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Cortical Language Circuit

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319380/fronto-temporal-circuits-in-musical-hallucinations-a-pet-mr-case-study
#1
Carlo Cavaliere, Mariachiara Longarzo, Mario Orsini, Marco Aiello, Dario Grossi
The aim of the study is to investigate morphofunctional circuits underlying musical hallucinations (MH) in a 72-years old female that underwent a simultaneous 18fluoredeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and advanced magnetic resonance (MR) exam. This represents a particular case of MH occurred in an healthy subject, not displaying neurological or psychopathological disorders, and studied simultaneously with a multimodal approach. For the resting-state fMRI analysis a seed to seed approach was chosen...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291974/mapping-the-human-brain-s-cortical-subcortical-functional-network-organization
#2
Jie Lisa Ji, Marjolein Spronk, Kaustubh Kulkarni, Grega Repovš, Alan Anticevic, Michael W Cole
Understanding complex systems such as the human brain requires characterization of the system's architecture across multiple levels of organization - from neurons, to local circuits, to brain regions, and ultimately large-scale brain networks. Here we focus on characterizing the human brain's large-scale network organization, as it provides an overall framework for the organization of all other levels. We developed a highly principled approach to identify cortical network communities at the level of functional systems, calibrating our community detection algorithm using extremely well-established sensory and motor systems as guides...
October 3, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286407/rejuvenation-of-plasticity-in-the-brain-opening-the-critical-period
#3
REVIEW
Mary H Patton, Jay A Blundon, Stanislav S Zakharenko
Cortical circuits are particularly sensitive to incoming sensory information during well-defined intervals of postnatal development called 'critical periods'. The critical period for cortical plasticity closes in adults, thus restricting the brain's ability to indiscriminately store new sensory information. For example, children acquire language in an exposure-based manner, whereas learning language in adulthood requires more effort and attention. It has been suggested that pairing sounds with the activation of neuromodulatory circuits involved in attention reopens this critical period...
October 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999569/clinical-characteristics-of-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-its-related-pattern-in-18-f-fdg-pet-imaging
#4
Lei Wu, Feng-Tao Liu, Jing-Jie Ge, Jue Zhao, Yi-Lin Tang, Wen-Bo Yu, Huan Yu, Tim Anderson, Chuan-Tao Zuo, Ling Chen, Jian Wang
This study aimed to characterize the clinical features and the related cerebral glucose metabolism pattern of cognitive impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. We recruited 168 PD patients and 100 age-matched healthy controls of similar education and gender distribution. All of those enrolled underwent clinical assessment including the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale motor score, Hoehn and Yahr scale, and comprehensive neuropsychological tests including domains of executive function, attention, memory, visuospatial function, and language...
July 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752588/a-lateral-to-mesial-organization-of-human-ventral-visual-cortex-at-birth
#5
P Barttfeld, S Abboud, H Lagercrantz, U Adén, N Padilla, A D Edwards, L Cohen, M Sigman, S Dehaene, G Dehaene-Lambertz
In human adults, ventral extra-striate visual cortex contains a mosaic of functionally specialized areas, some responding preferentially to natural visual categories such as faces (fusiform face area) or places (parahippocampal place area) and others to cultural inventions such as written words and numbers (visual word form and number form areas). It has been hypothesized that this mosaic arises from innate biases in cortico-cortical connectivity. We tested this hypothesis by examining functional resting-state correlation at birth using fMRI data from full-term human newborns...
May 11, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549287/function-specific-and-enhanced-brain-structural-connectivity-mapping-via-joint-modeling-of-diffusion-and-functional-mri
#6
Shu-Hsien Chu, Keshab K Parhi, Christophe Lenglet
A joint structural-functional brain network model is presented, which enables the discovery of function-specific brain circuits, and recovers structural connections that are under-estimated by diffusion MRI (dMRI). Incorporating information from functional MRI (fMRI) into diffusion MRI to estimate brain circuits is a challenging task. Usually, seed regions for tractography are selected from fMRI activation maps to extract the white matter pathways of interest. The proposed method jointly analyzes whole brain dMRI and fMRI data, allowing the estimation of complete function-specific structural networks instead of interactively investigating the connectivity of individual cortical/sub-cortical areas...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531963/modulating-the-resting-state-functional-connectivity-patterns-of-language-processing-areas-in-the-human-brain-with-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-applied-over-the-broca-s-area
#7
Jianwei Cao, Hanli Liu, George Alexandrakis
Cortical circuit reorganization induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the Broca's area of the dominant language hemisphere in 13 healthy adults was quantified by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Transient cortical reorganization patterns in steady-state functional connectivity (seed-based and graph theory analysis) and temporal functional connectivity (sliding window correlation analysis) were recorded before, during, and after applying high current tDCS (1 mA, 8 min)...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445828/the-neural-circuits-of-number-and-letter-copying-an-fnirs-study
#8
Christina Artemenko, Andra Coldea, Mojtaba Soltanlou, Thomas Dresler, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Ann-Christine Ehlis
In our daily lives, we are constantly exposed to numbers and letters. However, it is still under debate how letters and numbers are processed in the brain, while information on this topic would allow for a more comprehensive understanding of, for example, known influences of language on numerical cognition or neural circuits shared by numerical cognition and language processing. Some findings provide evidence for a double dissociation between numbers and letters, with numbers being represented in the right and letters in the left hemisphere, while the opposing view suggests a shared neural network...
April 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432527/advanced-lesion-symptom-mapping-analyses-and-implementation-as-bcbtoolkit
#9
Chris Foulon, Leonardo Cerliani, Serge Kinkingnéhun, Richard Levy, Charlotte Rosso, Marika Urbanski, Emmanuelle Volle, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten
Background: Patients with brain lesions provide a unique opportunity to understand the functioning of the human mind. However, even when focal, brain lesions have local and remote effects that impact functionally and structurally connected circuits. Similarly, function emerges from the interaction between brain areas rather than their sole activity. For instance, category fluency requires the associations between executive, semantic, and language production functions. Findings: Here, we provide, for the first time, a set of complementary solutions for measuring the impact of a given lesion on the neuronal circuits...
March 1, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379873/a-common-function-of-basal-ganglia-cortical-circuits-subserving-speed-in-both-motor-and-cognitive-domains
#10
Takashi Hanakawa, Andrew M Goldfine, Mark Hallett
Distinct regions of the frontal cortex connect with their basal ganglia and thalamic counterparts, constituting largely segregated basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical (BTC) circuits. However, any common role of the BTC circuits in different behavioral domains remains unclear. Indeed, whether dysfunctional motor and cognitive BTC circuits are responsible for motor slowing and cognitive slowing, respectively, in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a matter of debate. Here, we used an effortful behavioral paradigm in which the effects of task rate on accuracy were tested in movement, imagery, and calculation tasks in humans...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305294/cortical-folding-abnormalities-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-who-have-persistent-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#11
Katharina M Kubera, Philipp A Thomann, Dusan Hirjak, Anja Barth, Fabio Sambataro, Nenad Vasic, Nadine D Wolf, Karel Frasch, R Christian Wolf
In schizophrenia temporal cortical volume loss differs between patients presenting with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (pAVH) in contrast to those without hallucinatory symptoms (nAVH). However, it is unknown whether this deficit reflects a neural signature of neurodevelopmental origin or if abnormal temporal cortical volume is reflective of factors which may be relevant at later stages of the disorder. Here, we tested the hypothesis that local gyrification index (LGI) in regions of the temporal cortex differs between patients with pAVH (n=10) and healthy controls (n=14), and that abnormal temporal LGI discriminates between pAVH and nAVH (n=10)...
February 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137413/abnormal-neural-activities-of-directional-brain-networks-in-patients-with-long-term-bilateral-hearing-loss
#12
Long-Chun Xu, Gang Zhang, Yue Zou, Min-Feng Zhang, Dong-Sheng Zhang, Hua Ma, Wen-Bo Zhao, Guang-Yu Zhang
The objective of the study is to provide some implications for rehabilitation of hearing impairment by investigating changes of neural activities of directional brain networks in patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss. Firstly, we implemented neuropsychological tests of 21 subjects (11 patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss, and 10 subjects with normal hearing), and these tests revealed significant differences between the deaf group and the controls. Then we constructed the individual specific virtual brain based on functional magnetic resonance data of participants by utilizing effective connectivity and multivariate regression methods...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072385/-medical-clowns-the-triple-value-clown-parent-premature-neonate
#13
REVIEW
Hagit Friedman, Shay Barak, Yelena Chulsky, Shoshi Ofir, Amir Kushnir
The infant's brain develops rapidly during the prenatal and early postnatal period. Temporary new neural circuits appear, such as the sub-cortical plate (SCP). SCP links the thalamus and cortex in a time window of sensory circuits' intensive development, creating the basis for the infant's bonding interactions. SCP activity in premature neonates is vulnerable and hypoxic injury may have a long lasting influence on brain development. Preterm birth is an emotional trauma for the parents and may lead to depression, anxiety and stress...
October 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028946/mouse-cntnap2-and-human-cntnap2-asd-alleles-cell-autonomously-regulate-pv-cortical-interneurons
#14
Daniel Vogt, Kathleen K A Cho, Samantha M Shelton, Anirban Paul, Z Josh Huang, Vikaas S Sohal, John L R Rubenstein
Human mutations in CNTNAP2 are associated with an array of neuropsychiatric and neurological syndromes, including speech and language disorders, epilepsy, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined Cntnap2's expression and function in GABAergic cortical interneurons (CINs), where its RNA is present at highest levels in chandelier neurons, PV+ neurons and VIP+ neurons. In vivo functions were studied using both constitutive Cntnap2 null mice and a transplantation assay, the latter to assess cell autonomous phenotypes of medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived CINs...
November 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917165/cerebellar-induced-differential-polyglot-aphasia-a-neurolinguistic-and-fmri-study
#15
Peter Mariën, Kim van Dun, Johanna Van Dormael, Dorien Vandenborre, Stefanie Keulen, Mario Manto, Jo Verhoeven, Jubin Abutalebi
Research has shown that linguistic functions in the bilingual brain are subserved by similar neural circuits as in monolinguals, but with extra-activity associated with cognitive and attentional control. Although a role for the right cerebellum in multilingual language processing has recently been acknowledged, a potential role of the left cerebellum remains largely unexplored. This paper reports the clinical and fMRI findings in a strongly right-handed (late) multilingual patient who developed differential polyglot aphasia, ataxic dysarthria and a selective decrease in executive function due to an ischemic stroke in the left cerebellum...
December 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821381/evidence-from-blindness-for-a-cognitively-pluripotent-cortex
#16
REVIEW
Marina Bedny
Cognitive neuroscience seeks to discover how cognitive functions are implemented in neural circuits. Studies of plasticity in blindness suggest that this mind-brain mapping is highly flexible during development. In blindness, 'visual' cortices take on higher-cognitive functions, including language and mathematics, becoming sensitive to the grammatical structure of spoken sentences and the difficulty of math equations. Visual cortex activity at rest becomes synchronized with higher-cognitive networks. Such repurposing is striking in light of the cognitive and evolutionary differences between vision, language, and mathematics...
July 8, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821345/evidence-from-blindness-for-a-cognitively-pluripotent-cortex
#17
REVIEW
Marina Bedny
Cognitive neuroscience seeks to discover how cognitive functions are implemented in neural circuits. Studies of plasticity in blindness suggest that this mind-brain mapping is highly flexible during development. In blindness, 'visual' cortices take on higher-cognitive functions, including language and mathematics, becoming sensitive to the grammatical structure of spoken sentences and the difficulty of math equations. Visual cortex activity at rest becomes synchronized with higher-cognitive networks. Such repurposing is striking in light of the cognitive and evolutionary differences between vision, language, and mathematics...
September 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734837/neural-reuse-of-action-perception-circuits-for-language-concepts-and-communication
#18
REVIEW
Friedemann Pulvermüller
Neurocognitive and neurolinguistics theories make explicit statements relating specialized cognitive and linguistic processes to specific brain loci. These linking hypotheses are in need of neurobiological justification and explanation. Recent mathematical models of human language mechanisms constrained by fundamental neuroscience principles and established knowledge about comparative neuroanatomy offer explanations for where, when and how language is processed in the human brain. In these models, network structure and connectivity along with action- and perception-induced correlation of neuronal activity co-determine neurocognitive mechanisms...
January 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663494/restoring-auditory-cortex-plasticity-in-adult-mice-by-restricting-thalamic-adenosine-signaling
#19
Jay A Blundon, Noah C Roy, Brett J W Teubner, Jing Yu, Tae-Yeon Eom, K Jake Sample, Amar Pani, Richard J Smeyne, Seung Baek Han, Ryan A Kerekes, Derek C Rose, Troy A Hackett, Pradeep K Vuppala, Burgess B Freeman, Stanislav S Zakharenko
Circuits in the auditory cortex are highly susceptible to acoustic influences during an early postnatal critical period. The auditory cortex selectively expands neural representations of enriched acoustic stimuli, a process important for human language acquisition. Adults lack this plasticity. Here we show in the murine auditory cortex that juvenile plasticity can be reestablished in adulthood if acoustic stimuli are paired with disruption of ecto-5'-nucleotidase-dependent adenosine production or A1 -adenosine receptor signaling in the auditory thalamus...
June 30, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149276/a-spiking-neurocomputational-model-of-high-frequency-oscillatory-brain-responses-to-words-and-pseudowords
#20
Max Garagnani, Guglielmo Lucchese, Rosario Tomasello, Thomas Wennekers, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Experimental evidence indicates that neurophysiological responses to well-known meaningful sensory items and symbols (such as familiar objects, faces, or words) differ from those to matched but novel and senseless materials (unknown objects, scrambled faces, and pseudowords). Spectral responses in the high beta- and gamma-band have been observed to be generally stronger to familiar stimuli than to unfamiliar ones. These differences have been hypothesized to be caused by the activation of distributed neuronal circuits or cell assemblies, which act as long-term memory traces for learned familiar items only...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
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