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Meniere syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30482329/disorders-of-the-inner-ear-balance-organs-and-their-pathways
#1
Allison S Young, Sally M Rosengren, Miriam S Welgampola
Disorders of the inner-ear balance organs can be grouped by their manner of presentation into acute, episodic, or chronic vestibular syndromes. A sudden unilateral vestibular injury produces severe vertigo, nausea, and imbalance lasting days, known as the acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). A bedside head impulse and oculomotor examination helps separate vestibular neuritis, the more common and innocuous cause of AVS, from stroke. Benign positional vertigo, a common cause of episodic positional vertigo, occurs when otoconia overlying the otolith membrane falls into the semicircular canals, producing brief spells of spinning vertigo triggered by head movement...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30481057/underappreciated-roles-of-the-translocase-of-the-outer-and-inner-mitochondrial-membrane-protein-complexes-in-human-disease
#2
Thea Heinemeyer, Monique Stemmet, Soraya Bardien, Annika Neethling
Mitochondria are critical for cellular survival, and for their proper functioning, translocation of ∼1500 proteins across the mitochondrial membranes is required. The translocase of the outer (TOMM) and inner mitochondrial membrane (TIMM) complexes are major components of this translocation machinery. Through specific processes, preproteins and other molecules are imported, translocated, and directed to specific mitochondrial compartments for their function. In this study, we review the association of subunits of these complexes with human disease...
November 27, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390121/inner-ear-pathologies-impair-sodium-regulated-ion-transport-in-meniere-s-disease
#3
Andreas H Eckhard, MengYu Zhu, Jennifer T O'Malley, Gordon H Williams, Johannes Loffing, Steven D Rauch, Joe B Nadol, M Charles Liberman, Joe C Adams
Meniere's disease (MD), a syndromal inner ear disease, is commonly associated with a pathological accumulation of endolymphatic fluid in the inner ear, termed "idiopathic" endolymphatic hydrops (iEH). Although numerous precipitating/exacerbating factors have been proposed for MD, its etiology remains elusive. Here, using immunohistochemistry and in situ protein-protein interaction detection assays, we demonstrate mineralocorticoid-controlled sodium transport mechanisms in the epithelium of the extraosseous portion of the endolymphatic sac (eES) in the murine and human inner ears...
November 2, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30356417/update-on-vertigo-in-autoimmune-disorders-from-diagnosis-to-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Laura Girasoli, Diego Cazzador, Roberto Padoan, Ennio Nardello, Mara Felicetti, Elisabetta Zanoletti, Franco Schiavon, Roberto Bovo
The prevalence of autoimmune diseases has been increasing over the last 20 years. The clinical presentation of this large and heterogeneous group of disorders depends on whether the involvement is organ-specific or non-organ-specific. Dizziness, vertigo, and disequilibrium are common symptoms reported by patients with vestibulocochlear involvement. The association of vertigo and autoimmune diseases has been largely documented, suggesting that autoimmune disorders could be overrepresented in patients with vertigo in comparison to the general population...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306317/clinical-manifestations-of-hydropic-ear-disease-meni%C3%A3-re-s
#5
Robert Gürkov, Claudia Jerin, Wilhelm Flatz, Rebecca Maxwell
INTRODUCTION: Hydropic ear disease, initially described by and named after Prosper Menière, is one of the most frequent vertigo disorders and one of the most frequent inner ear disorders. It is the syndrome of endolymphatic hydrops which until 2007 could be diagnostically confirmed only by post-mortem histology. In the past, various attempts to formulate clinical diagnostic criteria have been undertaken but were hampered by the inability to ascertain the diagnosis in living patients...
October 10, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303940/focal-degeneration-of-vestibular-neuroepithelium-in-the-cristae-ampullares-of-three-human-subjects
#6
Tadao Okayasu, Jennifer T O'Malley, Joseph B Nadol
BACKGROUND: We report a unique pattern of focal degeneration of the neuroepithelium of cristae ampullares, thick subepithelial extracellular deposits, and neural degeneration in three humans. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the pattern of vestibular degeneration and measure the thickness of subepithelial deposits in these three cases and controls. METHODS: The subepithelial deposits of vestibular end organs in three subject cases and controls were studied using hematoxylin and eosin, periotic acid-Schiff, Gomori trichrome staining, and immunostaining for antineurofilament, antimyosin VIIa, and anticollagen 4a1...
December 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30250448/simultaneous-presentation-of-definite-vestibular-migraine-and-definite-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-overlapping-syndrome-of-two-diseases
#7
Toshihisa Murofushi, Masahito Tsubota, Kyoko Kitao, Eriko Yoshimura
Objectives: To review the clinical records of patients that exhibited the clinical features of both vestibular migraine (VM) and Ménière's disease (MD) during each episodic vertigo attack and to discuss the possible pathophysiology of such combination of symptoms. Subjects: Ten patients that were selected according to criteria based on a combination of the diagnostic criteria for definite MD and VM (9 females and one male, age: 22-54 years) were enrolled. They were required to show features of both diseases in each vertigo attack...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173213/hearing-outcomes-after-transmastoid-plugging-of-superior-canal-dehiscence
#8
Katharina Wilms, Arneborg Ernst, Philipp Mittmann
BACKGROUND: Patients with a superior canal dehiscence syndrome display symptoms of the vestibular disorder except that of hearing loss. Therefore, any type of surgery should treat those symptoms without affecting the hearing threshold. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which the hearing threshold has been affected; the evaluation process was carried out by a transmastoid plugging of the superior canal. Another aim was to estimate the risk in loss of hearing due to this surgery...
2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30167723/-neuro-otology-at-the-borders-of-ear-and-brain
#9
REVIEW
A Zwergal, V Kirsch, J Gerb, J Dlugaiczyk, S Becker-Bense, M Dieterich
Vertigo and dizziness are frequent chief complaints in clinical practice. Symptoms may originate from otological, neurological, medical and psychiatric etiologies, which poses an interdisciplinary challenge. Systematic analysis of case history and clinical examination generally allow classification into peripheral-, central- or non-vestibular disorders. The most important criteria for differentiation are the timeline, quality of symptoms, modulating factors and accompanying symptoms. As concerns the clinical examination, the following tests are relevant: head impulse test, test for spontaneous nystagmus, positional nystagmus, central ocular motor signs and the Romberg test...
October 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113791/-paradigm-shift-in-management-of-patients-with-vertigo-and-imbalance
#10
REVIEW
Andrea Mike, T László Tamás
Dizziness is one of the most common causes of medical visits. Management of the dizzy patient may be challenging both for the general practitioner, in emergency departments, and special clinics, as behind a seemingly homogeneous clinical presentation several very different etiologies may occur. Research of the last two century enriched our knowledge about physiology and pathophysiology of the vestibular system. Much knowledge is now available about the labyrinth being able to sense head motions and gravity, processing of afferent vestibular stimuli, reflectory oculomotor and postural control, or recovery of the vestibular system...
July 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038452/epidemiology-of-vestibular-impairments-in-a-pediatric-population
#11
REVIEW
Sylvette R Wiener-Vacher, Juliette Quarez, Audrey Le Priol
The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of vestibular impairment (VI) in children ( n  = 2,528) referred for complete vestibular testing because of balance disorders (BD) or hearing loss (H). A VI was shown in 51.5% of the children tested (1,304/2,528). For BD (e.g., vertigo, dizziness, instability, delay in posturomotor development), VI was found in 36.5% ( n  = 379/1,037). The most frequent causes of BD with VI included inner ear malformation (13.5%), delay in posturomotor development (13...
August 2018: Seminars in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023055/sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-in-atypical-cogan-s-syndrome-a-case-report
#12
José Luis Treviño González, German A Soto-Galindo, Rafael Moreno Sales, Josefina A Morales Del Ángel
The Cogan's syndrome (CS) is a very uncommon inflammatory condition that appears in young adults without a gender predisposition. It can be presented as typical, with interstitial non-syphilitic keratitis and Ménière-like audiovestibular manifestations. An atypical form of CS involves uveitis, scleritis, episcleritis, and systemic vascuitis symptoms. This is a case of a 41-year old male who reported eye redness, photophobia, and gait instability. His condition progressed to a sudden sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and constant vertigo accompanied by cephalea...
June 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928252/susceptibility-to-fear-of-heights-in-bilateral-vestibulopathy-and-other-disorders-of-vertigo-and-balance
#13
Thomas Brandt, Eva Grill, Michael Strupp, Doreen Huppert
Aims: To determine the susceptibility to visual height intolerance (vHI) in patients with acquired bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP). The question was whether postural instability in BVP, which is partially compensated for by visual substitution of the impaired vestibular control of balance, leads to an increased susceptibility. This is of particular importance since fear of heights is dependent on body posture, and visual control of balance at heights can no longer substitute vestibular input. For comparison susceptibility to vHI was determined in patients with other vestibular or functional disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794430/diagnosis-of-vertigo-and-dizziness-syndromes-in-a-neurological-outpatient-clinic
#14
Qi Pan, Yixin Zhang, Ting Long, Wei He, Shanshan Zhang, Yulan Fan, Jiying Zhou
BACKGROUND: Dizziness and vertigo are frequent complaints of outpatients in the neurological department. Our objective was to explore the epidemiological category and clinical features of patients with dizziness or vertigo in the neurological outpatient department of a tertiary hospital. METHODS: We consecutively recruited all patients with dizziness and/or vertigo visiting the neurological outpatient clinic of the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2016 to June 2017...
2018: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751260/forkhead-box-c1-gene-variant-causing-glaucoma-and-small-vessel-angiopathy-can-mimic-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Jagannadha R Avasarala, Julie R Jones, Curtis R Rogers
A 34-year old Caucasian female was initially diagnosed with multiple small-vessel strokes at age 20 years which were etiologically classified as secondary to anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) although she had no history or laboratory data to suggest APS. Based on her MRI of brain findings, one of her neurologists was concerned she could have multiple sclerosis (MS) and hence the patient was referred to our clinic for further evaluation. The patient's MRI of brain showed confluent lesions in the periventricular and juxta-cortical lesions that fulfil 2017 McDonald criteria for dissemination in space...
May 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582143/genetic-contribution-to-vestibular-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Alvaro Gallego-Martinez, Juan Manuel Espinosa-Sanchez, Jose Antonio Lopez-Escamez
Growing evidence supports the contribution of allelic variation to vestibular disorders. Heritability attributed to rare allelic variants is found in familial vestibular syndromes such as enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome or familial Meniere disease. However, the involvement of common allelic variants as key regulators of physiological processes in common and rare vestibular diseases is starting to be deciphered, including motion sickness or sporadic Meniere disease. The genetic contribution to most of the vestibular disorders is still largely unknown...
October 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545765/clinical-characteristics-and-etiology-of-bilateral-vestibular-loss-in-a-cohort-from-central-illinois
#17
Jorge C Kattah
Background: Previous series of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) identified numerous etiologies, but surprisingly, a cause in a significant number of cases remains unknown. In an effort to understand possible etiology and management strategies, a global effort is currently in progress. Here, I contribute my 10-year experience with both acute and chronic BVL during the 2007-2017 decade. Methods: This is a retrospective review of the charts and EMR of patients diagnosed with BVL in the last 10 years...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535671/predictive-capability-of-an-ipad-based-medical-device-me-d-x-for-the-diagnosis-of-vertigo-and-dizziness
#18
Katharina Feil, Regina Feuerecker, Nicolina Goldschagg, Ralf Strobl, Thomas Brandt, Albrecht von Müller, Eva Grill, Michael Strupp
Background: Making the correct diagnosis of patients presenting with vertigo and dizziness in clinical practice is often challenging. Objective: In this study we examined the performance of the iPad based program me d x in the prediction of different clinical vertigo and dizziness diagnoses and as a diagnostic tool to distinguish between them. Patients and methods: The data collection was done in the outpatient clinic of the German Center of Vertigo and Balance Disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532288/dizziness-and-vertigo-syndromes-viewed-with-a-historical-eye
#19
Doreen Huppert, Thomas Brandt
Seasickness, fear of heights, and adverse effects of alcohol were the major areas where descriptions of vertigo and dizziness were found in Roman, Greek, and Chinese texts from about 730 BC-600 AD. A few detailed accounts were suggestive of specific vestibular disorders such as Menière's attacks (Huangdi Neijing, the Yellow Thearch's Classic of Internal Medicine) or vestibular migraine (Aretaeus of Cappadocia). Further, the etymological and metaphorical meanings of the terms and their symptoms provide fascinating historical insights, e...
October 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495044/-head-neck-mri-what-ent-specialists-should-know
#20
Gerlig Widmann
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important imaging technique for otorhinolaryngology. The aim of the present CME contribution for ENT physicians is to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages as well as the possibilities of head and neck MRI and to summarize the main clinical applications of the various MRI sequences. Basic sequences (T1w, T2w, T1wC+) and fat suppression sequences (TIRM/STIR, Dixon, Spectral Fat sat) are the basis for evaluating inflammation, congenital lesions and tumors...
March 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
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