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Fall risk assessment

Vagner Tebaldi de Queiroz, Mariane Martins Azevedo, Iana Pedro da Silva Quadros, Adilson Vidal Costa, Atanásio Alves do Amaral, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves Dos Santos, Ronie Silva Juvanhol, Lucas Arthur de Almeida Telles, Alexandre Rosa Dos Santos
The extensive use of pesticides in agricultural practices has been associated with human health problems and environmental contamination worldwide. Brazil is the largest consumer of pesticides in the world and Espírito Santo State stands out as the second Brazilian producer of coffee. However, there is no information about environmental impact of coffee producing at Itapemirim River Basin (IRB) region, Espírito Santo State, Brazil; hence a simple and quick method using open access softwares (AGROSCRE and ARAquá Web) to estimate surface entrainment and pesticide leaching potential was carried out...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Pierpaolo Palumbo, Clemens Becker, Stefania Bandinelli, Lorenzo Chiari
BACKGROUND: The current guidelines for fall prevention in community-dwelling older adults issued by the American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society (AGS/BGS) indicate an algorithm for identifying who is at increased risk of falling. The predictive accuracy of this algorithm has never been assessed, nor have the consequences that its introduction in clinical practice would bring about. AIMS: To evaluate this risk screening algorithm, estimating its predictive accuracy and its potential impact...
October 19, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Kyle J Foreman, Neal Marquez, Andrew Dolgert, Kai Fukutaki, Nancy Fullman, Madeline McGaughey, Martin A Pletcher, Amanda E Smith, Kendrick Tang, Chun-Wei Yuan, Jonathan C Brown, Joseph Friedman, Jiawei He, Kyle R Heuton, Mollie Holmberg, Disha J Patel, Patrick Reidy, Austin Carter, Kelly Cercy, Abigail Chapin, Dirk Douwes-Schultz, Tahvi Frank, Falko Goettsch, Patrick Y Liu, Vishnu Nandakumar, Marissa B Reitsma, Vince Reuter, Nafis Sadat, Reed J D Sorensen, Vinay Srinivasan, Rachel L Updike, Hunter York, Alan D Lopez, Rafael Lozano, Stephen S Lim, Ali H Mokdad, Stein Emil Vollset, Christopher J L Murray
BACKGROUND: Understanding potential trajectories in health and drivers of health is crucial to guiding long-term investments and policy implementation. Past work on forecasting has provided an incomplete landscape of future health scenarios, highlighting a need for a more robust modelling platform from which policy options and potential health trajectories can be assessed. This study provides a novel approach to modelling life expectancy, all-cause mortality and cause of death forecasts -and alternative future scenarios-for 250 causes of death from 2016 to 2040 in 195 countries and territories...
October 16, 2018: Lancet
David R Lee, Eilann C Santo, Joan C Lo, Miranda L Ritterman Weintraub, Mary Patton, Nancy P Gordon
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a condition of increasing importance, given the aging adult population. With an anticipated shortage of geriatricians, primary care physicians will increasingly need to manage care for frail adults with complex functional risks and social-economic circumstances. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 4551 adults ages 65-90 who responded to the 2014/2015 cycle of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Member Health Survey (MHS), a self-administered survey that covers multiple health and social characteristics, to create a deficits accumulation model frailty index, classify respondents as frail or non-frail, and then compare prevalence of functional health issues including Activities of Daily Living (ADL)/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and social determinants of health (SDOHs) by frailty status...
October 19, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Katherine L Hsieh, Kathleen L Roach, Douglas A Wajda, Jacob J Sosnoff
BACKGROUND: Falls are the leading cause of injury related death in older adults. Impaired postural stability is a predictor of falls but is seldom objectively assessed in clinical or home settings. Embedded accelerometers within smartphones offer potential to objectively measure postural stability. The purpose of this study was to determine if a smartphone embedded accelerometer can measure static postural stability and distinguish older adults at high levels of fall risk. METHODS: Thirty older adults (age: 65...
October 9, 2018: Gait & Posture
A Fields, J Huang, D Schroeder, J Sprung, T Weingarten
BACKGROUND: Agitation after general anaesthesia can lead to self-harm, violence against staff, and increased resource utilisation. We aimed to assess patient and procedural characteristics associated with this complication in adults. METHODS: We identified cases of agitation (Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale score +3 or +4, or administration of haloperidol) in patients after general anaesthesia in the PACU from July 1, 2010 to September 30, 2016. The cases were matched 1:1 with control patients without agitation by age, sex, and procedure...
November 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Tibor Hortobágyi, Azusa Uematsu, Lianne Sanders, Reinhold Kliegl, József Tollár, Renato Moraes, Urs Granacher
BACKGROUND: Dynamic balance keeps the vertical projection of the center of mass within the base of support while walking. Dynamic balance tests are used to predict the risks of falls and eventual falls. The psychometric properties of most dynamic balance tests are unsatisfactory and do not comprise an actual loss of balance while walking. OBJECTIVES: Using beam walking distance as a measure of dynamic balance, the BEAM consortium will determine the psychometric properties, lifespan and patient reference values, the relationship with selected "dynamic balance tests," and the accuracy of beam walking distance to predict falls...
October 18, 2018: Gerontology
Isis Marques Severo, Ricardo Kuchenbecker, Débora Feijó Villas Boas Vieira, Luciana Ramos Correa Pinto, Michele Elisa Weschenfelder Hervé, Amália de Fátima Lucena, Miriam de Abreu Almeida
AIM: To develop and validate a predictive model for falls in hospitalized adult clinical and surgical patients, assessing intrinsic (i.e. patient-related) and extrinsic factors (i.e. care process-related). BACKGROUND: To identify factors predictive of falls and enable appropriate management of fall risk it is necessary to understand patient and environmental factors, along with care delivery processes. DESIGN: A matched case-control study...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Ramez Chahine, Rita Farah, Michèle Chahoud, Alain Harb, Rami Tarabay, Eric Sauleau, Roger Godbout
Background: Sleep problems in teenagers seriously disturb the active process of learning. Given the absence of sleep data from Lebanon, a study to determine sleep quality among adolescents is vital. Aims: To understand sleep habits and patterns that affect sleep quality, and assess the amplitude of possible sleep problems in Lebanese adolescents, raising awareness of the effects of good sleep hygiene on general health in adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 500 high-school students in Beirut was conducted using a self-filled questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographics, health-risk behaviour and sleep quality...
October 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Susan L Murphy, Elliot B Tapper, Jennifer Blackwood, James K Richardson
Falls are prevalent for people with cirrhosis and commonly lead to loss of independence, reduced quality of life, and mortality. Despite a critical need for fall prevention in this population, cirrhosis-specific fall-related mechanisms are not well understood. We posit that most falls in this patient population are due to a coalescence of discrete subclinical impairments that are not typically detected at the point of care. The combined effect of these subtle age- and disease-related neurocognitive and muscular impairments leads to the inability to respond successfully to a postural perturbation within the available 300 to 400 ms...
October 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Ji Hyun Park, Cheol Min Lee, Hyun Young Lee, Dae Ryong Kang
Long-term exposure to high radon concentration exerts pathological effects and elicits changes in respiratory function, increasing an individual's risk of developing lung cancer. In health risk assessment of indoor radon, consideration of long-term exposure thereto is necessary to identify a relationship between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer. However, measuring long-term indoor radon concentration can be difficult, and a statistical model for predicting mean annual indoor radon concentrations may be readily applicable...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
John P Bourke, Teofila Bueser, Rosaline Quinlivan
BACKGROUND: The dystrophinopathies include Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), and X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XLDCM). In recent years, co-ordinated multidisciplinary management for these diseases has improved the quality of care, with early corticosteroid use prolonging independent ambulation, and the routine use of non-invasive ventilation signficantly increasing survival. The next target to improve outcomes is optimising treatments to delay the onset or slow the progression of cardiac involvement and so prolong survival further...
October 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Heidi Taipale, Aleksi Hamina, Niina Karttunen, Marjaana Koponen, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen
The objective of this study was to investigate whether incident opioid use is associated with an increased risk of hip fractures among community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to assess the association in terms of duration of use and opioid strength.Among community-dwelling persons with AD diagnosed in 2010-2011 (N=23,100), a matched cohort study comparing incident opioid users (N=4,750) to opioid nonusers (N=4,750) was constructed. Matching was based on age, gender and time since AD diagnosis at opioid initiation...
October 12, 2018: Pain
Michael S Zastrozhin, Anastasiya P Antonenko, Elena V Nesterenko, Leyla I Seyfullaeva, Violetta R Mustafina, Antonina P Esakova, Elena A Grishina, Alexandr S Sorokin, Valentin Yu Skryabin, Ludmila M Savchenko, Evgeny A Bryun, Dmitry A Sychev
Background Bromodihydrochlorophenylbenzodiazepine (Phenazepam®) is used in the therapy of anxiety disorders in patients with alcohol dependence. However, Phenazepam therapy often turns out to be ineffective, and some patients develop dose-related adverse drug reactions (ADR): severe sedation, dizziness, headache, dyspepsia, falling, etc. That ensures the effectiveness of this category of patients. Despite the popularity of Phenazepam® as an anxiolytic drug, there is currently no accurate data on its biotransformation, as well as the effect of polymorphism of a gene on the efficacy and safety of bromodihydrochlorophenylbenzodiazepine in patients...
October 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
Julia Zhu, Kitty Gelberg
BACKGROUND: Workers are killed every year in wood chipper-related incidents despite the repeated hazard warnings. In-depth, comprehensive, and up-to-date studies are needed to identify causal, risk, and contributing factors and assess the current control measures so that an effective and proactive prevention approach can be developed. METHODS: Cases were identified from four online databases and manually reviewed to characterize and categorize the fatal events. RESULTS: The study identified 113 wood chipper-related worker deaths (1982-2016)...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Esra Ates Bulut, Pinar Soysal, Ahmet Turan Isik
Background: Geriatric syndromes are complex clinical manifestations that are not an isolated disease in older adults and have common risk factors within themselves. The syndromes are significant causes of mortality, morbidity, and increased health care costs. Objective: To determine the frequency of geriatric syndromes such as malnutrition, dementia, depression, falls, polypharmacy, urinary incontinence, pressure ulcer, sarcopenia, and frailty in community-dwelling older adults...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Sebastian Fudickar, Christian Stolle, Nils Volkening, Andreas Hein
Since variations in common gait parameters (such as cadence, velocity and stride-length) of elderly people are a reliable indicator of functional and cognitive decline in aging and increased fall risks, such gait parameters have to be monitored continuously to enable preventive interventions as early as possible. With scanning laser rangefinders (SLR) having been shown to be suitable for standardised (frontal) gait assessments, this article introduces an unobtrusive gait monitoring (UGMO) system for lateral gait monitoring in homes for the elderly...
October 12, 2018: Sensors
David Taylor, Ruth McCaffrey, Humberto Reinoso, Mary W Mathis, Lisa Dickerson, Johnathan Hamrick, Suzie L Madden, Henry H Heard, Ellen Perlow, Christine M Klein
An aging population benefits from healthcare providers trained in the care of older adults. Interprofessional education (IPE) and service-learning activities focused on geriatric conditions like falls may address this need. A fall prevention IPE activity using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths & Injuries (STEADI) initiative was implemented to prepare health sciences students to manage older adult falls. Students (N = 31) and faculty (N = 10) from five health sciences programs and local older adults (N = 27) participated...
October 15, 2018: Gerontology & Geriatrics Education
Andrew D Williams, Marie-Louise Bird, Sibella Gk Hardcastle, Mark Kirschbaum, Kathryn J Ogden, Julia Ae Walters
BACKGROUND: Current treatment modalities for cancer have been successful in achieving improved survivorship; however, they come with a number of long-term adverse effects. Accidental falls are a common and clinically significant adverse event in people living with and beyond cancer and rates are higher than in the rest of the population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prescribed or provided exercise for reducing accidental falls, and falls risk factors of strength, flexibility and balance, in people living with and beyond cancer...
October 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Frederico Pieruccini-Faria, Yanina Sarquis-Adamson, Manuel Montero-Odasso
BACKGROUND: Older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) are at higher risk of falls and injuries, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Inappropriate anticipatory postural adjustments to overcome balance perturbations are affected by cognitive decline. However, it is unknown whether anticipatory gait control to avoid an obstacle is affected in MCI. OBJECTIVE: Using the dual-task paradigm, we aim to assess whether gait control is affected during obstacle negotiation challenges in older adults with MCI...
October 12, 2018: Gerontology
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