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Fall risk assessment

Jason L Shaw, Barbara S Robinson, Marcia K Himes, Todd E Daniel, Lydia J Holland, Geoff D Mosley, Claire M Kraft, Rachel L Mulcahey
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An accurate fall risk assessment is an important component of fall prevention, though a fall could occur during testing. To minimize this risk, different guarding methods are used, though there is disagreement regarding the optimal method. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 2 guarding methods, contact guarding (CG) and standby guarding (SG), on performance during the Functional Gait Assessment (FGA). We hypothesized that (1) there would not be a significant difference in FGA scores when comparing CG with SG, and (2) participants would not perceive a difference between the 2 guarding methods...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
Kushang V Patel, Jack M Guralnik, Elizabeth A Phelan, Nancy M Gell, Robert B Wallace, Mark D Sullivan, Dennis C Turk
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and impact of common co-occurring symptoms among community-dwelling older adults in the United States. DESIGN: The National Health and Aging Trends Study is a nationally representative, prospective study with annual data collection between 2011 and 2017. SETTING: Community-based, in-person interviews (survey response rates, 71%-96%). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 7,609 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries, 65 years or older...
December 12, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Azza Hamed, Sebastian Bohm, Falk Mersmann, Adamantios Arampatzis
BACKGROUND: The risk of falling and associated injuries increases with age. Therefore, the prevention of falls is a key priority in geriatrics and is particularly based on physical exercising, aiming to improve the age-related decline in motor performance, which is crucial in response to postural threats. Although the benefits and specifications of effective exercise programs have been well documented in pre-post design studies, that is during the treatment, the definitive retention and transfer of these fall-related exercise benefits to the daily life fall risk during follow-up periods remains largely unclear...
December 13, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Emily J Werder, Dale P Sandler, David B Richardson, Michael E Emch, Richard K Kwok, Lawrence S Engel
BACKGROUND: In a previous study of exposure to oil-related chemicals in Gulf coast residents, we measured blood levels of volatile organic compounds. Levels of styrene were substantially elevated compared to a nationally representative sample. We sought to identify factors contributing to these levels, given the opportunities for styrene exposure in this community. METHODS: We measured blood styrene levels in 667 Gulf coast residents and compared participants' levels of blood styrene to a nationally representative sample...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Matthew Lee Smith, Samuel D Towne, Angelica Herrera-Venson, Kathleen Cameron, Scott A Horel, Marcia G Ory, Chelsea L Gilchrist, Ellen C Schneider, Casey DiCocco, Shannon Skowronski
Falls incidence rates and associated injuries are projected to increase among rural-dwelling older adults, which highlights the need for effective interventions to prevent falls and manage fall-related risks. The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify the geospatial dissemination of eight evidence-based fall prevention programs (e.g., A Matter of Balance, Stepping On, Tai Chi, Otago Exercise Program) across the United States (U.S.) in terms of participants enrolled, workshops delivered, and geospatial reach...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEStereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is characterized by high levels of conformity and steep dose gradients from the periphery of the target to surrounding tissue. Clinical studies have backed up the importance of these factors through evidence of symptomatic complications. Available data suggest that there are threshold doses above which the risk of symptomatic radionecrosis increases with the volume irradiated. Therefore, radiosurgical treatment plans should be optimized by minimizing dose to the surrounding tissue while maximizing dose to the target volume...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Andreas Wiedemann, Jens Püttmann, Hans Heppner
BACKGROUND:  Since 2015 so-called "ISAR Screening" (Identification of Seniors at Risk) is mandatory for patients older than 75 years being hospitalised in Germany. It remains unclear how these patients identified as suffering from geriatric diseases are further characterised in urology and how this information is applied in the ongoing clinical treatment. METHODS:  From the July 1st to December 31th 2016, 337 patients older than 75 years were subjected to ISAR-screening...
December 13, 2018: Aktuelle Urologie
Cedric Alaux, Samuel Soubeyrand, Alberto Prado, Mathilde Peruzzi, Alban Maisonnasse, Julien Vallon, Julie Hernandez, Pascal Jourdan, Yves Le Conte
Honeybee colonies are increasingly exposed to environmental stress factors, which can lead to their decline or failure. However, there are major gaps in stressor risk assessment due to the difficulty of assessing the honeybee colony state and detecting abnormal events. Since stress factors usually induce a demographic disturbance in the colony (e.g. loss of foragers, early transition from nurse to forager state), we suggest that disturbances could be revealed indirectly by measuring the age- and task-related physiological state of bees, which can be referred to as biological age (an indicator of the changes in physiological state that occur throughout an individual lifespan)...
2018: PloS One
Nicola Adams, Dawn A Skelton, Denise Howel, Cathy Bailey, Rosy Lampitt, Tony Fouweather, Joanne Gray, Dorothy Coe, Jennifer Wilkinson, Sheena Gawler, Lex D de Jong, Heather Waterman, Vincent Deary, Michael Clarke, Steve W Parry
BACKGROUND: Visually impaired older people (VIOP) have a higher risk of falling than their sighted peers, and are likely to avoid physical activity. The aim was to adapt the existing Falls Management Exercise (FaME) programme for VIOP, delivered in the community, and to investigate the feasibility of conducting a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) of this adapted intervention. METHODS: Two-centre randomised mixed methods pilot trial and economic evaluation of the adapted group-based FaME programme for VIOP versus usual care...
December 12, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Daniel T Blumstein, Alexis Diaz, Lijie Yin
In many vertebrates, the brain's right hemisphere which is connected to the left visual field specializes in the processing of information about threats while the left hemisphere which is connected to the right visual field specializes in the processing of information about conspecifics. This is referred to as hemispheric lateralization. But individuals that are too predictable in their response to predators could have reduced survival and we may expect selection for somewhat unpredictable responses. We studied hemispheric lateralization in yellow-bellied marmots Marmota flaviventer , a social rodent that falls prey to a variety of terrestrial and aerial predators...
December 2018: Current Zoology
David Scott, Jonas Johansson, Lachlan B McMillan, Peter R Ebeling, Anna Nordstrom, Peter Nordstrom
BACKGROUND: Lower skeletal muscle density, indicating greater infiltration of adipose tissue into muscles, is associated with higher fracture risk in older adults. We aimed to determine whether mid-calf muscle density is associated with falls risk and bone health in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: 2214 community-dwelling men and women who participated in the Healthy Ageing Initiative (Sweden) study at age 70 were included in this analysis. Mid-calf muscle density (mg/cm3 ) at the proximal tibia, and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and architecture at the distal and proximal tibia and radius, were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography...
December 8, 2018: Bone
Joanna M Blodgett, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy, Daniel H J Davis, Rachel Cooper
Background: Cognitive processing plays a crucial role in the integration of sensory input and motor output that facilitates balance. However, whether balance ability in adulthood is influenced by cognitive pathways established in childhood is unclear, especially as no study has examined if these relationships change with age. We aimed to investigate associations between childhood cognition and age-related change in standing balance between mid and later life. Methods: Data on 2380 participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development were included in analyses...
December 8, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Qubekani M Moyo, Martin Besser, Roderick Lynn, Andrew M L Lever
Background: The UK documented a fall of over 30% in imported cases of malaria annually between 1996-2003 however there are still around 1700 cases and 5-10 deaths each year. Prophylaxis health messages focus on families returning to their country of origin as being at particular risk. Methods: We reviewed 225 paper records including demographic data of patients seen in Addenbrooke's hospital (Cambridge University Hospital Foundation Trust - CUHFT) a tertiary referral centre in Cambridge, England...
December 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Braulio Aliaga, Natalia Molina, Matías Noguera, Paula Espinoza, Sebastián Sánchez, Bárbara Lara, Marcela Carrasco, Gonzalo Eymin
BACKGROUND: Detecting patients at risk of falls during hospital stay is of utmost importance to implement preventive measures. AIM: To determine the frequency of patients with a high risk of falls admitted to a medical-surgical ward. To assess the preventive measures implemented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of medical records of 376 patients aged 20 to 97 years (28% older than 70 years) admitted to a clinical hospital in a period of four months...
July 2018: Revista Médica de Chile
Magdalena Sylwia Kamińska, Agnieszka Miller, Iwona Rotter, Aleksandra Szylińska, Elżbieta Grochans
Background: Virtual reality (VR) training using modern game consoles is an innovative rehabilitation method for fall-prone elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of VR training using the "Xbox 360 Kinect" in people over 60 years of age. Materials and methods: The study involved 23 people, including 19 women and 4 men (mean age 75.74±8.09 years). The following functional tests were employed as research instruments: the 6-minute walking test (6MWT), the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), the tandem stance test (TST), the tandem walk test (TWT), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Maria Grazia Benedetti, Michael Coli, Laura Campanacci, Marco Manfrini
Knee A1 rotationplasty is a particular type of limb salvage surgery alternative to hip disarticulation and high transfemoral amputation for skeletally immature children with bone cancers in the distal femur. Notwithstanding optimal functional outcomes, long-term survivor patients often report frequent falls, and a sense of instability during gait, particularly on uneven terrain. This study aimed to assess the postural control, the proprioception, and the risk of fall in these patients, which have not been explored before...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Ryota Sakurai, Hisashi Kawai, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Susumu Ogawa, Hunkyung Kim, Yutaka Watanabe, Hirohiko Hirano, Kazushige Ihara, Shuichi Obuchi, Yoshinori Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Considering the rate of growth of the older population in several countries, accidental falls in older cyclists are expected to increase. However, the prevalence and correlates of bicycle-related falls (BR-falls) are unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the characteristics of BR-falls, focusing on the risk factors. METHODS: Seven-hundred and ninety-one older adults participated in a comprehensive baseline assessment including questions on bicycle use, BR-falls, lifestyle, and physical and cognitive evaluations...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
Antonio Barquet, Peter V Giannoudis, Andrés Gelink
INTRODUCTION: Femoral neck fractures (FNF) after internal fixation of trochanteric fractures (AIFTF) with the implant in situ (WIIS) are uncommon. Publications of FNFAIFTFWIIS are rare. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature is to report on the frequency, risk factors, mechanisms, clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, outcomes and the eventual prevention of this complication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines with no language restriction...
December 2018: Injury
Sophia L Gonzalez, Aimee M Diaz, Hillary A Plummer, Lori A Michener
CONTEXT: Rowers are at risk for overuse injuries, including low back pain (LBP). Defining the utility of screening tests for identifying those at risk for LBP can aid in the development of guidelines for injury prevention. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and impairments can identify rowers at risk for developing LBP. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Athletic training room. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 31 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, female, open-weight rowers (age = 19...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Hanneke J R van Duijnhoven, Jolanda M B Roelofs, Jasper J den Boer, Frits C Lem, Rifka Hofman, Geert E A van Bon, Alexander C H Geurts, Vivian Weerdesteyn
Introduction: People with stroke often have impaired stepping responses following balance perturbations, which increases their risk of falling. Computer-controlled movable platforms are promising tools for delivering perturbation-based balance training under safe and standardized circumstances. Purpose: This proof-of-concept study aimed to identify whether a 5-week perturbation-based balance training program on a movable platform improves reactive step quality in people with chronic stroke. Materials and Methods: Twenty people with chronic stroke received a 5-week perturbation-based balance training (10 sessions, 45 min) on a movable platform...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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