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Parkinson AND Treatment

Owen O'Neil, Manuel Maurie Fernandez, Jürgen Herzog, Marta Beorchia, Valerio Gower, Furio Gramatica, Klaus Starrost, Lorenz Kiwull
Virtual reality for the treatment of motor impairment is a burgeoning application of digital technology in neurorehabilitation. Virtual reality systems pose an opportunity for healthcare providers to augment the dose of task orientated exercises delivered both in the clinic, and via telerehabilitation models in the home. The technology is almost exclusively applied as an adjunct to traditional approaches and is typically characterised by the use of gamified exergames which feature task orientated physiotherapy exercises...
August 16, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Maria S Aymerich, Ester Aso, Miguel A Abellanas, Rosa M Tolon, Jose A Ramos, Isidre Ferrer, Julian Romero, Javier Fernández-Ruiz
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) exerts a modulatory effect of important functions such as neurotransmission, glial activation, oxidative stress, or protein homeostasis. Dysregulation of these cellular processes is a common neuropathological hallmark in aging and in neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). The broad spectrum of actions of cannabinoids allows targeting different aspects of these multifactorial diseases. In this review, we examine the therapeutic potential of the ECS for the treatment of chronic neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS focusing on Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
August 16, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Prashant Donthamsetti, Eduardo F Gallo, David C Buck, Edward L Stahl, Ying Zhu, J Robert Lane, Laura M Bohn, Kim A Neve, Christoph Kellendonk, Jonathan A Javitch
The dopamine (DA) D2 receptor (D2R) is an important target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. However, the development of improved therapeutic strategies has been hampered by our incomplete understanding of this receptor's downstream signaling processes in vivo and how these relate to the desired and undesired effects of drugs. D2R is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that activates G protein-dependent as well as non-canonical arrestin-dependent signaling pathways...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Carlos Mauricio Oliveira de Almeida, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Manoel Alves Sobreira-Neto, Vitor Tumas, Alan Luiz Eckeli
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by the presence of a complex of signals resulting from the loss of REM sleep atony and manifested by vigorous and sometimes violent motor jerks and nocturnal vocalizations associated with dream enactment. RBD might be a clinical predictor of severity for Parkinson's disease (PD) and one of its most important non-motor manifestations, preceding the emergence of synucleinopathy by several years or even decades. The detection of RBD may represent a therapeutic window for research regarding the development of new neuroprotective therapies with the potential to modify the natural course of synucleinopathies, such as PD...
August 10, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Marina F Souza, Marco A M Freire, Katty A A L Medeiros, Lívia C R F Lins, José M M Bispo, Auderlan M Gois, Pollyana C Leal, Rovena C G J Engelberth, Alessandra M Ribeiro, Regina H Silva, Murilo Marchioro, José R Santos
Pesticide exposure is a risk factor to Parkinson's disease (PD) development. One of these pesticides, Deltamethrin (DM), has been widely used for vector control in crops, farming, veterinary medicine and domestic pest control. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the motor, cognitive and neurochemical changes caused by repeated administration of DM in rats. Male Wistar rats received 3 intranasal (i.n.) injections of 100 μL (50 μL/nostril) of DM 0.5 μg/μl or Vehicle (saline solution 0...
August 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
E L Lane
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the gold standard treatment for Parkinson's disease. It has earned that title through its highly effective treatment of some of the motor symptoms in the early stages of the disease but it is a far from perfect drug. The inevitable long term treatment that comes with this chronic neurodegenerative condition raises the risk significantly of the development of motor fluctuations including disabling L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Being unsurpassed as a therapy means that understanding the mechanisms of dyskinesia priming and induction is vital to the search for therapies to treat these side effects and allow optimal use of L-DOPA...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kristen M Crosley
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a life-changing surgical treatment. More than 150,000 patients worldwide have been treated with DBS, primarily for Parkinson disease and medically refractory tremor and dystonia. However, the use of DBS has recently expanded beyond traditional movement disorders to include the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and other neurological and psychological diseases. Considering this expanded use of DBS, it is essential to understand the role that each member of the multidisciplinary health care team plays and how to avoid possible complications during this procedure...
August 2018: AORN Journal
Luisa Azambuja Alcalde, Betânia Souza de Freitas, Gustavo Dalto Barroso Machado, Pedro Castilhos de Freitas Crivelaro, Victoria Campos Dornelles, Henrique Gus, Ricardo Tavares Monteiro, Luiza Wilges Kist, Mauricio Reis Bogo, Nadja Schröder
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in neural development and physiology, as well as in pathological states. Post-mortem studies demonstrate that BDNF is reduced in the brains of patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases. Iron accumulation has also been associated to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In rats, iron overload induces persistent memory deficits, increases oxidative stress and apoptotic markers, and decreases the expression of the synaptic marker, synaptophysin...
August 16, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Sathyaraj Venkatesan, Sweetha Saji
Effective doctor patient relationships are predicated on doctors' relational engagement and affective/holistic communication with the patients. On the contrary, the contemporary healthcare and patient-clinician communication are at odds with the desirable professional goals, often resulting in dehumanization and demoralization of patients. Besides denigrating the moral agency of a patient such apathetic interactions and unprofessional approach also affect the treatment and well-being of the sufferer. Foregrounding multifaceted doctor-patient relationships, graphic pathographies are a significant cultural resource which recreate the embodied moment of clinical encounters as they also lay bare qualitative tensions between patient' illness experience with doctor's professional understanding of the same...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Humanities
Akiko Sumitomo, Kouta Horike, Kazuko Hirai, Nancy Butcher, Erik Boot, Takeshi Sakurai, Frederick C Nucifora, Anne S Bassett, Akira Sawa, Toshifumi Tomoda
Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletions are at increased risk of developing psychiatric conditions, most notably, schizophrenia (SZ). Recently, clinical studies have also implicated these recurrent 22q11.2 deletions with the risk of early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus far, the multiple mouse models generated for 22q11.2 deletions have been studied primarily in the context of congenital cardiac, neurodevelopmental, and psychotic disorders. One of these is the Df1 /+ model, in which SZ-associated and developmental abnormalities have been reported...
August 2018: Science Advances
Patrícia Ferreira Boasquívis, Giovanna Melo Martins Silva, Franciny Aparecida Paiva, Rodrigo Marinho Cavalcanti, Cecília Verônica Nunez, Riva de Paula Oliveira
Guarana ( Paullinia cupana ) is largely consumed in Brazil in high energy drinks and dietary supplements because of its stimulant activity on the central nervous system. Although previous studies have indicated that guarana has some protective effects in Parkinson's (PD), Alzheimer's (AD), and Huntington's (HD) disease models, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigated the protective effects of guarana hydroalcoholic extract (GHE) in Caenorhabditis elegans models of HD and AD. GHE reduced polyglutamine (polyQ) protein aggregation in the muscle and also reduced polyQ-mediated neuronal death in ASH sensory neurons and delayed β -amyloid-induced paralysis in a caffeine-independent manner...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Marta Lemieszewska, Antoni Polanowski, Tadeusz Wilusz, Agata Sokołowska, Aleksandra Zambrowicz, Katarzyna Mikołajewicz, Józefa Macała, Joanna Rymaszewska, Agnieszka Zabłocka
Colostrum and milk are the initial mammalian nourishment and rich reservoir of essential nutrients for newborn development. Bioactive peptides isolated from natural sources, such as colostrum, serve as endogenous regulators and can be used as alternative therapeutic agents in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. One example is the previously unknown NP-POL nonapeptide isolated from Colostrinin. In the present study, we investigated a method of NP-POL nonapeptide isolation using Bio-Gel P2 molecular sieve chromatography...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Barry Boland, Wai Haung Yu, Olga Corti, Bertrand Mollereau, Alexandre Henriques, Erwan Bezard, Greg M Pastores, David C Rubinsztein, Ralph A Nixon, Michael R Duchen, Giovanna R Mallucci, Guido Kroemer, Beth Levine, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Fanny Mochel, Michael Spedding, Caroline Louis, Olivier R Martin, Mark J Millan
Neurodegenerative disorders of ageing (NDAs) such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, frontotemporal dementia, Huntington disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis represent a major socio-economic challenge in view of their high prevalence yet poor treatment. They are often called 'proteinopathies' owing to the presence of misfolded and aggregated proteins that lose their physiological roles and acquire neurotoxic properties. One reason underlying the accumulation and spread of oligomeric forms of neurotoxic proteins is insufficient clearance by the autophagic-lysosomal network...
August 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Felix P Bernhard, Jennifer Sartor, Kristina Bettecken, Markus A Hobert, Carina Arnold, Yvonne G Weber, Sven Poli, Nils G Margraf, Christian Schlenstedt, Clint Hansen, Walter Maetzler
BACKGROUND: Deficits in gait and balance are common among neurological inpatients. Currently, assessment of these patients is mainly subjective. New assessment options using wearables may provide complementary and more objective information. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional feasibility study performed over a four-month period, all patients referred to a normal neurology ward of a university hospital and aged between 40 and 89 years were asked to participate...
August 16, 2018: BMC Neurology
Gemma Clarke, Elizabeth Fistein, Anthony Holland, Jake Tobin, Sam Barclay, Stephen Barclay
BACKGROUND: Dysphagia and other eating and drinking difficulties are common in progressive neurological diseases. Mealtimes can become a major source of difficulty and anxiety for patients and their families. Decisions about eating, drinking and care can become challenging as disease progresses, and the person in question loses the capacity to participate in decisions about their own care. We sought to investigate how patients and their family members make decisions about their future care as their condition deteriorates, with a particular focus on mealtimes, eating and drinking...
August 16, 2018: BMC Neurology
Yasuomi Urano, Chinatsu Mori, Ayano Fuji, Keito Konno, Takayuki Yamamoto, Shohei Yashirogi, Mayu Ando, Yoshiro Saito, Noriko Noguchi
PARK7/DJ-1 is a Parkinson disease- and cancer-associated protein that functions as a multifunctional protein involved in gene transcription regulation and anti-oxidative defense. Although PARK7 lacks the secretory signal sequence, it is secreted and plays important physiological and pathophysiological roles. Whereas secretory proteins that lack the endoplasmic reticulum-targeting signal sequence are secreted from cells by way of what is called the unconventional secretion mechanism, the specific processes responsible for causing PARK7 to be secreted across the plasma membrane have remained unclear...
August 16, 2018: Autophagy
Li-Juan Gao, Xin Zhao, Jian-Guo Li, Yong Xu, Yu Zhang
The aim of this study was to screen the genes related to the pathogenesis of major depression disorder (MDD) by bioinformatics. Taking GSE98793 chip data from GEO public database of National Biotechnology Information Center (NCBI) website as the research object, 116 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by R language limma package. Among the 116 DEGs, 66 genes were up-regulated and 50 down-regulated. The results of gene functional annotation analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) showed that the DEGs were mainly distributed in mitochondria intima and mitochondria...
August 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Katriana A Popichak, Sean L Hammond, Julie A Moreno, Maryam F Afzali, Donald S Backos, Richard D Slayden, Steven Safe, Ronald B Tjalkens
Inflammatory activation of glial cells promotes loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). The transcription factor, Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB), regulates the expression of multiple neuroinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in activated glial cells that are damaging to neurons. Thus, inhibition of NF-κB signaling in glial cells could be a promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention of neuroinflammatory injury. Nuclear orphan receptors in the NR4A family, including NR4A1 (Nur77) and NR4A2 (Nurr1), can inhibit the inflammatory effects of NFκB but there are no approved drugs that target these receptors...
August 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
Jeeyun Ahn, Jee-Young Lee, Tae Wan Kim, Eun Jin Yoon, Sohee Oh, Yu Kyeong Kim, Jong-Min Kim, Se Joon Woo, Ki Woong Kim, Beomseok Jeon
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between retinal thinning and nigral dopaminergic loss in de novo Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Forty-nine patients with PD and 54 age-matched controls were analyzed. Ophthalmologic examination and macula optical coherence tomography scans were performed with additional microperimetry, N -(3-[18 F]fluoropropyl)-2-carbomethoxy-3-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane PET, and 3T MRI scans were done in patients with PD only. Retinal layer thickness and volume were measured in subfields of the 1-, 2...
August 15, 2018: Neurology
Olga Klepitskaya, Ying Liu, Saloni Sharma, Stefan H Sillau, Jean Tsai, Arthur S Walters
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and moderate to severe restless legs syndrome (RLS) on their RLS symptoms. METHODS: Patients undergoing STN DBS surgery for PD completed the International RLS Study Group Rating Scale (IRLS) and RLS Quality of Life (QoL) questionnaires preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. The primary outcome measure was IRLS sum score and subscales (severity and impact) and the secondary measure was RLS QoL scores...
August 15, 2018: Neurology
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