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Sub 5 nm

Hoon Choi, Ting Liu, Hui Qiao, Ann-Marie Chacko, Shang-Hsiu Hu, San-Yuan Chen, Rong Zhou, I-Wei Chen
Sub-50 nm nanoparticles feature long circulation and deep tumor penetration. However, at high volume fractions needed for intravenous injection, safe, highly biocompatible phospholipids cannot form such nanoparticles due to the fluidity of phospholipid shells. Here we overcome this challenge using a nano-surfactant, a sterilized 18-amino-acid biomimetic of the amphipathic helical motif abundant in HDL-apolipoproteins. As it induces a nanoscale phase (glass) transition in the phospholipid monolayer, the peptide stabilizes 5-7 nm phospholipid micelles that do not fuse at high concentrations but aggregate into stable micellesomes exhibiting size-dependent penetration into tumors...
July 30, 2018: Biomaterials
Riyadh Al-Attabi, Yosry Morsi, Jürg A Schütz, Ludovic F Dumée
The development of fibrous air filters exhibiting high air filtration efficiency, low energy consumption, and self-cleaning properties is a critical challenge to generate the next generation of resilient air filtration systems. Nano-fibrous mats typically exhibit higher particle capture efficiency but may also lead to higher airflow resistance compared to macro-fibrous materials due to their tighter structure. In this paper, novel catalytic membranes mats were fabricated through a one-pot synthesis from ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM) doped poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) nanofibers for sub-micron diameter aerosol particle removal...
August 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kibret A Messalea, Benjamin J Carey, Azmira Jannat, Nitu Syed, Md Mohiuddin, Bao Yue Zhang, Ali Zavabeti, Taimur Ahmed, Nasir Mahmood, Enrico Della Gaspera, Khashayar Khoshmanesh, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Torben Daeneke
Atomically thin, semiconducting transition and post transition metal oxides are emerging as a promising category of materials for high-performance oxide optoelectronic applications. However, the wafer-scale synthesis of crystalline atomically thin samples has been a challenge, particularly for oxides that do not present layered crystal structures. Herein we use a facile, scalable method to synthesise ultrathin bismuth oxide nanosheets using a liquid metal facilitated synthesis approach. Monolayers of α-Bi2O3 featuring sub-nanometre thickness, high crystallinity and large lateral dimensions could be isolated from the liquid bismuth surface...
August 9, 2018: Nanoscale
Maryam Pourhajibagher, Nasim Chiniforush, Abbas Monzavi, Hamidreza Barikani, Mohammad Moein Monzavi, Shaghayegh Sobhani, Sima Shahabi, Abbas Bahador
Objectives: Periodontitis is an inflammation of periodontal tissues that is caused by the biofilm of periodontal pathogens. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ( A. actinomycetemcomitans ) is an opportunistic periodontopathogen that can be the cause of periodontal diseases via fimbriae as a virulence factor. In this study, we aimed to determine the expression level of A. actinomycetemcomitans rcpA gene as a virulence factor associated with biofilm formation after antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as a relatively new therapeutic modality...
May 2018: Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Yasuhide Naito, Masahiro Kotani, Takayuki Ohmura
RATIONALE: A novel matrix-free laser desorption/ionization based on porous alumina membranes was developed. The porous alumina membranes have a 2D ordered structure consisting of closely aligned straight through holes of sub-micron in diameters and are amenable to the mass production by industrial fabrication process. METHODS: Considering a balance between the ion generating efficiency and the mechanical strength of the membranes, the typical values for the hole diameter, open aperture ratio and membrane thickness were set to 200 nm, 50% and 5 μm, respectively...
August 3, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Mahmut S Kavrik, Emily Thomson, Evgueni Chagarov, Kechao Tang, Scott T Ueda, Vincent Hou, Toshihiro Aoki, Moon J Kim, Bernd Fruhberger, Yuan Taur, Paul C McIntyre, Andrew C Kummel
The superior carrier mobility of SiGe alloys make them a highly desirable channel material in CMOS transistors. Passivation of the SiGe surface and the associated minimization of interface defects between SiGe channels and high-k dielectrics continue to be a challenge for fabrication of high-performance SiGe CMOS. A primary source of interface defects is interfacial GeOx. This interface oxide can be decomposed using an oxygen scavenging reactive gate metal; which nearly eliminates the interfacial oxides thereby decreasing the amount of GeOx at the interface; the remaining ultra-thin interlayer is consistent with a SiOx-rich interface [1]...
August 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jung Hye Lee, Hak-Jong Choi, ChulHee Lee, Seung Won Song, Joong Bum Lee, Daihong Huh, Yoon Sung Nam, Duk Young Jeon, Heon Lee, Yeon Sik Jung
For low-cost and facile fabrication of innovative nanoscale devices with outstanding functionality and performance, it is critical to develop more practical patterning solutions that are applicable to a wide range of materials and feature sizes while minimizing detrimental effects by processing conditions. In this study, we report that area-selective sub-10 nm pattern formation can be realized by temperature-controlled spin-casting of block copolymers (BCPs) combined with sub-micron-scale-patterned chemical surfaces...
August 1, 2018: ACS Nano
Ji Qi, Chaowei Sun, Dongyu Li, Hequn Zhang, Wenbin Yu, Abudureheman Zebibula, Jacky W Y Lam, Wang Xi, Liang Zhu, Fuhong Cai, Peifa Wei, Chunlei Zhu, Ryan T K Kwok, Lina L Streich, Robert Prevedel, Jun Qian, Ben Zhong Tang
Currently, a serious problem obstructing the large-scale clinical applications of fluorescence technique is the shallow penetration depth. Two-photon fluorescence microscopic imaging with excitation in the longer-wavelength near-infrared (NIR) region (> 1100 nm) and emission in the NIR-I region (650-950 nm) is a good choice to realize deep-tissue and high-resolution imaging. Here, we report ultradeep two-photon fluorescence bioimaging with 1300-nm NIR-II excitation and NIR-I emission (peak ~810 nm) based on a NIR aggregation-induced emission luminogen (AIEgen)...
July 30, 2018: ACS Nano
Hongrong Yang, Yifei Yao, Huize Li, Lok Wai Cola Ho, Bohan Yin, Wing-Yin Yung, Ken Cham-Fai Leung, Arthur Fuk-Tat Mak, Chung Hang Jonathan Choi
Many investigations into the interactions between nanoparticles and mammalian cells entail the use of culture systems that do not account for the effect of extracellular mechanical cues, such as compression. In this work, we present an experimental set-up to systematically investigate the combined effects of nanoparticle size and compressive stress on the cellular uptake and intracellular localization of poly(ethylene glycol)-coated gold nanoparticles (Au-PEG NPs). Specifically, we employ an automated micromechanical system to apply defined levels of compressive strain to an agarose gel, which transmits defined amounts of unconfined, uniaxial compressive stress to a monolayer of C2C12 mouse myoblasts seeded underneath the gel without compromising cell viability...
July 30, 2018: Nanoscale
Qin Zhou, Sami Kaappa, Sami Malola, Hui Lu, Dawei Guan, Yajuan Li, Haochen Wang, Zhaoxiong Xie, Zhibo Ma, Hannu Häkkinen, Nanfeng Zheng, Xueming Yang, Lansun Zheng
High-resolution real-space imaging of nanoparticle surfaces is desirable for better understanding of surface composition and morphology, molecular interactions at the surface, and nanoparticle chemical functionality in its environment. However, achieving molecular or sub-molecular resolution has proven to be very challenging, due to highly curved nanoparticle surfaces and often insufficient knowledge of the monolayer composition. Here, we demonstrate sub-molecular resolution in scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of thiol monolayer of a 5 nm nanoparticle Ag374 protected by tert-butyl benzene thiol...
July 27, 2018: Nature Communications
Hua-Yao Li, Chul-Soon Lee, Do Hong Kim, Jong-Heun Lee
Ammonia (NH3) is an irritant gas with a unique pungent odor; sub-parts per million (ppm)-level breath ammonia is a medical biomarker for kidney disorders and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria-induced stomach infections. The humidity varies both in ambient environment and exhaled breath and thus humidity dependence of gas sensing characteristics is a great obstacle for real-time applications. Herein, flexible, humidity-independent, and room temperature ammonia sensors are fabricated by the thermal evaporation of CuBr on a polyimide substrate and subsequent coating of a nano-scale moisture-blocking CeO2 overlayer by electron-beam evaporation...
July 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Habtamu Azene Tekle, Tesfahun Molla Bobe, Efrata Girma Tufa, Fithamlak Bisetegen Solomon
BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism is an elevation in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone above the upper limit of the reference range (0.45-4.5 mIU/L) with normal serum TT4 and TT3 concentration. The most important implication of subclinical hypothyroidism is high likelihood of progression of clinical hypothyroidism. METHODS: Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on medical records of patients referred at endocrine clinic Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa from 2010 to 2016...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Haibo Tan, Yunqi Li, Jeonghun Kim, Toshiaki Takei, Zhongli Wang, Xingtao Xu, Jie Wang, Yoshio Bando, Yong-Mook Kang, Jing Tang, Yusuke Yamauchi
Sub-50 nm iron-nitrogen-doped hollow carbon sphere-encapsulated iron carbide nanoparticles (Fe3 C-Fe,N/C) are synthesized by using a triblock copolymer of poly(styrene- b -2-vinylpyridine- b -ethylene oxide) as a soft template. Their typical features, including a large surface area (879.5 m2 g-1 ), small hollow size (≈16 nm), and nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon shell, and encapsulated Fe3 C nanoparticles generate a highly active oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance. Fe3 C-Fe,N/C hollow spheres exhibit an ORR performance comparable to that of commercially available 20 wt% Pt/C in alkaline electrolyte, with a similar half-wave potential, an electron transfer number close to 4, and lower H2 O2 yield of less than 5%...
July 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Guoqiang Liu, Lina Chen, Jin Liu, Meng Qiu, Zhuang Xie, Jian Chang, Yaokang Zhang, Peng Li, Dang Yuan Lei, Zijian Zheng
The development of a new nanolithographic strategy, named scanning nanowelding lithography (SNWL), for the one-step fabrication of arbitrary high-aspect-ratio nanostructures of metal is reported in this study. Different from conventional pattern transfer and additive printing strategies which require subtraction or addition of materials, SNWL makes use of a sharp scanning tip to reshape metal thin films or existing nanostructures into desirable high-aspect-ratio patterns, through a cold-welding effect of metal at the nanoscale...
July 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Kittima Amornwachirabodee, Supaporn Khramchantuk, Prompong Pienpinijtham, Nipan Israsena, Tanapat Palaga, Supason Wanichwecharungruang
Uses of micro-/nano-sized particles to deliver biologically active entities into cells are common for medical therapeutics and prophylactics and also for cellular experiments. Enhancing cellular uptake and avoiding destruction by lysosomes are desirable for general particulate drug delivery systems. Here, we show that the relatively nontoxic, negatively charged oxidized carbon black particles (OCBs) can enhance cellular penetration of micro- and nano-particles. Experiments with retinal-grafted chitosan particles (PRPs) with hydrodynamic sizes of 1200 ± 51...
June 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Richard Daubriac, Emmanuel Scheid, Hiba Rizk, Richard Monflier, Sylvain Joblot, Rémi Beneyton, Pablo Acosta Alba, Sébastien Kerdilès, Filadelfo Cristiano
In this paper, we present an enhanced differential Hall effect measurement method (DHE) for ultrathin Si and SiGe layers for the investigation of dopant activation in the surface region with sub-nanometre resolution. In the case of SiGe, which constitutes the most challenging process, we show the reliability of the SC1 chemical solution (NH4 OH/H2 O2 /H2 O) with its slow etch rate, stoichiometry conservation and low roughness generation. The reliability of a complete DHE procedure, with an etching step as small as 0...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Stefano Dallorto, Daniel Staaks, Adam Schwartzberg, XiaoMin Yang, Kim Y Lee, Ivo W Rangelow, Stefano Cabrini, Deirdre L Olynick
The next generation of hard disk drive technology for data storage densities beyond 5 Tb/in2 will require single-bit patterning of features with sub-10 nm dimensions by nanoimprint lithography. To address this challenge master templates are fabricated using pattern multiplication with atomic layer deposition (ALD). Sub-10 nm lithography requires a solid understanding of materials and their interactions. In this work we study two important oxide materials, silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide, as the pattern spacer and look at their interactions with carbon, chromium and silicon dioxide...
October 5, 2018: Nanotechnology
Fajun Xiao, Yuxuan Ren, Wuyun Shang, Weiren Zhu, Lei Han, Hua Lu, Ting Mei, Malin Premaratne, Jianlin Zhao
We demonstrate that a highly localized plasmonic dark mode with radial symmetry, termed quadrupole-bonded radial breathing mode, can be used for optically trapping the dielectric nanoparticles. In particular, the annular potential well produced by this dark mode shows a sufficiently large depth to stably trap the 5 nm particles under a relatively low optical power. Our results address the quest for precisely trapping sub-10 nm particles with high yield and pave the way for placing sub-10 nm particles conforming to a specific geometric pattern...
July 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Bungala Chinna Jamalaiah
Different concentrations of Dy3+ -doped oxyfluoride tellurite (TWGDy) glasses of composition (85  -  x) TeO2   +  5 WO3   +  10 GeO2   +  x DyF3 , where x  =  0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol% were prepared by melt quenching method. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to study the luminescence properties. Three phenomenological Judd-Ofelt (Ω λ=2,4,6 ) intensity parameters were obtained as Ω2   =  4.90  ×  10-20 cm2 , Ω4   =  1.73  ×  10-20 cm2 and Ω6   =  1...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Yuki Takayama, Yuki Takami, Keizo Fukuda, Takamasa Miyagawa, Yasushi Kagoshima
Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a promising technique for non-destructive structural analysis of micrometre-sized non-crystalline samples at nanometre resolutions. This article describes an atmospheric CXDI system developed at SPring-8 Hyogo beamline BL24XU for in situ structural analysis and designed for experiments at a photon energy of 8 keV. This relatively high X-ray energy enables experiments to be conducted under ambient atmospheric conditions, which is advantageous for the visualization of samples in native states...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
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