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glucose challenge test

D Cappellani, C Sardella, M C Campopiano, A Falorni, P Marchetti, E Macchia
Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS), or Hirata disease, is a rare hypoglycaemic disorder caused by the presence of high titer of insulin autoantibodies (IAA) in patients without previous exposure to exogenous insulin. Even though its pathogenesis is not fully understood, striking evidences link IAS to previous exposure to sulphydryl-containing medications, like alpha-lipoic acid, a widely used nutritional supplement. Although challenging, a careful differential diagnosis from other causes of hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (such as insulinoma) is mandatory, since these conditions require different therapeutic approaches...
December 11, 2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Xia Fang, Tingran Zhang, Mengliu Yang, Ling Li, Cheng Zhang, Wenjing Hu, Xiaoyun Fan, Hua Liu, Zhiming Zhu, Dongfang Liu, Hongting Zheng, Harvest F Gu, Rui Liu, Gangyi Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alarin has been reported to be related with increased food intake and body weight. The relationship of circulating Alarin with insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome (MetS), however, is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the physiological role of Alarin and its association with MetS in humans. METHODS: Newly diagnosed MetS patients (n=237) and age-matched healthy subjects (n=192) were recruited for this study. Oral glucose tolerance test, treadmill exercise, lipid infusions and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHCs) were performed...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Shahnaz Barat, Azita Ghanbarpour, Zinatossadat Bouzari, Zohre Batebi
Background: Using oral glucose for glucose challenge test (GCT) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) is problematic, especially in early pregnancy when the pregnant woman is experiencing gastrointestinal complications. This research seeks to investigate the relationship between the ratio of Triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the risk of gestational diabetes and large for gestational age (LGA) fetus for suggesting a more appropriate index for diagnosis of gestational diabetes...
2018: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Benjamin Kramer, Lucas Martins França, Youhua Zhang, Antonio Marcus de Andrade Paes, A Martin Gerdes, Maria Alicia Carrillo-Sepulveda
Overconsumption of a diet rich in fat and carbohydrates, called the Western diet, is a major contributor to the global epidemic of cardiovascular disease. Despite previously documented cardiovascular protection exhibited in female rats, this safeguard may be lost under certain metabolic stressors. We hypothesized that female Wistar rats challenged by a Western diet composed of 21% fat and 50% carbohydrate (34.1% sucrose) for 17 wk would develop endothelial dysfunction via endothelial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling...
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Tamar Wainstock, Israel Yoles
AIMS: A 1-hour, 50-gram glucose challenge test (GCT) is the first step in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Seasonal fluctuations in fasting glucose levels and GCT results were previously described. We sought to investigate seasonal changes in GCT results in a large cohort. METHODS: GCT results were analyzed of all women insured at the Central District of Clalit Health Services (the largest health maintenance organization in Israel), between the years 2005 and 2016...
November 27, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Patricia Schlagenhauf, Martin P Grobusch, Davidson H Hamer, Hilmir Asgeirsson, Mogens Jensenius, Gilles Eperon, Camilla Rothe, Egon Isenring, Jan Fehr, Eli Schwartz, Emmanuel Bottieau, Elizabeth D Barnett, Anne McCarthy, Paul Kelly, Carsten Schade Larsen, Perry van Genderen, William Stauffer, Michael Libman, Philippe Gautret
BACKGROUND: Recent reports highlight malaria as a frequent diagnosis in migrants who originate from Eritrea. A descriptive analysis of GeoSentinel cases of malaria in Eritrean migrants was done together with a literature review to elucidate key attributes of malaria in this group with a focus on possible areas of acquisition of malaria and treatment challenges. RESULTS: A total of 146 cases were identified from the GeoSentinel database from 1999 through September 2017, with a marked increase in 2014 and 2015...
November 29, 2018: Malaria Journal
Shengnan Yang, Yuan Zhang, Fukui Shen, Xiaoyao Ma, Man Zhang, Yuanyuan Hou, Gang Bai
Baicalin is one of the main flavonoids of the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and is reported to exert beneficial effects on the regulation of glucose/lipid metabolism. However, understanding its specific target and unique mechanism for improving glucose utilization is a challenge. In this paper, target fishing with a baicalin probe reveals that baicalin interacts with AKT. An immunofluorescence assay further demonstrates the colocalization of baicalin with AKT in the cytoplasm. A competitive test and virtual docking show that baicalin might bind to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of AKT...
November 29, 2018: FEBS Letters
Blythe D Shepard, Hermann Koepsell, Jennifer L Pluznick
Olfactory receptors (ORs) are G protein-coupled receptors which serve to detect odorants in the nose. Additionally, these receptors are expressed in other tissues where they have functions outside of the canonical smell response. Olfactory Receptor 1393 (Olfr1393) was recently identified as a novel regulator of sodium glucose co-transporter 1 (Sglt1) localization in the renal proximal tubule. Glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule (via Sglt1 and Sglt2) has emerged as an important contributor to the development of diabetes...
November 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Lingfeng Yin, Yingying Huai, Chun Zhao, Hongjuan Ding, Tao Jiang, Zhonghua Shi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Early screening and diagnosis is important for minimizing gestational adverse outcomes. Routine screening of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) at 24-28 weeks with 75 g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) leaves limited time for intervention and prevention. This study aims to analyze maternal serum peptides in the early second-trimester for prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 16-18-week pregnant women that visited Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital from April to August 2015...
November 27, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Nina Machac, Gulsah Kaya Karasu, Nurhan Sahin, Cemal Orhan, Kazim Sahin, Christine Iben
In recent years, two meta-analyses of chromium (Cr) supplementation have shown beneficial effects on glucose metabolism. Chromium histidinate (CrHis) reduces serum glucose levels in rats fed a high-fat diet but no study has been conducted on cats until now. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of CrHis on glucose and lipid metabolism in cats. To challenge the glucose metabolism, 16 cats were fed a high-carbohydrate high-fat diet for three months. One group (n = 8) received 800 ug CrHis per day for two months, while the other group (n = 8) served as control group...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Denise P Momesso, Rubens Carmo Costa Filho, João Luiz Ferreira Costa, Felipe Saddy, Ayla Mesquita, Marcela Calomeni, Claudia Dos Santos Silva, Jacqueline Farret, Mariana Leon Vasques, Aline G Santos, Ana Paula Vieira Cabral, Dayane Ribeiro, Luciana Reis, Maria de Fátima M Muino, Roberta Santiago Vitorino, Claudio Amorim Monteiro, Evandro Tinoco, Andre Volschan
OBJECTIVE: Glycemic control has been increasingly recognized as a critical element in inpatient care, but optimal management of blood glucose in the hospital setting remains challenging. The aims of this study were to describe and evaluate the impact of the implementation of an inpatient multidisciplinary glucose control management program on glucose control in hospitalized patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records and glucose monitoring data obtained by point- of-care testing (POCT) in hospitalized patients before (May 2014) and after (June 2015 and May 2017) the implementation of the program...
October 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Esa M Davis, Christina M Scifres, Kaleab Abebe, Tina Costacou, Diane Comer, Patrick Catalano, Hyagriv Simhan, Matthew Freiberg, Nancy Day
Objectives  This study is to examine the association between different diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and adverse birth outcomes. Study Design  A retrospective cohort study of 5,937 women with a singleton pregnancy was conducted, who completed GDM screening between 24 to 32 weeks gestational age. Four nonoverlapping groups of women defined as: 1) Normal: glucose challenge test (GCT) <130 mg/dL, 2) elevated GCT + normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): abnormal 1 hour GCT + normal 3 hour OGTT, 3) GDM/International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG): abnormal 3 hour OGTT by the IADPSG criteria, and 4) GDM/Carpenter-Coustan (CC): diagnosis per CC criteria...
October 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Yassmin Mansela Musthaffa, Vikas Goyal, Margaret-Anne Harris, Nitin Kapur, Juliane Leger, Mark Harris
Background Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a rare disorder of autonomic control. A hypoglycaemic seizure in a 4-year-old girl with CCHS led to a more detailed examination of glycaemic control in a cohort of children with CCHS. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study of glucose homeostasis in seven children (3 months to 12 years) with genetically confirmed CCHS using a combination of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), fasting studies and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). CGM was used to compare the effect of diazoxide and dietary intervention in the index patient...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Weiguo Liu, Pengcheng P Shao, Gui-Bai Liang, John Bawiec, Jiafang He, Susan D Aster, Margaret Wu, Garry Chicchi, John Wang, Kwei-Lan Tsao, Jin Shang, Gino Salituro, Yun-Ping Zhou, Cai Li, Taro E Akiyama, Daniel E Metzger, Beth Ann Murphy, Andrew D Howard, Ann E Weber, Joseph L Duffy
We report new SSTR5 antagonists with enhanced potency, subtype selectivity, and minimal off-target activities as compared to previously reported compounds. Starting from the reported SSTR5 antagonist 1 , we systematically surveyed changes in the central core and head piece while maintaining the diphenyl tail group constant. From this study the azaspirodecanone 10 emerged as a new highly potent and selective SSTR5 antagonist. Compound 10 lowered glucose excursion by 94% in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in mice following a 3 mg/kg oral dose...
November 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Ying Chen, Shih Ling Kao, Maudrene Tan, Yilin Ning, Mark Salloway, Hwee Lin Wee, Kavita Venkataraman, Eric Yin Hao Khoo, Yeow Leng Chow, E-Shyong Tai, Chuen Seng Tan
BACKGROUND: Measuring adherence to processes is one of the established ways to quantify the quality of healthcare. Providing timely feedback to healthcare workers on the level of adherence can improve process measures. However, it is challenging to present data on adherence to repetitive time-sensitive tasks in a clear manner. OBJECTIVES: We used inpatient glucose monitoring as a test case to explore the feasibility of using visualizations to communicate adherence to repetitive scheduled tasks to healthcare workers...
December 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Yushi Hirota, Tomokazu Matsuda, Shinsuke Nakajima, Michinori Takabe, Naoko Hashimoto, Tomoaki Nakamura, Yuko Okada, Kazuhiko Sakaguchi, Wataru Ogawa
PURPOSE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are categorized as short- or long-acting types, but information regarding differences in the effects of these two types on postprandial glucose disposal has been limited. We have now investigated the effects of exenatide and liraglutide (short- and long-acting GLP-1RAs, respectively) on glucose disposal during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). METHODS: Fourteen healthy volunteers with normal glucose tolerance underwent three OGTTs, which were performed without pharmacological intervention or after a single administration of exenatide or liraglutide at 30 min and 10 h, respectively, before test initiation...
November 8, 2018: Endocrine
Mingyue Sun, Lulu Chai, Fang Lu, Yang Zhao, Qingna Li, Boya Cui, Rui Gao, Yue Liu
Background: Coronary heart disease has become a serious challenge to China with its high prevalence and mortality. The impaired glucose regulation is prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, there are few drugs that interfere early with impaired glucose regulation. Ginkgo biloba extract not only is a commonly used drug for cardiovascular diseases, but also has a significant effect in reducing blood sugar. Therefore, this study used a single-case randomized controlled trial to explore the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba pills in the treatment of coronary heart disease patients with impaired glucose regulation...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ryuji Okamoto, Masaya Taniguchi, Yuki Onishi, Naoto Kumagai, Junji Uraki, Naoki Fujimoto, Eitaro Fujii, Yutaka Yano, Toru Ogura, Masaaki Ito
It remains unknown which surrogate markers can predict diagnostic test results for primary hyperaldosteronism (PA). The Secondary Hypertension Registry Investigation in Mie Prefecture (SHRIMP) study has sequentially and prospectively recruited 128 patients with hypertension with an aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) greater than 20, evaluated the differences among essential hypertension (EHT), idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA), and aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), and analyzed the predictors for the confirmatory tests...
January 2019: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Yin Ba, Jin Xu, Lin Yuan, Haiyan Zhu, Yipei Yang, Mei Mei Lam, Shulian Zhang, Mili Xiao, Jiayin Xu, Rong Zhang, Chao Chen
Objective: To validate a three-step protocol that assesses the clinical risk associated with using blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMS) in neonates for the management of dysglycaemia. Method: The three-step validation approach included confirmation of the accuracy of the reference method using National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) glucose standards, assessment of analytical risk performed on whole blood collected from paediatric patients routinely tested for glucose and a clinical risk assessment performed using heel stick capillary samples collected from 147 new-born babies and neonates admitted to intensive care...
2018: BMJ Paediatrics Open
Kallscheuer Nicolai, Regina Menezes, Alexandre Foito, Marcelo D Henriques da Silva, Adelaide Braga, Wijbrand Dekker, David Méndez Sevillano, Rita Rosado-Ramos, Carolina Jardim, Joana Oliveira, Patricia Ferreira, Isabel Rocha, Ana Rita Silva, Márcio Sousa, James William Allwood, Michael Bott, Nuno Faria, Derek Stewart, Marcel Ottens, Michael Naesby, Claudia Nunes Dos Santos, Jan Marienhagen
Edible berries are considered to be among nature's treasure chests as they contain a large number of (poly)phenols with potentially health-promoting properties. However, as berries contain complex (poly)phenol mixtures, it is challenging to associate any interesting pharmacological activity with a single compound. Thus, identification of pharmacologically interesting phenols requires systematic analyses of berry extracts. Here, raspberry (Rubus idaeus, var. Prestige) extracts were systematically analyzed to identify bioactive compounds against pathological processes of neurodegenerative diseases...
November 5, 2018: Plant Physiology
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