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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474989/proportion-of-adult-community-acquired-pneumonia-cases-attributable-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae-among-hajj-pilgrims-in-2016
#1
Ali AlBarrak, Badriah Alotaibi, Yara Yassin, Abdulaziz Mushi, Fuad Maashi, Yassein Seedahmed, Mohamed Alshaer, Abdulaziz Altaweel, Husameddin Elshiekh, Abdulhafiz Turkistani, Tanaz Petigara, John Grabenstein, Saber Yezli
BACKGROUND: The Hajj mass gathering is a risk for pneumococcal disease. We evaluated the proportion of adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) cases attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae among Hajj pilgrims in 2016. To add sensitivity to etiologic attribution, we used a urine-antigen test, in addition to culture-based methods METHODS: Adults hospitalized with x-ray confirmed CAP were prospectively enrolled from all general hospitals designated to treat Hajj pilgrims in the holy cities of Mecca and Medina...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474940/information-framing-reduces-initial-negative-attitudes-in-cancer-patients-decisions-about-hospice-care
#2
Ilona Fridman, Paul A Glare, Stacy Stabler, Andrew S Epstein, Alison Wiesenthal, Thomas W Leblanc, E Tory Higgins
BACKGROUND: Negative attitudes toward hospice care might prevent patients with cancer from discussing and choosing hospice as they approach end of life. When making a decision, people often naturally focus on either expected benefits or avoidance of harm. Behavioral research demonstrated that framing information in an incongruent manner with patients' underlying motivational focus reduces their negative attitudes toward a disliked option. OBJECTIVE: Our study tests this communication technique with cancer patients, aiming to reduce negative attitudes toward a potentially beneficial but often-disliked option: hospice care...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474862/patterns-and-effects-of-gc3-heterogeneity-and-parsimony-informative-sites-on-the-phylogenetic-tree-of-genes
#3
Shuai Ma, Qi Wu, Yibo Hu, Fuwen Wei
The explosive growth in genomic data has provided novel insights into the conflicting signals hidden in phylogenetic trees. Although some studies have explored the effects of the GC content and parsimony informative sites (PIS) on the phylogenetic tree, the effect of the heterogeneity of the GC content at the first/second/third codon position on parsimony informative sites (GC1/2/3PIS ) among different species and the effect of PIS on phylogenetic tree construction remain largely unexplored. Here, we used two different mammal genomic datasets to explore the patterns of GC1/2/3PIS heterogeneity and the effect of PIS on the phylogenetic tree of genes: (i) all GC1/2/3PIS have obvious heterogeneity between different mammals, and the levels of heterogeneity are GC3PIS  > GC2PIS  > GC1PIS ; (ii) the number of PIS is positively correlated with the metrics of "good" gene tree topologies, and excluding the third codon position (C3) decreases the quality of gene trees by removing too many PIS...
February 20, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474659/communication-failure-analysis-of-prescribers-use-of-an-internal-free-text-field-on-electronic-prescriptions
#4
Angela Ai, Adrian Wong, Mary Amato, Adam Wright
Importance: Electronic prescribing promises to improve the safety and clarity of prescriptions. However, it also can introduce miscommunication between prescribers and pharmacists. There are situations where information that is meant to be sent to pharmacists is not sent to them, which has the potential for dangerous errors. Objective: To examine how frequently prescribers or administrative personnel put information intended for pharmacists in a field not sent to pharmacists, classify the type of information included, and assess the potential harm associated with these missed messages...
February 21, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474652/monitoring-quality-of-care-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-patients-using-retrospective-registry-data
#5
Giovanni Veronesi, Antonella Zambon, John F Beltrame, Francesco Gianfagna, Giovanni Corrao, Marco M Ferrario
Background: Hospital-based registries provide a key contribution in assessing the quality of care in acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients, although some concern on selection bias of included cases has recently arisen. We investigated the feasibility of a retrospective, population-based registry of MIs in monitoring the quality of care. Methods: We identified all the hospitalizations with a diagnosis of acute MI among 35-79 years old residents in the Varese province, Northern Italy, in 2007-2008...
February 21, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474639/-valuable-but-incomplete-a-qualitative-study-about-migrants-perspective-on-health-examinations-in-stockholm
#6
Jad Shedrawy, Knut Lönnroth, Asli Kulane
Background: A voluntary health examination is offered to asylum seekers in Sweden with the purpose of detecting infectious diseases and identifying other health needs. This study aimed to explore the organization, content and perceived value of the health examination from the perspective of asylum seekers. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 migrants recruited from different settings in Stockholm. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality framework...
February 21, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474574/evidence-based-medicine-and-big-genomic-data
#7
John P A Ioannidis, Muin J Khoury
Genomic and other related big data (Big Genomic Data, BGD for short) are ushering a new era of precision medicine. This overview discusses whether principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM) hold true for BGD and how they should be operationalized in the current era. Major EBM principles include the systematic identification, description and analysis of the validity and utility of BGD, the combination of individual clinical expertise with individual patient needs and preferences, and the focus on obtaining experimental evidence, whenever possible...
February 20, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474506/derivation-of-outcome-based-pediatric-critical-values
#8
Hao Du, Corey Markus, Michael Metz, Mengling Feng, Tze Ping Loh
Objectives: There is currently a lack of an outcomes-based definition of critical values for the pediatric population. This has contributed to a highly heterogeneous critical value reporting practice between laboratories. Methods: Anonymized results were extracted from a laboratory information system for 10 biochemistry tests. The probability of high-dependency/intensive care unit admission (as a proxy for adverse outcomes) for each individual laboratory concentration was calculated and adjusted to fit using a polynomial function to model the probability trend...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474397/beyond-signal-functions-in-global-obstetric-care-using-a-clinical-cascade-to-measure-emergency-obstetric-readiness
#9
John N Cranmer, Julia Dettinger, Kimberly Calkins, Minnie Kibore, Onesmus Gachuno, Dilys Walker
BACKGROUND: Globally, the rate of reduction in delivery-associated maternal and perinatal mortality has been slow compared to improvements in post-delivery mortality in children under five. Improving clinical readiness for basic obstetric emergencies is crucial for reducing facility-based maternal deaths. Emergency readiness is commonly assessed using tracers derived from the maternal signal functions model. OBJECTIVE-METHOD: We compare emergency readiness using the signal functions model and a novel clinical cascade...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474391/support-service-utilization-and-out-of-pocket-payments-for-health-services-in-a-population-based-sample-of-adults-with-neurological-conditions
#10
Adebimpe O Obembe, Charlie H Goldsmith, Lisa A Simpson, Brodie M Sakakibara, Janice J Eng
BACKGROUND: Social support can help to deal with the consequences of neurological conditions and promote functional independence and quality of life. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of neurological conditions on the use of support and health-care services in a population-based sample of community-dwelling adults with neurological conditions. METHODS: Data were from the Survey of Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada, which was derived from a representative sample of household residents...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474386/peak-oxygen-uptake-in-paralympic-sitting-sports-a-systematic-literature-review-meta-and-pooled-data-analysis
#11
Julia Kathrin Baumgart, Berit Brurok, Øyvind Sandbakk
BACKGROUND: Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in Paralympic sitting sports athletes represents their maximal ability to deliver energy aerobically in an upper-body mode, with values being influenced by sex, disability-related physiological limitations, sport-specific demands, training status and how they are tested. OBJECTIVES: To identify VO2peak values in Paralympic sitting sports, examine between-sports differences and within-sports variations in VO2peak and determine the influence of sex, age, body-mass, disability and test-mode on VO2peak...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474362/analysis-of-socioeconomic-differences-in-the-quality-of-antenatal-services-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-lmics
#12
Joshua Amo-Adjei, Kofi Aduo-Adjei, Christiana Opoku-Nyamah, Chimaroake Izugbara
The desired results of increasing access and availability of antenatal care (ANC) services may not be realized if the quality of care offered is not adequate. We analyzed the content/quality of antenatal care to determine whether there are socioeconomic (education and wealth) inequalities in the services provided in 59 low and middle income countries in six WHO regions-Africa, East Asia and Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and Caribbean, Middle East and South Asia. We aggregated the most recent (2005-2015) Demographic and Health Survey for each country...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474347/improving-detection-of-patient-deterioration-in-the-general-hospital-ward-environment
#13
Jean-Louis Vincent, Sharon Einav, Rupert Pearse, Samir Jaber, Peter Kranke, Frank J Overdyk, David K Whitaker, Federico Gordo, Albert Dahan, Andreas Hoeft
: Patient monitoring on low acuity general hospital wards is currently based largely on intermittent observations and measurements of simple variables, such as blood pressure and temperature, by nursing staff. Often several hours can pass between such measurements and patient deterioration can go unnoticed. Moreover, the integration and interpretation of the information gleaned through these measurements remains highly dependent on clinical judgement. More intensive monitoring, which is commonly used in peri-operative and intensive care settings, is more likely to lead to the early identification of patients who are developing complications than is intermittent monitoring...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474313/perception-of-patient-safety-culture-in-pediatric-long-term-care-settings
#14
Amanda J Hessels, Meghan T Murray, Bevin Cohen, Elaine L Larson
INTRODUCTION: Patient safety culture (PSC) is an emerging construct in adult long-term care settings. No measures are validated to quantify PSC in pediatric long-term care (pLTC) settings despite the importance of safety for this vulnerable population. The study purposes are to (1) describe PSC in pLTC, (2) assess the relationship of PSC to facility recommendation and overall safety rating, and (3) test the stability and reliability of the PSC survey over time. METHODS: A modified Nursing Home PSC (NHSPSC) survey was administered to employees at three pLTC facilities over 3 years; data were summarized and compared over time...
February 16, 2018: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474293/predicting-pain-levels-following-vaginal-reconstructive-surgery-who-is-at-highest-risk
#15
Abigail Shatkin-Margolis, Catrina C Crisp, Christopher Morrison, Rachel N Pauls
OBJECTIVES: An ability to anticipate individuals at increased risk of postoperative pain would improve coordination of care and patient satisfaction. We sought to describe predictive factors of postoperative pain following vaginal reconstructive surgery. METHODS: This institutional review board-approved, retrospective study used previously collected data from research performed at 1 center from 2009 to 2015. Eligible trials enrolled subjects undergoing vaginal reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse...
March 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474265/global-mental-health-and-schizophrenia
#16
Laura Asher, Abebaw Fekadu, Charlotte Hanlon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim was to synthesize recent evidence on schizophrenia illness experience and outcomes and models of care in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). RECENT FINDINGS: There is a plurality of explanatory models for psychosis and increasing evidence that context influences experiences of stigma. People with schizophrenia in LMICs are vulnerable to food insecurity, violence and physical health problems, in addition to unmet needs for mental healthcare...
February 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474252/coordination-across-ambulatory-care-a-comparison-of-referrals-and-health-information-exchange-across-convenient-and-traditional-settings
#17
Ji Chang, Dave Chokshi, Joseph Ladapo
Urgent care centers have been identified as one means of shifting care from high-cost emergency departments while increasing after-hours access to care. However, the episodic nature of urgent care also has the potential to fragment care. In this study, we examine the adoption of 2 coordination activities-referrals and the electronic exchange of health information-at urgent care centers and other ambulatory providers across the United States. We find that setting is significantly associated with both health information exchange and referrals...
April 2018: Journal of Ambulatory Care Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474245/moving-toward-paying-for-outcomes-in-medicaid
#18
Billy Millwee, Kevin Quinn, Norbert Goldfield
Medicaid can improve beneficiary health and help sustain its own future by embracing payment for outcomes. Good precedents exist from states such as Florida, Maryland, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas. Medicaid outcome measures include preventable admissions, readmissions, emergency department visits, and inpatient complications; early elective deliveries; infant and child mortality; patient-reported outcomes, satisfaction, and confidence; and reduction in low-value care. Criteria to prioritize initiatives include potential savings, availability of established models, impact on health status, and Medicaid's ability to effect change...
April 2018: Journal of Ambulatory Care Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474211/cdc-s-6-18-initiative-a-cross-sector-approach-to-translating-evidence-into-practice
#19
Laura C Seeff, Tricia McGinnis, Hilary Heishman
CONTEXT: As the US health care system continues to undergo dynamic change, the increased alignment between health care quality and payment has provided new opportunities for public health and health care sectors to work together. PROGRAM: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 6|18 Initiative accelerates cross-sector collaboration between public health and health care purchasers, payers, and providers and highlights 6 high-burden conditions and 18 associated interventions with evidence of cost reduction/neutrality and improved health outcomes...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474173/possibility-of-database-research-as-a-means-of-pharmacovigilance-in-japan-based-on-a-comparison-with-sertraline-postmarketing-surveillance
#20
Yoko Hirano, Yuko Asami, Kazuhiko Kuribayashi, Shigeru Kitazaki, Yuji Yamamoto, Yoko Fujimoto
BACKGROUND: Many pharmacoepidemiologic studies using large-scale databases have recently been utilized to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs in Western countries. In Japan, however, conventional methodology has been applied to postmarketing surveillance (PMS) to collect safety and effectiveness information on new drugs to meet regulatory requirements. Conventional PMS entails enormous costs and resources despite being an uncontrolled observational study method. This study is aimed at examining the possibility of database research as a more efficient pharmacovigilance approach by comparing a health care claims database and PMS with regard to the characteristics and safety profiles of sertraline-prescribed patients...
June 20, 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
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