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Lutz Joachimsen, Nikolai J Gross, Wolf A Lagrèze
Myopia is on the increase worldwide and will become a major challenge over the next decades in terms of secondary ophthalmologic complications. There are effective therapeutic options available to slow or prevent the progression of myopia. So far, it has not been investigated whether there are possible additive effects of these interventions. Further investigations - especially in Caucasian populations - are necessary to verify the study results available from Asia. There is limited data on how long further progression of myopia is preventable...
August 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Kazuhiro Nishikawa, Akira Tsuburaya, Takaki Yoshikawa, Michiya Kobayashi, Junji Kawada, Ryoji Fukushima, Takanori Matsui, Kazuaki Tanabe, Kazuya Yamaguchi, Shigefumi Yoshino, Masazumi Takahashi, Naoki Hirabayashi, Seiji Sato, Hiroshi Nemoto, Yasushi Rino, Junta Nakajima, Toru Aoyama, Yohei Miyagi, Noboru Oriuchi, Kensei Yamaguchi, Yumi Miyashita, Satoshi Morita, Junichi Sakamoto
BACKGROUND: Capecitabine plus cisplatin (XP) is a standard global regimen, while S-1 plus cisplatin (SP) is a Japanese standard for first-line treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC). We conducted a phase II trial comparing XP with SP for patients with AGC to confirm whether these regimens can be used as controls in a phase III study and to explore whether histological subtypes favour XP or SP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients were randomised to receive either S-1 40 mg/m2 for 21 days plus cisplatin 60 mg/m2 (q5w) or capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 for 14 days plus cisplatin 80 mg/m2 (q3w)...
August 7, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Linda Önnby, Nicolas Walpen, Elisabeth Salhi, Michael Sander, Urs von Gunten
Electron-donating activated aromatic moieties, including phenols, in dissolved organic matter (DOM) partially control its reactivity with the chemical oxidants ozone and chlorine. This comparative study introduces two sensitive analytical systems to directly and selectively quantify the electron-donating capacity (EDC) of DOM, which corresponds to the number of electrons transferred from activated aromatic moieties, including phenols, to the added chemical oxidant 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) radical cation (i...
June 27, 2018: Water Research
Nora Gibitz-Eisath, Miriam Eichberger, Regina Gruber, Sonja Sturm, Hermann Stuppner
This study presents a fast and validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector (UHPLC-DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of the major compounds in Verbena officinalis L. (Verbenaceae), a medicinal plant listed in the European, British, and, Chinese Pharmacopoeias. In order to get reference substances, nine compounds, belonging to iridoids, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoid glycosides, were isolated from the herb extract. Two of them, namely cistanoside D and leucosceptoside A, were found in this plant species for the first time...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Munehiro Iiya, Masato Shimizu, Kohei Takahashi, Hiroyuki Fujii, Makoto Suzuki, Noriyoshi Yamawake, Mitsuhiro Nishizaki
PURPOSE: To predict neurological outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) using a combination of hemoglobin (Hb) and low-flow duration (LFD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined 131 patients (75 ± 13 years, 64 men) with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) following non-traumatic OHCA. The LFD was the duration from the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation to ROSC. To obtain the Hb/LFD value, we divided the Hb level by the LFD...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Priya K Prasai, Bandana Shrestha, A Wayne Orr, Christopher B Pattillo
The angiogenic capacity of local tissue critically regulates the response to ischemic injury. Elevated reactive oxygen species production, commonly associated with ischemic injury, has been shown to promote phosphorylation of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), a critical regulator of angiogenesis. Previous data from our lab demonstrated that diminished levels of the antioxidant glutathione positively augment ischemic angiogenesis. Here, we sought to determine the relationship between glutathione levels and oxidative stress in VEGFR2 signaling...
July 25, 2018: Redox Biology
Boyu Shen, Chong Chen, Kangrui Hu, Xinuo Li, Dian Kang, Haofeng Li, Zhangpei Zhu, Xiaoxi Yin, Yangfan Xu, Jiajia Shen, Huimin Guo, Lin Xie, Guangji Wang, Yan Liang
When developing a quantitative assay for exogenous or endogenous compounds, guidelines for method validation normally recommend that the biological specimens should be prepared in corresponding authentic matrices, yet "analyte-free authentic matrices" is in general not available. It is generally known that GSH and CYS are endogenous compounds and present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Herein, an efficient approach for the quantitative analysis of endogenous substances in biological specimens was developed, and glutathione (GSH) & cysteine (CYS) were chosen as model endogenous substances...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Juan Li, Yu Chen, Piao Zhou, Qiqi Fan, Qingli Wang, Xiaorang Chen, Yingqian Su, Yanyan Diao, Meili Guo, Mengchen An, Hongmin Liu
MDH-7 (2,3,9-tri-O-acetyl-5,6-dideoxy-1,10-di-[N4'-pentoxycarbonyl-5'-fluoro cytosine]-4-ulose 1,4: 7,10-difuranose-4,8-pyranose) is a novel anti-tumor drug candidate. To study the pharmacokinetic interaction between MDH-7 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to simultaneously determine the concentrations of MDH-7 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by simple liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Sachin Kumar, Akanksha Sharma, Rinkesh Kumar Gupta, Ajay Kumar Verma, Premendra D Dwivedi
Tree nuts are among "Big Eight" and have been reported globally for causing allergy. Buchanania lanzan (Bl) is one of the major tree nuts consumed by Indian population. However, very little is known about B. lanzan's induced allergic manifestation. Therefore, evaluation of it's allergenic potential was undertaken. Bl-crude protein extract sensitized BALB/c mice sera were used to identify the allergic proteins by it's IgE binding capability. The major IgE binding proteins found with molecular weight of 11, 20, 23, 25, 48, 54, and 65 kDa...
August 7, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Julia M Guerin, Marc L Copersino, David J Schretlen
BACKGROUND: The Geriatric Depression Scale, Short Form (GDS-15) is a widely-used depression rating scale for elderly adults. It might be useful for persons across the adult lifespan, but more research is needed to support its clinical utility with young and middle-aged adults. METHODS: We examined the classification accuracy of the GDS-15 in identifying depression cases and non-cases in adults aged 18-54 (n = 199) compared to those aged 55-80 (n = 112), using the standard cutoff score of 5...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Tomoko Iida, Yusuke Tomogane, Toshinori Takagi, Yuki Miyaji, Daisuke Sakamoto, Yasunori Yoshida, Reiichi Ishikura, Kumiko Ando, Nami Nakagomi, Seiichi Hirota, Shinichi Yoshimura
OBJECTIVE: Changes in brain tissue can be detected sensitively using PRESTO (principles of echo-shifting with a train of observations) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the proliferative ability of astrocytoma and intratumoral spotty signal voids seen as hypo-intense dots on PRESTO MRI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven astrocytic tumors, comprising 14 astrocytomas, 12 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 31 glioblastomas, were included in this retrospective study...
July 23, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Zhiyi Yao, Siming You, Yanjun Dai, Chi-Hwa Wang
Gasification and pyrolysis technologies have been widely employed to produce fuels and chemicals from solid wastes. Rare studies have been conducted to compare the particulate emissions from gasification and pyrolysis, and relevant inhalation exposure assessment is still lacking. In this work, we characterized the particles emitted from the gasification and pyrolysis experiments under different temperatures (500, 600, and 700 °C). The collection efficiencies of existing cyclones were compared based on particle respiratory deposition...
August 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
P Ciffroy, M Benedetti
The main objectives of this study were to evaluate global uncertainty in the prediction of Distribution coefficients (Kds) for several Trace Metals (TM) (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) through the probabilistic use of a geochemical speciation model, and to conduct sensitivity analysis in speciation modeling in order to identify the main sources of uncertainty in Kd prediction. As a case study, data from the Loire river (France) were considered. The geochemical speciation model takes into account complexation of TM with inorganic ligands, sorption of TM with hydrous ferric oxides, complexation of TM with dissolved and particulate organic matter (i...
August 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Daniel C Teixeira, Luiz D Lacerda, Emmanoel V Silva-Filho
The terrestrial biogeochemical cycle of mercury has been widely studied because, among other causes, it presents a global distribution and harmful biotic interactions. Forested ecosystems shows great concentrations from Hg and Litterfall is known as the major contributor to the fluxes at the soil/air interface, through the superficial adsorption on the leaves and by the gas exchange of the stomatal pores. The understanding of which processes control the stage of Hg cycle in these ecosystems is still not totally clear...
July 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Zejin Wang, Zhiliang Jin, Hong Yuan, Guorong Wang, Bingzhen Ma
Stable and efficient photocatalyst is the key important research goals up to now. On account of the dominant performance of Ni2 P, g-C3 N4 (graphitized carbonitride) and UiO-66 (Universitetet i Oslo) themselves, an orderly-designed assemble of g-C3 N4 /UiO-66/Ni2 P is successfully designed and assembled with capability of high-efficient dye-sensitized photocatalytic H2 evolution. The electron transport routes are successfully adjusted and the hydrogen evolution is greatly improved. It exhibits synergistic effect on highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jong-Hyeok Park, Sun-Ho Lee, Eun-Sang Kim, Whan Eoh
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of intraoperative somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) and motor-evoked potential (MEP) monitoring according to two different warning criteria during 6 months from intramedullary spinal ependymoma (IMSE) surgery. METHODS: Twenty-six patients who underwent IMSE surgery with intraoperative monitoring from January 2010 to June 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. We examined the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictable value (PPV), negative predictable value (NPV), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of SSEP and MEP monitoring for each extremity according to two warning criteria: 50% decline and all-or-none...
August 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Saradha Ananthakrishnan, Ananthanarayan Krishnan
The perceived pitch of iterated rippled noise (IRN) with negative gain (IRNn) is an octave lower than that of IRN with positive gain (IRNp). IRNp and IRNn have identical waveform envelopes (ENV), but differing stimulus waveform fine structure (TFS), which likely accounts for this perceived pitch difference. Here, we examine whether differences in the temporal pattern of phase-locked activity reflected in the human brainstem Frequency Following Response (FFR) elicited by IRNp and IRNn can account for the differences in perceived pitch for the two stimuli...
July 29, 2018: Hearing Research
Thomas Koelewijn, Adriana A Zekveld, Thomas Lunner, Sophia E Kramer
Listening to speech in noise can be effortful but when motivated people seem to be more persevering. Previous research showed effects of monetary reward on autonomic responses like cardiovascular reactivity and pupil dilation while participants processed auditory information. The current study examined the effects of monetary reward on the processing of speech in noise and related listening effort as reflected by the pupil dilation response. Twenty-four participants (median age 21 yrs) performed two speech reception threshold (SRT) tasks, one tracking 50% correct (hard) and one tracking 85% correct (easy), both of which they listened to and repeated sentences uttered by a female talker...
July 27, 2018: Hearing Research
Yuanyuan Cui, Feng Zhou, Hongli Bai, Lai Wei, Jianying Tan, Zheng Zeng, Qiang Song, Junying Chen, Nan Huang
In vitro evaluation techniques that address cellular interactions under dynamic circumstances are required for the development of advanced biomaterials. In this study, quartz crystal microbalance and dissipation (QCM-D) provided a surface sensitive technique that enabled real-time monitoring of the adhesion and spreading response of endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages (MAs) to soluble-semaphoring 4D (SEMA4D)/heparin modified substratum. The high heparin and low SEMA4D of substratum promoted ECs adhering and spreading...
August 1, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Hadi Mirahmadi, Azam Shahrakipour, Ahmad Mehravaran, Alireza Salami Khorashad, Mansour Rahmati-Balaghaleh, Mehdi Zarean
BACKGROUND: Malaria is still a major public health problem in subtropical and tropical regions. The rapid and accurate diagnosis of malaria remains a challenge in most of the endemic areas. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of multiplex/nested PCR in detecting Plasmodium falciparum at low parasite densities and mixed infection. METHODS: The study was performed in the Sistan-Baluchestan province of the southeastern Iran, from May 2015 to July 2016...
August 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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