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biomechanical risk

Matteo Petracca, Massimo Bongiorni, Riccardo Bartoletti, Luciano Villa, Stefano M Candura
OBJECTIVES: Musculo-skeletal disorders (MSD) are a large group of locomotor system pathologies with multifactorial etiology. Healthcare professionals are often exposed to biomechanical overload of the spine and upper limb, for example during patient handling, and represent a working population at risk. METHODS: In order to acquire further knowledge on this subject, we conducted a cross-sectional study (year 2016) among healthcare workers (excluding physicians) of the Sondrio Hospital (Italy), investigating the correlations between manual handling, MDS and job fitness...
December 2018: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Mark Lenz, Jana Schwinn, Ladina Hofmann-Fliri, Ronald Schwyn, Matthias Knobe, Kajetan Klos, Heike Kielstein, Gunther O Hofmann, Boyko Gueorguiev
Migration profile of helical blades differs from conventional screw design. Tip-apex distance (TAD) greater than 25mm is associated with early failure in hip screws. This study investigates the effect of a reduced TAD on helical blade fixation. Six pairs of human cadaveric femoral heads were used. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by pQCT. Local bone quality was evaluated by breakaway torque. Helical blades were implanted with TAD of 20mm (normal) and 6mm (reduced). Specimens were cyclically tested under progressively increasing physiologic loading at 2Hz with starting peak force of 1'000N, increasing by 0...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Lachlan Batty, Timothy Lording
In the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knee, excellent outcomes are achieved in many patients with an isolated, intra-articular ACL reconstruction. Some patients, however, have ongoing instability or suffer graft rupture. Failure after ACL reconstruction is multifactorial, but residual anterolateral rotatory laxity is 1 potential contributing factor. Lateral extra-articular procedures are a heterogenous group of operations that were initially described as isolated treatments for the ACL deficient knee, and subsequently used in combination with intra-articular reconstructions...
December 2018: Techniques in Orthopaedics: TIO
Andreas Flury
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACR) rupture may include a pivoting mechanism, which is responsible for concomitant lesions of the anterolateral structures. This anterolateral complex is the main stabilizer of tibial internal rotation and therefore accountable for a persisting pivot shift despite technical improvement of ACR reconstruction. For this reason, knee surgeons' interest in addressing anterolateral stabilization in addition to ACR reconstruction has been renewed...
December 7, 2018: Der Orthopäde
Massimiliano M Marrocco-Trischitta, Rodrigo M Romarowski, Hector W de Beaufort, Michele Conti, Renato Vitale, Francesco Secchi, Ferdinando Auricchio, Santi Trimarchi
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to confirm whether the Modified Arch Landing Areas Nomenclature (MALAN) for thoracic endovascular aortic repair, in which each landing area is described by indicating both the proximal landing zone (PLZ) and the type of arch (e.g. 0/I), identifies unfavourable landing zones for endograft deployment in diseased aortas. METHODS: Preoperative computed tomography angiography scans of 10 patients scheduled for thoracic endovascular aortic repair for aneurysm or penetrating ulcer of the arch and with a potential hostile PLZ were reviewed...
December 7, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Long Lei, Xiaozhi Qi, Shibo Li, Yuanyuan Yang, Ying Hu, Bing Li, Shijia Zhao, Yanfang Zhang
Self-expanding Nitinol stents are increasingly used to treat femoropopliteal artery (FPA) occlusions, but the risk of stent fatigue failure exists due to complex artery deformation during daily activities. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been widely applied to study the stent fatigue behaviours, but physiological deformation and atherosclerotic plaque were not considered simultaneously in previous studies. In this work, to show the necessity and feasibility of considering both factors in evaluation of the stent fatigue behaviours, a comprehensive FEA framework considering both factors is established, and an easy loading method for the complex boundary condition is proposed...
November 29, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Clementina López-Medina, Anna Moltó
Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is the prototype of a class of a rheumatic chronic inflammatory disease named spondyloarthritis (SpA). The prevalence of axSpA ranges between 0.1% and 1.4% globally, hence showing geographic differences that can be explained mostly by the prevalence of the HLA-B27 antigen. However, not many studies have evaluated the incidence of this disease. Inflammation may be initiated in the enthesis as a consequence of the action of IL-23, which can activate resident T cells. The elevated expression of IL-23 has been explained by three hypotheses: the presence of HLA-B27, variations in the gut microbiome and the biomechanical stress at the enthesis...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
Kimberley Jacobs, Diego Riveros, Heather K Vincent, Daniel C Herman
Different landing surfaces may affect lower extremity biomechanical performance during athletic tasks. The magnitude of this effect on clinical screening measures such as jump-landings is unknown. This study determined the effect of court (CS), grass (GS), and tile (TS) surfaces on Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) grades. A repeated-measures design was used. A total of 40 (21F, 19M; mean age = 23.8 ± 2.4 yr) recreational athletes performed a jump-landing task on three different landing surfaces. 2D videography recorded jump-landings in the frontal and sagittal planes...
December 10, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Xing Wang, Shao-Jie Zhang, Yuan-Zhi Zhang, Xiao-He Li, Zhi-Feng Zhang, Chao-Qun Wang, Shang Gao, Jun Shi, Zhi-Jun Li
Introduction: Spinal pedicle screw internal fixation has been widely used in adult spine injury fixation. Due to being in a period of continuous growth and development, the spine of children at different ages shows different characteristics from adults in terms of anatomy, physiological function, and biomechanics. Furthermore, because the pedicle of children is small, has large anatomic variation, and has complex adjacent relationships, the surgical risk is extremely high. How to improve the screwing accuracy is the key to the success of children's pedicle internal fixation...
December 2018: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
Anne-Gita Scheibler, Tobias Götschi, Jonas Widmer, Claude Holenstein, Thomas Steffen, Roland S Camenzind, Jess G Snedeker, Mazda Farshad
The surgical standard of care for lumbar discectomy leaves the annulus fibrosus (AF) defect unrepaired, despite considerable risk for a recurrent herniation. Identification of a viable defect repair strategy has until now been elusive. The scope of this ex vivo biomechanical study was to evaluate crosslinking hydrogels as potentially promising AF defect sealants, and provide a baseline for their use in combination with collagen scaffolds that restore disc volume. This study directly compared genipin crosslinked fibrin hydrogel (FibGen) as a promising preclinical candidate against a clinically available adhesive composed of glutaraldehyde and albumin (BioGlue)...
2018: PloS One
Matthew C Mauck, JunMei Hu, Christopher Sefton, Robert A Swor, David A Peak, Jeffrey S Jones, Niels K Rathlev, David C Lee, Robert M Domeier, Phyllis L Hendry, Samuel A McLean
Obesity has been found to increase the risk of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in other settings, but to our knowledge the influence of increased body mass index on pain outcomes after common trauma exposures such as motor vehicle collision (MVC) has not been assessed. In addition, obesity results in biomechanical changes, as well as physiologic changes including reduced hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback inhibition, but mechanisms by which obesity may result in worse post-traumatic outcomes remain poorly understood...
November 29, 2018: Pain
Abdulla Watad, Charlie Bridgewood, Tobias Russell, Helena Marzo-Ortega, Richard Cuthbert, Dennis McGonagle
In our paper, we discuss how the early phases of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are linked to peri-firbocartilagenous osteitis in the sacroiliac joint and entheseal bone related anchoring sites. This skeletal proclivity is linked to an abnormal immunological response to skeletal biomechanical stress and associated microdamage. A key event in the early stages of AS appears to be the association with subclinical Crohn's-like colitis with this gut inflammation being pivotal to the osteitis reaction. Whether this osteitis is consequent to non-specific intestinal innate immune activation or adaptive immune responses against specific microbiotal or self-antigens is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Leila Hadjadj, Anna Monori-Kiss, Eszter M Horváth, Andrea Heinzlmann, Attila Magyar, Réka E Sziva, Zsuzsanna Miklós, Éva Pál, János Gál, István Szabó, Zoltán Benyó, György L Nádasy, Szabolcs Várbíró
Vitamin D (VitD) hypovitaminosis and androgen excess (AE) are both risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in fertile women. However, the possible early interaction between AE and VitD status is not clear. Our goal was to describe how VitD status influences early changes in the biomechanical reactivity of small coronary arterioles in adult female rats after transdermal testosterone treatment. Forty-six adolescent, 90-110-gram-weighed female Wistar rats were randomly grouped into 4 groups. Twenty-four animals received an optimal VitD-supplemented diet, from which 12 animals underwent transdermal testosterone treatment...
November 28, 2018: Microvascular Research
S Bouaicha, L Ernstbrunner, L Jud, D C Meyer, J G Snedeker, E Bachmann
AIMS: In patients with a rotator cuff tear, tear pattern and tendon involvement are known risk factors for the development of pseudoparalysis of the shoulder. It remains unclear, however, why similar tears often have very different functional consequences. The present study hypothesizes that individual shoulder anatomy, specifically the moment arms (MAs) of the rotator cuff (RC) and the deltoid muscle, as well as their relative recruitment during shoulder abduction, plays a central role in pseudoparalysis...
December 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
Divya Krishnamoorthy, Robert C Hoy, Devorah M Natelson, Olivia M Torre, Damien M Laudier, James C Iatridis, Svenja Illien-Jünger
Back pain is a leading cause of disability strongly associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Reducing structural disruption and catabolism in IVD degeneration remains an important clinical challenge. Pro-oxidant and structure-modifying advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) contribute to obesity and diabetes, which are associated with increased back pain, and accumulate in tissues due to hyperglycemia or ingestion of foods processed at high heat. Collagen-rich IVDs are particularly susceptible to AGE accumulation due to their slow metabolic rates yet it is unclear if dietary AGEs can cross the endplates to accumulate in IVDs...
November 29, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Hema J Sulkar, Robert Z Tashjian, Peter N Chalmers, Heath B Henninger
BACKGROUND: Trauma can fracture the scapular neck. Typically, a single plate along the lateral scapula border affixes the glenoid fragment to the scapula. This method is limited by difficulty in screw placement, frequent excessive soft tissue dissection, and risk for neurovascular injury. Substituting 2 smaller plates bridging the scapular neck mitigates these limitations, but no comparative mechanical data between techniques exists. Therefore, we compared the mechanical properties of two constructs securing a simulated scapular neck fracture...
November 22, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Philippe Corbeil, André Plamondon, Grant Handrigan, Jasmin Vallée-Marcotte, Simon Laurendeau, Jasmin Ten Have, Nancy Manzerolle
The risk of back injury during work remains high today for manual materials handler. The purpose of this study is to identify the potential presence of compensatory strategies in obese and non-obese handlers and evaluate the impact these strategies have on trunk kinematics and kinetics. The biomechanical and ergonomic impacts in 17 obese and 20 healthy-weight handlers were evaluated. The task studied consisted in moving boxes from a conveyor to a hand trolley and back. The results show that the anthropometric characteristics of obese handlers are linked to a significant increase in peak lumbar loading during lifting and lowering of boxes...
January 2019: Applied Ergonomics
Xavier Gasparutto, Erik van der Graaff, Frans C T van der Helm, Dirkjan H E J Veeger
In baseball pitching, biomechanical parameters have been linked to ball velocity and potential injury risk. However, although the features of a biomechanical model have a significant influence on the kinematics and kinetics of a motion, this influence have not been assessed for pitching. The aim of this study was to evaluate the choice of the trunk and shoulder features, by comparing two models using the same input. The models differed in thoraco-humeral joint definition (moving or fixed with the thorax), joint centre estimation, values of the inertial parameters and computational framework...
November 28, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Clara Karton, T Blaine Hoshizaki
Head impacts that transfer mechanical energy to the skull and create brain injuries have unique dynamic responses and brain tissue trauma characteristics. The magnitude of the impact energy and how it is transmitted creates three-dimensional linear and rotational accelerations of the head, resulting in unique strains on brain tissue. Biomechanical investigations of head injuries in contact sports have historically focused on attenuating energy transfer to the skull and brain. Typically, severe life-threatening events are caused by high-energy impact events that result in anatomic damage...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Breton M Asken, Dallas C Hack, Michael A McCrea
The study of contact and collision sport athletes at risk for concussion began approximately three decades ago. Since then, sport-related concussion (SRC) research across several medical specialties has helped to develop consensus guidelines for clinical management through interdisciplinary efforts. The modern landscape of SRC research includes large-scale investigations to define the natural history of concussion and identify factors that should guide prevention, diagnosis, and treatment specific to the individual patient...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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