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Core shell

Rajan K Chakrabarty, William R Heinson
Black carbon (BC) aerosol, the strongest absorber of visible solar radiation in the atmosphere, contributes to a large uncertainty in direct radiative forcing estimates. A primary reason for this uncertainty is inaccurate parametrizations of the BC mass absorption cross section (MAC_{BC}) and its enhancement factor (E_{MAC_{BC}})-resulting from internal mixing with nonrefractory and nonlight absorbing materials-in climate models. Here, applying scaling theory to numerically exact electromagnetic calculations of simulated BC particles and observational data on BC light absorption, we show that MAC_{BC} and E_{MAC_{BC}} evolve with increasing internal mixing ratios in simple power-law exponents of 1/3...
November 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Luojiang Zhang, K N Hui, K S Hui, Siu Wing Or
High performance of an electrode relies largely on scrupulous design of nanoarchitectures and smart hybridization of bespoke active materials. Here, a 3D heterostructured core-shell architecture was fabricated as a supercapacitor electrode, in which Co3O4 nanowire cores were grown on nickel foam prior to the in situ deposition of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheet shells. Owing to the unique configuration and hybridization, the as-fabricated Co3O4@LDH core-shell electrode exhibited high capacities of 818...
December 5, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Bin Wang, Cheng Tang, Hao-Fan Wang, Xiao Chen, Rui Cao, Qiang Zhang
A cost-effective and highly efficient oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalyst will be significant for the future energy scenario. The emergence of the core-shell heterostructure has invoked new feasibilities to inspire the full potential of non-precious-metal candidates. The shells always have a large thickness, affording robust mechanical properties under harsh reaction conditions, which limits the full exposure of active sites with highly intrinsic reactivity and extrinsic physicochemical characters for optimal performance...
December 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Xuewen Lu, Ting Mei, Qi Guo, Wenjing Zhou, Xiaomei Li, Jitao Chen, Xinke Zhou, Ning Sun, Zhiyuan Fang
The sensitivity of lateral flow assays (LFA) was increased 30-fold by making use of spherical core-shell gold-silica nanoparticles (AuNP@SiO2 NPs). They can be prepared by silylation of surfactant stabilized AuNPs. The AuNP@SiO2 NPs are highly stable and can be used to label antibodies at virtually any concentration. The detection limit of an LFA for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) can be decreased from 10 ng·mL-1 to 300 pg·mL-1 which makes it comparable to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To demonstrate the applicability to an immunoassay, a sandwich assay was developed for vanillin by covalent modification of the AuNP@SiO2 NPs with antibody...
December 4, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Reyhaneh Toufanian, Andrei Piryatinski, Andrew H Mahler, Radhika Iyer, Jennifer A Hollingsworth, Allison M Dennis
The large bulk bandgap (1.35 eV) and Bohr radius (~10 nm) of InP semiconductor nanocrystals provides bandgap tunability over a wide spectral range, providing superior color tuning compared to that of CdSe quantum dots. In this paper, the dependence of the bandgap, photoluminescence emission, and exciton radiative lifetime of core/shell quantum dot heterostructures has been investigated using colloidal InP core nanocrystals with multiple diameters (1.5, 2.5, and 3.7 nm). The shell thickness and composition dependence of the bandgap for type-I and type-II heterostructures was observed by coating the InP core with ZnS, ZnSe, CdS, or CdSe through one to ten iterations of a successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR)-based shell deposition...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Junbo He, Hao Shi, Shuangshuang Huang, Lijuan Han, Weinong Zhang, Qixin Zhong
Nanoencapsulation of α-tocopherol (α-TOC) by blending sodium oleate (NaOl) and rebaudioside A (RebA) was successfully prepared by self-assembly method under mild conditions. The optimized nanoemulsion showed the loading capacity of α-TOC was 30 wt% of sodium oleate. FTIR analysis suggested that hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions were the major forces in α-TOC-NaOl/RebA complexes that were spherical and possessed well-distinguishable core-shell structures. The freeze-dried α-TOC-NaOl/RebA complexes had great stability under ambient conditions...
December 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zengzhen Chen, Meng Niu, Gen Chen, Qiong Wu, Longfei Tan, Changhui Fu, Xiangling Ren, Hongshan Zhong, Ke Xu, Xianwei Meng
There are acknowledged risks of metastasis of cancer cells and obstructing cancer treatment from hypoxia. In this work, we design a multifunctional nanocomposite for treating hypoxia based on the oxygen release capability of CuO triggered by microwave (MW). Core-shell CuO@ZrO2 nanocomposites are prepared by confining CuO nanoparticles within the cavities of mesoporous ZrO2 hollow nanospheres. The 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (IL) is loaded to the CuO@ZrO2 nanocomposites for improving microwave thermal therapy (MWTT)...
December 4, 2018: ACS Nano
Qiong Tong, Magnus S Schmidt, Valentin Wittmann, Stefan Mecking
Nanoparticles with a covalently bound shell of carbohydrate and sulfate groups, respectively, and a polyethylene core were generated by Ni(II)-catalyzed aqueous copolymerization of ethylene with comonomers undec-10-en-1-yl sulfate, undec-10-en-1-yl β-D-glucoside or undec-10-en-1-yl α-D-mannoside, respectively. Via remote substituents of the catalyst, the degree of branching and consequently degree of crystallinity of the polyethylene core could be controlled. This in turn impacts particle shapes, from spherical to anisotropic platelets, as observed by cryo-TEM...
December 4, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Adam Vitale, Hind Murad, Ali A Abdelhafiz, Parker Buntin, Faisal M Alamgir
The concept of a core-shell metallic structures, with a few atomic layers of the "shell" metal delineated from the "core" metal with atomic sharpness opens the door to a multitude of surface-driven materials properties that can be tuned. However, in practice, such architectures are difficult to retain due to the entropic cost of a segregated near-surface architecture, and the core and surface atoms inevitably mix through interdiffusion over time. We present here a systematic study of interdiffusion in a Pt on Au core-shell architecture and the role of an interrupting single layer of graphene sandwiched between them...
December 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaohui Xu, Tugba Isik, Subhajit Kundu, Volkan Ortalan
Noble metallic nanoparticles with unique plasmonic properties are useful in a variety of applications including bio-imaging, sensing, cancer therapy, etc. The properties of metallic nanoparticles can be tuned in multiple ways, among which laser welding is a highly efficient method. In this study, laser-induced inter-welding of Ag-Au nanoparticle (NP) dimers was investigated using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). For the first time, the welding process was directly visualized...
December 4, 2018: Nanoscale
Tatsuya Kameyama, Marino Kishi, Chie Miyamae, Dharmendar Kumar Sharma, Shuzo Hirata, Takahisa Yamamoto, Taro Uematsu, Martin Vacha, Susumu Kuwabata, Tsukasa Torimoto
The nonstoichiometry of I-III-VI semiconductor nanoparticles, especially the ratio of group I to group III elements, has been utilized to control their physicochemical properties. We report the solution-phase synthesis of nonstoichiometric Ag-In-S and Ag-In-Ga-S nanoparticles and results of the investigation of their photoluminescence (PL) properties in relation to their chemical compositions. While stoichiometric AgInS2 nanoparticles simply exhibited only a broad PL band originating from defect sites in the particles, a narrow band edge PL peak newly appeared with a decrease in the Ag fraction in the nonstoichiometric Ag-In-S nanoparticles...
December 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Maryam Mohammadi, Reza Rezaei Mokarram, Hamed Hamishehkar
Nowadays, since the core-shell gold-magnetite nanoparticles include the saturation magnetization (iron oxide) and plasmon surface (gold shell) properties, they have been considered in biological and biomedicine research areas. In the present work, multifunctional glutathione decorated gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (GSH-AuMNPs) were successfully synthesized and fully characterized. From the absorption peak at 525, the formation of the core-shell GSH-AuMNPs was confirmed. Although the saturation magnetization value was slightly decreased during the formation process, they easily were recovered through magnetic decantation...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
Chang-Min Yoon, Kyung Hee Cho, Yoonsun Jang, Jungwon Kim, Kisu Lee, Haejun Yu, Seungae Lee, Jyongsik Jang
Inverted conducting polymer/metal oxide core/shell structured pPPy/SiO2-TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared as electrorheological (ER) materials using sequential experimental methods. The core was synthesized via low-temperature self-assembly of PPy and SiO2 materials, and the outer TiO2 shell was easily coated onto the core part using a sol-gel method and a titanium isopropoxide precursor. Sonication-mediated etching and re-deposition was employed to etch out SiO2 portions from the core part to blend with TiO2 shells...
December 3, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Dominik Sarma, Peter Carl, Estela Climent, Rudolf J Schneider, Knut Rurack
Commercial bead-based assays are commonly built upon polystyrene particles. The polymeric carrier can be encoded with organic dyes and has ideal material properties for cytometric applications such as low density and high refractive index. However, functional groups are conventionally integrated during polymerization and subsequent modification is limited to the reactivity of those groups that have been introduced during the bead preparation step. Additionally, the hydrophobicity of polystyrene as the core material leads to many hydrophobic areas still being present on the beads' surfaces even after functionalization, rendering the particles prone to non-specific adsorption during an application...
December 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Radoslaw Bomba, Witek Kwiatkowski, Antoni Sánchez-Ferrer, Roland Riek, Jason Greenwald
Interactions between biological membranes and disease-associated amyloids are well documented, and their prevalence suggests that an inherent affinity exists between these molecular assemblies. Our interest in the molecular origins of life have led us to investigate the nature of such interactions in the context of their molecular predecessors (i.e., vesicle-forming amphiphiles and small peptides). Under certain conditions, amyloidogenic peptides or fatty acids are each able to form ordered structures on their own; however, we report here on their cooperative assembly into novel, to our knowledge, highly ordered structures...
November 10, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Yu Long, Zekun Gao, Jiaheng Qin, Peng Wang, Wei Wu, Lin Zhang, Zhengping Dong, Jiantai Ma
Four types of core-shell materials with magnetic Fe3 O4 microparticles as the core were prepared through different approaches using dopamine, glucose, tetrabutyl orthotitanate (TBOT), and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the shell precursor, respectively. CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) was successfully immobilized onto these supports to fabricate efficient catalysts for the tandem catalytic synthesis of imines from benzyl alcohols and anilines at low temperature under air atmosphere. The as-prepared catalysts were detailedly characterized by TEM, EDX, XRD, FT-IR, XPS VSM, ICP, and CO2 -TPD...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Diandian Deng, Hong Yang, Chang Liu, Kang Zhao, Jianguo Li, Anping Deng
An immunochromatographic assay (ICA) based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for ultrasensitive determination of Sudan I in food samples was reported. Gold-silver core-shell bimetallic nanorods (referred to as Au@Ag NRs) were synthesized, characterized and used as the substrate for preparation of the ICA. Polyclonal antibody against Sudan I was immobilized on the surface of the Au@Ag NRs carrying the Raman reporter 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid). The Raman scattering intensity on the test line was used for quantitation of Sudan I...
March 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Yao Tong, Xueyan Liu, Lei Zhang
A well-designed core-shelled Fe3 O4 @graphitic carbon (Fe3 O4 @GC) submicrocube was in situ constructed in a simple, relatively green and eco-friendly ways basing on one-step pyrolysis of low-cost waste napkins-coated Fe2 O3 submicrocubes. The Fe3 O4 @GC submicrocubes showed unique architectures where in situ generated thin graphitic carbon layer wrapped on the surface of Fe3 O4 , resulting in excellent affinity to five phthalate esters (PAEs), good reusability and rapid magnetic separation, therefore were employed as magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction material combined with HPLC to simultaneously detect five trace PAEs in beverages and plastic bottles...
March 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Gawon Yi, Jihwan Son, Jihye Yoo, Changhee Park, Heebeom Koo
Nanoparticles have been widely used as drug carriers, and finding new materials for them is important for efficient drug delivery. Herein, we developed a new nanoparticle using emulsan and flax seed oil. Emulsan is one of the representative biosurfactants obtained from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1. The resulting nanoparticles have an emulsan shell and a hydrophobic oil core, into which pheophorbide a (Pba) was loaded as a model drug. The nanoparticles were about 165.7 nm and were stably dispersed in an aqueous condition for more than one week...
November 27, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Parakandy Muzhikara Pratheeksha, Jayabalan Sri Rajeshwari, Paul Joseph Daniel, Tata Narasinga Rao, Srinivasan Anandan
In the present study, we have developed a simple and cost-effective approach for the synthesis of carbon coated LiFePO₄ wherein different carbon precursors were used to find out the suitable precursor for carbon coating. Initially, the appropriate amount of Li, Fe, and P precursors and carbon source (glucose/sucrose/fructose) were dissolved in ethanol solution followed by hydrothermal treatment at 180 °C to obtain carbon coated LiFePO₄. The structure and morphological analysis of In-Situ carbon coated LiFePO₄ revealed the formation of thin and homogeneous carbon layer on crystalline single-phase LiFePO₄ particles with fructose used as carbon precursor...
May 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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