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Parkinson AND Treatment

Shaik Afsar Pasha, Shaik Arif Pasha, T Suhasini, D Ankamma Rao
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common infection worldwide and is an emerging infectious disease in the developed countries. The unique characteristics of HEV is that it displays different epidemiological and clinical characteristics between developing and developed countries. Neurological disorders are emerging extra hepatic manifestations of both acute and chronic Hepatitis E virus infection. We report a 17 year old sportsman presenting with acute encephalitic Parkinsonism concurrent with acute hepatitis. Serology was positive for Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and HEV RNA was confirmed...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Moussa B H Youdim
In early 1920s, tyramine oxidase was discovered that metabolized tyramine and in 1933 Blaschko demonstrated that this enzyme also metabolized adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine. Zeller gave it the name monoamine oxidase (MAO) to distinguish it from the enzyme that oxidatively deaminated diamines. MAO was recognized as an enzyme of crucial interest to pharmacologists because it catalyzed the major inactivation pathway for the catecholamines (and, later, 5-hydroxytryptamine, as well). Within the few decade, the inhibitors of MAO were discovered and introduced for the treatment of depressive illness which was established clinically...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Jama Osman Hirsi, Yared Mamushet Yifru, Guta Zenebe Metaferia, James H Bower
INTRODUCTION: Pain is a common non-motor feature encountered by patients with Parkinson's disease. Recognition and accurate characterization of pain is crucial for the optimal treatment of Parkinson's disease patients. Pain has been associated with poverty and ethnicity. We determined the prevalence of pain in Parkinson's disease patients in Ethiopia. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study for a six month period from April 01, 2017-September 30, 2017 with patients with Parkinson's disease who were attending two neurology referral clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to assess for the prevalence and the characterization of pain...
September 28, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Cuiping Xu, Ping Zhuang, Mark Hallett, Yuqing Zhang, Jianyu Li, Yongjie Li
Background and purpose: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) is well established for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), substantially improving motor symptoms, quality of life, and reducing the long-term need for dopaminergic medication. However, whether chronic STN DBS produces different effects on PD motor subtypes is unknown. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of STN DBS on the PD motor subtypes. Methods: Eighty patients undergoing STN DBS were included...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Dongsoo Kim, Sunoh Kwon, Hyongjun Jeon, Sun Ryu, Ki-Tae Ha, Seungtae Kim
Background: Recent studies have shown that Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) successfully protects against dopaminergic neuronal death in the nigrostriatal pathway of a Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration; however, the mechanism has yet to be identified. Therefore, in this study we used two-dimensional electrophoresis to investigate the effects of KRG on the changes in protein expression in the substantia nigra (SN) of MPTP-treated mice...
October 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Filippo Manti, Francesca Nardecchia, Sabina Barresi, Martina Venditti, Simone Pizzi, Fadi F Hamdan, Nenad Blau, Alberto Burlina, Marco Tartaglia, Vincenzo Leuzzi
INTRODUCTION: Clathrins play a key role in endocytosis, recycling, and trafficking as well as the generation of presynaptic vesicles. We report a new clinical condition associated with a de novo variant in the CLTC gene, which encodes the clathrin heavy polypeptide. CASE REPORT: This 30-year-old woman presented with a developmental disorder during childhood that progressed to mild cognitive decline in late childhood and relapsing-remitting hypokinetic-rigid syndrome with severe achalasia, weight loss, and mood disorder in adulthood...
October 11, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Lubos Brabenec, Patricia Klobusiakova, Marek Barton, Jiri Mekyska, Zoltan Galaz, Vojtech Zvoncak, Tomas Kiska, Jan Mucha, Zdenek Smekal, Milena Kostalova, Irena Rektorova
INTRODUCTION: Hypokinetic dysarthria (HD) is a common symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) which does not respond well to PD treatments. We investigated acute effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor and auditory feedback area on HD in PD using acoustic analysis of speech. METHODS: We used 10 Hz and 1 Hz stimulation protocols and applied rTMS over the left orofacial primary motor area, the right superior temporal gyrus (STG), and over the vertex (a control stimulation site) in 16 PD patients with HD...
October 10, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Aslihan Ugun-Klusek, Theodosis S Theodosi, Julia C Fitzgerald, Florence Burté, Christoph Ufer, David J Boocock, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, Lynn Bedford, E Ellen Billett
Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are located on the outer mitochondrial membrane and are drug targets for the treatment of neurological disorders. MAOs control the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain via oxidative deamination and contribute to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through their catalytic by-product H2 O2 . Increased ROS levels may modulate mitochondrial function and mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in a vast array of disorders. However, the downstream effects of MAO-A mediated ROS production in a neuronal model has not been previously investigated...
October 9, 2018: Redox Biology
Lital Dabool, Liza Juravlev, Ketty Mishnaevski-Hakim, Estee Kurant
BACKGROUND: Protein aggregation in neurons is a prominent pathological mark of neurodegeneration. In Parkinson's disease (PD), inclusions of the α-Synuclein (α-Syn) protein form the Lewy bodies in dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Ectopic expression of human α-Syn inDrosophila neurons leads to the protein accumulation, degeneration of DA neurons and locomotor deterioration, and therefore constitutes the present fly PD model. Yet, this model does not enable to study the role of genes, which are essential for normal development, in neurodegeneration...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Jorge Enrique Machado-Alba, Luis Felipe Calvo-Torres, Andrés Gaviria-Mendoza, Juan Daniel Castrillón-Spitia
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease, whose prevalence in Colombia is 4.7 per 1,000 inhabitants, is a public health problem and a therapeutic challenge for health professionals. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prescribing patterns of antiparkinson drugs and the variables associated with its use in a population from Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study. We selected patients who had been given antiparkinson drugs uninterruptedly between January 1st and March 31st, 2015 from a systematized database of approximately 3...
September 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
I V Ekimova, A R Gazizova, M N Karpenko, D V Plaksina
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of incurable socially significant diseases. Success in the PD treatment is associated with the development of the technology of preclinical diagnosis and neuroprotective treatment of the disease. In the experimental model of the preclinical PD stage in rats created by intranasal administration of the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin, signs of depression as an anhedonia symptom were detected for the first time. Anhedonia was combined with the death of about one third of dopamine (DA)-ergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain and their axons in the ventral striatum; and a decrease of dopamine concentration in the ventral striatum (by 40%) and the tyrosine hydroxylase level in surviving DA-ergic neurons...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Hitoshi Murata, Cho Cho Khine, Akane Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi Yamamoto, Rie Kinoshita, Masakiyo Sakaguchi
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a key pathological feature of many different types of neurodegenerative disease. Sterile alpha and Toll/interleukin receptor motif-containing protein 1 (SARM1) has been attracting much attention as an important molecule for inducing axonal degeneration and neuronal cell death by causing loss of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). However, it has remained unclear what exactly regulates the SARM1 activity. Here, we report that NAD+ cleavage activity of SARM1 is regulated by its own phosphorylation at serine 548...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Oscar Teijido, Ramón Cacabelos
Cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disorders affect one billion people around the world and result from a combination of genomic, epigenomic, metabolic, and environmental factors. Diagnosis at late stages of disease progression, limited knowledge of gene biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of the pathology, and conventional compounds based on symptomatic rather than mechanistic features, determine the lack of success of current treatments, including current FDA-approved conventional drugs. The epigenetic approach opens new avenues for the detection of early presymptomatic pathological events that would allow the implementation of novel strategies in order to stop or delay the pathological process...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Martin Schimmel, Murali Srinivasan, Gerald McKenna, Frauke Müller
OBJECTIVES: his review evaluated implant survival in geriatric patients (≥75 years) and/or the impact of systemic medical conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic literature searches were performed to identify studies reporting on geriatric subjects with dental implants and on implant patients who had any of the seven most common systematic conditions among geriatric patients. Meta-analyses were performed on the postloading implant survival rates. The impact of systemic medical conditions and their respective treatment was qualitatively analyzed...
October 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Ashish Kumar Gupta, Komal Rani, Surabhi Swarnkar, Gaurav Khunger Kumar, Mohd Imran Khan, Ruchika Pokhriyal, Domada Ratna Kumar, Vinay Goyal, Manjari Tripathi, Rishab Gupta, Rakesh Kumar Chadda, Perumal Vanamail, Gururao Hariprasad
Aim of the Study: Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia are disease end points of dopaminergic deficit and hyperactivity, respectively, in the mid brain. Accordingly, current medications aim to restore normal dopamine levels, overshooting of which results in adverse effects of psychosis and extra-pyramidal symptoms, respectively. There are currently no available laboratory tests to guide treatment decisions or help predict adverse side effects of the drugs. The aim was to therefore explore the possibility of using apolipoprotein E as a biomarker to monitor pharmacological intervention in dopamine dictated states of Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia for optimum therapy...
2018: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
Maya Barake, Anne Klibanski, Nicholas A Tritos
Dopamine agonists (DAs) represent a cornerstone in the management of patients with hyperprolactinemia and have an important role in the treatment of neurologic disorders, including Parkinson’s disease and restless legs syndrome. A growing body of evidence has identified impulse control disorders (ICDs) as possible adverse effects of DA therapy. A variety of ICDs may occur in patients treated with DA, including compulsive shopping, pathologic gambling, stealing, hypersexuality and punding (repetitive performance of tasks, such as collecting, sorting, disassembling and assembling objects)...
September 24, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Tayyabah Yousaf, Gennaro Pagano, Heather Wilson, Marios Politis
Sleep dysfunction is recognized as a distinct clinical manifestation in movement disorders, often reported early on in the disease course. Excessive daytime sleepiness, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and restless leg syndrome, amidst several others, are common sleep disturbances that often result in significant morbidity. In this article, we review the spectrum of sleep abnormalities across atypical Parkinsonian disorders including multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS), as well as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Zhongyuan Yu, Ling Yang, Yang Yang, Siyu Chen, Dayu Sun, Haiwei Xu, Xiaotang Fan
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and a subsequent reduction in striatal DA levels. Recent studies have shown that systemic administration of subtoxic doses of epothilone B (EpoB), a microtubule stabilizing agent, enhances axonal regeneration. However, the underlying alterations in cellular mechanisms remain undetermined. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of EpoB on DA neurons in mouse model of PD induced by 6-hydroxyDA (6-OHDA) and in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Luis Enrique Arroyo-Garcia, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno, Gonzalo Flores
Apomorphine is a non-specific dopamine receptor agonist that has been used in the treatment of some diseases and mental disorders. Its use has particularly well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD). The dopaminergic agonists like apomorphine are related to oxidative processes that could induce cell damage and the functional impairment of some structures in the brain. However, most information about apomorphine in literature is focused on the improvement of the motor problems characteristic of PD, but little is known about the effects on cognitive behaviors and brain structures indirectly related to motor function...
December 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Baijayanta Maiti, Joel S Perlmutter
Positron emission tomography (PET) has revealed key insights into the pathophysiology of movement disorders. This paper will focus on how PET investigations of pathophysiology are particularly relevant to Parkinson disease, a neurodegenerative condition usually starting later in life marked by a varying combination of motor and nonmotor deficits. Various molecular imaging modalities help to determine what changes in brain herald the onset of pathology; can these changes be used to identify presymptomatic individuals who may be appropriate for to-be-developed treatments that may forestall onset of symptoms or slow disease progression; can PET act as a biomarker of disease progression; can molecular imaging help enrich homogenous cohorts for clinical studies; and what other pathophysiologic mechanisms relate to nonmotor manifestations...
November 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
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