients with Cushing syndrome. Like hemoglobin A1c is used to detect serum glucose exposure over months, segmental hair cortisol can help identify patients with milder forms of and/or periodic or cyclical Cushing syndrome, which may reduce time and costs associated with collection of urine, salivary, and serum cortisol...
September 2018: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
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