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David Jebb, Michael Hiller
Apart from glucose, fatty acid-derived ketone bodies provide metabolic energy for the brain during fasting and neonatal development. We investigated the evolution of HMGCS2 , the key enzyme required for ketone body biosynthesis (ketogenesis). Unexpectedly, we found that three mammalian lineages, comprising cetaceans (dolphins and whales), elephants and mastodons, and Old World fruit bats have lost this gene. Remarkably, many of these species have exceptionally large brains and signs of intelligent behavior...
October 16, 2018: ELife
Kevin D'hoe, Stefan Vet, Karoline Faust, Frédéric Moens, Gwen Falony, Didier Gonze, Verónica Lloréns-Rico, Lendert Gelens, Jan Danckaert, Luc De Vuyst, Jeroen Raes
Whereas the composition of the human gut microbiome is well resolved, predictive understanding is still lacking. Here, we followed a bottom-up strategy to explore human gut community dynamics: we established a synthetic community composed of three representative human gut isolates ( Roseburia intestinalis L1-82, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165 and Blautia hydrogenotrophica S5a33) and explored their interactions under well-controlled conditions in vitro. Systematic mono- and pair-wise fermentation experiments confirmed competition for fructose and cross-feeding of formate...
October 16, 2018: ELife
Rada D Ðurović-Pejčev, Vojislava P Bursić, Tijana M Zeremski
Background: The increased use of pesticides leads to permanent pollution of soil, and there is a need for continuous monitoring of these agrochemicals in soil. Objective: Three methods for the simultaneous determination of 12 pesticides belonging to eight chemical groups in soil samples were tested and compared based on analytical parameters. Methods: The quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS); traditional solid-liquid extraction (SLE); and Soxhlet extraction were used for soil sample preparation, while detection and quantification of pesticides were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Anupam Rej, Imran Aziz, David Surendran Sanders
Humankind has existed for 2·5 million years but only in the past 10 000 years have we been exposed to wheat. Therefore, it could be considered that wheat (gluten) is a novel introduction to humankind's diet! Prior to 1939, the rationing system had already been devised. This led to an imperative to try to increase agricultural production. Thus, it was agreed in 1941 that there was a need to establish a Nutrition Society. The very roots of the Society were geared towards necessarily increasing the production of wheat...
October 16, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Dolors Mateo-Ortega, Joaquín T Limonero, Jorge Maté-Méndez, Elba Beas, Jesús González-Barboteo, Elisabeth Barbero, Sara Ela, Xavier Gómez-Batiste
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to describe the development of a new tool, the Psychosocial and Spiritual Needs Evaluation scale Instrumento de Evaluación de Necesidades Psicosociales y Espirituales del Enfermo al Final de Vida (ENP-E), designed to assess the psychosocial needs of end-of-life (EOL) patients. And, secondarily, to describe the face validity and psychometric properties of this instrument in the Spanish-speaking context. METHOD: The scale was developed through a seven-stage process: (1) literature review; (2) expert panel establishment; (3) discussion and agreement on the most relevant dimensions of psychosocial care; (4) description of key indicators and consensus-based questions to evaluate such dimensions; (5) assessment of the scale by external palliative care (PC) professionals; (6) evaluation by patients; and (7) analysis of scale's psychometrics properties...
October 16, 2018: Palliative & Supportive Care
Xingsheng Zhao, Yu Ren, Hui Li, Yun Wu
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the most common chronic disease, and most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the association between hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) gene -250G/A (rs2070895) and -514C/T (rs1800588) polymorphisms and the susceptibility to hypertension. METHODS: Published studies were searched using the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess the quality of the included studies...
October 15, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Hamed Ghaffari, Linda R Petzold
BACKGROUND: In the classical pathway of retinoic acid (RA) mediated gene transcription, RA binds to a nuclear hormone receptor dimer composed of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), to induce the expression of its downstream target genes. In addition to nuclear receptors, there are other intracellular RA binding proteins such as cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABP1 and CRABP2) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, whose contributions to the RA signaling pathway have not been fully understood...
October 16, 2018: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
Achim Seeger, Marion Batra, Daniela Süsskind, Ulrike Ernemann, Till-Karsten Hauser
Background Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become an important tool for lesion characterization. Advanced techniques of DWI may be used to improve image quality. Purpose To evaluate multi-shot segmented DWI (rs-EPI, RESOLVE) and reduced field-of view DWI (rFOV-EPI, "zoomed" EPI) in patients with ocular melanoma and to compare image quality and diagnostic performance in differentiation of melanoma from retinal detachment. Material and Methods In this prospective and IRB-approved trial, we examined 26 patients using methods including conventional single-shot echo-planar DWI (ss-EPI), rs-EPI, and rFOV-EPI...
October 15, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Ashok Pedabelle Reddy, Rajat Mahajan, Tarush Rustagi, Harvinder Singh Chhabra
Study Design: Retrospective case series. Purpose: Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is associated with etiologies such as lumbar disc herniation (LDH) and lumbar canal stenosis (LCS). CES has a prevalence of 2% among patients with LDH and exhibits variable outcomes, even with early surgery. Few studies have explored the factors influencing the prognosis in terms of bladder function. Therefore, we aimed to assess the factors contributing to bladder recovery and propose a simplified bladder recovery classification...
October 16, 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Parisa Azimi, Taravat Yazdanian, Sohrab Shahzadi, Edward C Benzel, Shirzad Azhari, Hossein Nayeb Aghaei, Ali Montazeri
Study Design: Case-control. Purpose: To determine optimal cut-off value for body mass index (BMI) in predicting surgical success in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). Overview of Literature: BMI is an essential variable in the assessment of patients with LSCS. Methods: We conducted a prospective study with obese and non-obese LSCS surgical patients and analyzed data on age, sex, duration of symptoms, walking distance, morphologic grade of stenosis, BMI, postoperative complications, and functional disability...
October 16, 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Manuela De Sario, Roberto Pasetto, Simona Vecchi, Ariana Zeka, Gerard Hoek, Paola Michelozzi, Ivano Iavarone, Tony Fletcher, Lisa Bauleo, Carla Ancona
BACKGROUND: this paper is based upon work from COST Action ICSHNet. Industrial contaminated sites (ICSs) are of high concern since industrial plants have produced widespread contamination potentially affecting the health of local population OBJECTIVES: to assess the types of epidemiological designs applied in studies of health effects related to ICSs according to time periods, type of ICS, and geography. METHODS: a literature search was conducted in Medline (OVID) through June 30th, 2018, using MeSH and customized terms, and no restrictions on publication year or language...
September 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Bebiana Conde, Natália Martins, Inês Rodrigues, Ana Claúdia Pimenta, João Carlos Winck
(1) Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition, whose bulbar involvement compromises language, swallowing, and airway protection. When oral nutrition is no longer adequate, percutaneous endoscopic gastroscopy (PEG) may be indicated. However, as exact timing is still debatable, we tried to find it. (2) Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed using fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES), functional evaluation scales (ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and bulbar sub-score (ALSFRS-R-B)), lung function tests (like Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Cough Peak Flow (CPF)) and anthropometric data...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Li Yan Chan, Joshua Ding Wei Teo, Kevin Shyong-Wei Tan, Keitaro Sou, Wei Lek Kwan, Chi-Lik Ken Lee
Chloroquine was among the first of several effective drug treatments against malaria until the onset of chloroquine resistance. In light of diminished clinical efficacy of chloroquine as an antimalarial therapeutic, there is potential in efforts to adapt chloroquine for other clinical applications, such as in combination therapies and in diagnostics. In this context, we designed and synthesized a novel asymmetrical squaraine dye coupled with chloroquine (SQR1-CQ). In this study, SQR1-CQ was used to label live Plasmodium falciparum ( P...
October 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Cheol-Ho Hong, Kyungwoon Lee, Minkoo Kang, Chuck Yoo
Fog computing is a new computing paradigm that employs computation and network resources at the edge of a network to build small clouds, which perform as small data centers. In fog computing, lightweight virtualization (e.g., containers) has been widely used to achieve low overhead for performance-limited fog devices such as WiFi access points (APs) and set-top boxes. Unfortunately, containers have a weakness in the control of network bandwidth for outbound traffic, which poses a challenge to fog computing...
October 13, 2018: Sensors
Turja Nandy, Ronald A Coutu, Cristinel Ababei
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas, and environmental pollutant. Its detection and control in residential and industrial environments are necessary in order to avoid potentially severe health problems in humans. In this review paper, we discuss the importance of furthering research in CO sensing technologies for finding the proper material with low-range detection ability in very optimum condition. We build our discussion through the perspective of a cyber-physical system (CPS) modeling framework, because it provides a comprehensive framework to model and develop automated solutions for detection and control of poisonous chemical compounds, such as the CO...
October 13, 2018: Sensors
Kyle J Burghardt, Kristen M Ward, Elani J Sanders, Bradley H Howlett, Berhane Seyoum, Zhengping Yi
Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) are a class of medications associated with significant metabolic side effects, including insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the skeletal muscle lipidome of patients on AAPs, compared to mood stabilizers, to further understand the molecular changes underlying AAP treatment and side effects. Bipolar patients on AAPs or mood stabilizers underwent a fasting muscle biopsy and assessment of insulin sensitivity. A lipidomic analysis of total fatty acids (TFAs), phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and ceramides (CERs) was performed on the muscle biopsies, then lipid species were compared between treatment groups, and correlation analyses were performed with insulin sensitivity...
October 13, 2018: Metabolites
Fábio Leitão, Eurico Moreira, Filipe Alves, Mário Lourenço, Olga Azevedo, João Gaspar, Luis A Rocha
Several devices and measurement approaches have recently been developed to perform ballistocardiogram (BCG) and seismocardiogram (SCG) measurements. The development of a wireless acquisition system (hardware and software), incorporating a novel high-resolution micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer for SCG and BCG signals acquisition and data treatment is presented in this paper. A small accelerometer, with a sensitivity of up to 0.164 µs/µg and a noise density below 6.5 µg/ Hz is presented and used in a wireless acquisition system for BCG and SCG measurement applications...
October 13, 2018: Sensors
Katrien Benhalima, Paul Van Crombrugge, Carolien Moyson, Johan Verhaeghe, Sofie Vandeginste, Hilde Verlaenen, Chris Vercammen, Toon Maes, Els Dufraimont, Christophe De Block, Yves Jacquemyn, Farah Mekahli, Katrien De Clippel, Annick Van Den Bruel, Anne Loccufier, Annouschka Laenen, Caro Minschart, Roland Devlieger, Chantal Mathieu
This study determines if a modified two-step screening strategy with a glucose challenge test (GCT) ≥ 7.2 mmol/L and clinical risk factors improves the diagnostic accuracy for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), based on 2013 WHO criteria, while limiting the number of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). This was a prospective multicentric cohort study with 1811 participants receiving both GCT and 75 g OGTT in pregnancy. Participants and health care providers were blinded for GCT. Characteristics were analyzed across four glucose tolerance groups: abnormal (≥7...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Yoav Snir, Shlomo Haroush, Albert Danon, Alex Landau, Yaniv Gelbstein, Dan Eliezer
PH13-8Mo is a precipitation hardened martensitic stainless steel, known for its high strength but also for its high sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement. Small punch test, SPT (also referred to as the ball punch test, BPT), is a relatively simple and new technique to assess the mechanical properties of samples under biaxial loading conditions. The current study utilizes the unique loading conditions of SPT to investigate the mechanical behavior and fracture prior to and after the hydrogen charging of PH13-8Mo steel...
October 12, 2018: Materials
Chao-Zhan Lin, Run-Jing Zhang, Yu-Feng Yao, Xiao-Dan Huang, Rong-Bo Zheng, Bo-Jian Wu, Chen-Chen Zhu
Quality control of Chinese herbal tea remains a challenge due to our poor knowledge of their complex chemical profile. This study aims to investigate the chemical composition of one of the best-selling and famous brand of beverage in China, Wanglaoji Herbal Tea (WLJHT), via a full component quantitative analysis. In this paper, a total of thirty-two representative constituents were identified or tentatively characterized using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS)...
October 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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