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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118391/the-biomechanical-effect-of-warm-up-stretching-strategies-on-landing-mechanics-in-female-volleyball-athletes
#1
Jason M Avedesian, Lawrence W Judge, Henry Wang, D Clark Dickin
Female volleyball athletes incorporate dynamic and static stretching into a warm-up, with evidence generally supporting dynamic stretching to improve performance. However, the effects of these stretching practices on injury risk during subsequent volleyball manoeuvres have yet to be fully elucidated in the warm-up literature. Three-dimensional kinematic data associated with non-contact, lower extremity injury were recorded on 12 female collegiate club volleyball athletes during unilateral landing tasks on the dominant and non-dominant limb...
August 17, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117605/changes-in-biomechanical-knee-injury-risk-factors-across-two-collegiate-soccer-seasons-using-the-11-prevention-program
#2
Amelia J H Arundale, Holly J Silvers-Granelli, Adam Marmon, Ryan Zarzycki, Celeste Dix, Lynn Snyder-Mackler
The 11+ injury prevention program effectively reduces injuries in high school aged female soccer player, but the mechanism of the 11+ is unknown, particularly whether it impacts biomechanical risk factors associated with knee injuries. The purpose was to report the changes in hip and knee biomechanics with use of the 11+ over two soccer seasons. Two collegiate women's soccer teams performed the 11+ for two soccer seasons. A control team was followed for one season. Athletes performed motion analysis of a drop vertical jump during preseason and postseason...
August 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116937/how-to-reduce-osteopenia-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#3
Claude Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Osteopenia of the front half of the distal femur is a well-known problem after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with secondary issues after years, especially when must be addressed fractures or revisions for loosening. Stress shielding has been recognized as a cause in different biomechanical studies of the bone. QUESTION/PURPOSES: It was logical to look for a solution by changing the design to minimize stress shielding behind the femoral shield. PATIENTS AND METHODS: It was proved that radiological measure of bone density was reliable although not so early and accurate as densitometry...
August 16, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114271/effect-of-the-screw-type-s2-alar-iliac-and-iliac-screw-length-and-screw-head-angle-on-the-risk-of-screw-and-adjacent-bone-failures-after-a-spinopelvic-fixation-technique-a-finite-element-analysis
#4
Jong Ki Shin, Beop-Yong Lim, Tae Sik Goh, Seung Min Son, Hyung-Sik Kim, Jung Sub Lee, Chi-Seung Lee
PURPOSE: Spinopelvic fixations involving the S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) and iliac screws are commonly used in various spinal fusion surgeries. This study aimed to compare the biomechanical characteristics, specifically the risk of screw and adjacent bone failures of S2AI screw fixation with those of iliac screw fixation using a finite element analysis (FEA). METHODS: A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of a healthy spinopelvis was generated. The pedicle screws were placed on the L3-S1 with three different lengths of the S2AI and iliac screws (60 mm, 75 mm, and 90 mm)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112628/are-clinical-outcomes-affected-by-type-of-plate-used-for-management-of-mid-shaft-clavicle-fractures
#5
Mohammad M Alzahrani, Adam Cota, Khalid Alkhelaifi, Aljarrah Aleidan, Gregory Berry, Rudy Reindl, Edward Harvey
BACKGROUND: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) using plate osteosynthesis for midshaft clavicle fractures is often complicated by the prominence of the implant due to the subcutaneous position of the clavicle. Reoperation rates for symptomatic clavicle plate removal have been reported to be as high as 53%. We sought to determine to which degree do clinical outcomes (all cause reoperation rate and rate of fracture union) differ between types of clavicle plates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed using our hospital database for patients treated with ORIF for mid-shaft clavicle fractures (OTA/AO type 15-B)...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107079/influence-of-custom-made-and-stock-mouthguard-thickness-on-biomechanical-response-to-a-simulated-impact
#6
João Paulo Mendes Tribst, Amanda Maria de Oliveira Dal Piva, Alexandre Luiz Souto Borges, Marco Antonio Bottino
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mouthguards are dental devices able to soften the risks of facial trauma. However, the large variety of mouthguard types and thicknesses raises the question of each one is the most effective and beneficial for the athlete. The aim of this study was to evaluate stress distribution in the skull, teeth and jaw as a consequence of a direct impact. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using modeling software, a human skull was modeled and a human jaw was created with all teeth inserted into the respective alveolus...
August 14, 2018: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099182/biomechanical-characterization-of-intracranial-aneurysm-wall-a-multi-scale-study
#7
Francesco Signorelli, Cyril Pailler-Mattei, Benjamin Gory, Pierre Larquet, Philip Robinson, Roberto Vargiolu, Hassan Zahouani, Paul-Emile Labeyrie, Jacques Guyotat, Isabelle Pelissou-Guyotat, Julien Berthiller, Francis Turjman
OBJECT: Aneurysm wall biomechanics are not yet integral part of aneurysm rupture risk evaluation. We aimed to develop a new technique describing the biomechanical properties of aneurysm wall and correlating them to rupture status. METHODS: Aneurysm wall samples collected during surgery were submitted before and after freezing to tensile tests or as fresh samples to indentation tests. The lateral stiffness or the Young's modulus of the different samples were determined as function of the mechanical test used...
August 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098642/armrests-and-back-support-reduced-biomechanical-loading-in-the-neck-and-upper-extremities-during-mobile-phone-use
#8
Kartheek Reddy Syamala, Ravi Charan Ailneni, Jeong Ho Kim, Jaejin Hwang
Mobile phone use is known to be associated with musculoskeletal pain in the neck and upper extremities because of related physical risk factors, including awkward postures. A chair that provides adequate support (armrests and back support) may reduce biomechanical loading in the neck and shoulder regions. Therefore, we conducted a repeated-measures laboratory study with 20 participants (23 ± 1.9 years; 10 males) to determine whether armrests and back support during mobile phone use reduced head/neck flexion, gravitational moment, and muscle activity in the neck and shoulder regions...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098348/enhanced-tomographic-assessment-to-detect-corneal-ectasia-based-on-artificial-intelligence
#9
Bernardo T Lopes, Isaac C Ramos, Marcella Q Salomão, Frederico P Guerra, Steve C Schallhorn, Julie M Schallhorn, Riccardo Vinciguerra, Paolo Vinciguerra, Fancis W Price, Marianne O Price, Dan Z Reinstein, Timothy J Archer, Michael W Bellin, Aydano P Machado, Renato Ambrósio
PURPOSE: To improve the detection of corneal ectasia susceptibility using tomographic data. DESIGN: Multicenter case control study METHODS: Data from patients from five different clinics from South-America, United States and Europe were evaluated. Artificial intelligence models were generated using Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) parameters to discriminate the preoperative data of three groups: stable LASIK cases (2,980 patients with minimum follow up of 7 years), ectasia susceptibility (71 eyes of 45 patients that developed post-LASIK ectasia [PLE]) and clinical keratoconus (182 patients [KC])...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098164/assessment-of-pliability-and-elasticity-of-the-external-nasal-skin-in-patients-with-unilateral-nasal-valve-collapse-a-static-biomechanical-evaluation
#10
James P Bonaparte, Ross Campbell
Importance: Understanding the skin biomechanics, specifically pliability and elasticity, in patients with nasal valve collapse may allow for new methods to assess which patients require more advanced nasal valve surgery. Objective: To test the hypothesis that in patients with unilateral nasal valve collapse, the side of the nose with the collapse will have lower elasticity and increased pliability compared with the normal side, as assessed by a blinded observer using the Cutometer MPA 580...
August 9, 2018: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098020/under-pressure-biomechanical-limitations-of-developing-pneumatocysts-in-the-bull-kelp-nereocystis-luetkeana-phaeophyceae
#11
Lauran M Liggan, Patrick T Martone
Maintaining buoyancy with gas-filled floats (pneumatocysts) is essential for some subtidal kelps to achieve an upright stature and compete for light used for photosynthesis. However, as these kelps grow up through the water column, pneumatocysts are exposed to substantial changes in hydrostatic pressure, which could cause complications as internal gases may expand or contract, potentially causing them to rupture, flood, and lose buoyancy. In this study, we investigate how pneumatocysts of Nereocystis luetkeana resist biomechanical stress and maintain buoyancy as they develop across a hydrostatic gradient...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097078/subtalar-joint-biomechanics-from-normal-to-pathologic
#12
REVIEW
Adam Sangeorzan, Bruce Sangeorzan
Subtalar joint biomechanics are primarily driven by the shape of the articulations with contributions from the surrounding soft tissues. The joint motion occurs about a single axis oriented medially and superiorly. Joint contact forces change during different stages of gait and are affected by hindfoot alignment and traumatic alterations to their normal anatomy. A valgus subtalar joint axis is likely a contributing, and perhaps primary, risk factor for progression to adult acquired flat foot. The subtalar joint axis also contributes to the clinical picture of a cavus foot and a special subset of patients with dynamic varus...
September 2018: Foot and Ankle Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096512/effects-of-postmortem-time-and-storage-fluid-on-the-material-properties-of-bovine-liver-parenchyma-in-tension
#13
Kristin M Dunford, Tanya LeRoith, Andrew R Kemper
In motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), liver injuries are one of the most frequently reported types of abdominal organ trauma. Although finite element models are utilized to evaluate the risk of sustaining an abdominal organ injury in MVCs, these models must be validated based on biomechanical data in order to accurately assess injury risk. Given that previous studies that have quantified the tensile failure properties of human liver parenchyma have been limited to testing at 48 h postmortem, it is currently unknown how the material properties change between time of death and 48 h postmortem...
May 31, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094799/the-effect-of-angle-and-velocity-on-change-of-direction-biomechanics-an-angle-velocity-trade-off
#14
REVIEW
Thomas Dos'Santos, Christopher Thomas, Paul Comfort, Paul A Jones
Changes of direction (CODs) are key manoeuvres linked to decisive moments in sport and are also key actions associated with lower limb injuries. During sport athletes perform a diverse range of CODs, from various approach velocities and angles, thus the ability to change direction safely and quickly is of great interest. To our knowledge, a comprehensive review examining the influence of angle and velocity on change of direction (COD) biomechanics does not exist. Findings of previous research indicate the biomechanical demands of CODs are 'angle' and 'velocity' dependent and are both critical factors that affect the technical execution of directional changes, deceleration and reacceleration requirements, knee joint loading, and lower limb muscle activity...
August 9, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091937/age-dependent-patellofemoral-pain-hip-and-knee-risk-landing-profiles-in-prepubescent-and-postpubescent-female-athletes
#15
Ryan T Galloway, Yingying Xu, Timothy E Hewett, Kim Barber Foss, Adam W Kiefer, Christopher A DiCesare, Robert A Magnussen, Jane Khoury, Kevin R Ford, Jed A Diekfuss, Dustin Grooms, Gregory D Myer, Alicia M Montalvo
BACKGROUND: Female athletes are at an increased risk of developing patellofemoral pain (PFP) relative to male athletes. The unique effects of maturation may compound that risk. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate the neuromuscular control mechanisms that are adaptive to pubertal maturation and determine their relative contribution to PFP development. It was hypothesized that aberrant landing mechanics (reduced sagittal-plane and increased frontal- and transverse-plane kinematics and kinetics) would be associated with an increased risk for PFP...
August 9, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090835/comparison-of-a-distal-tibial-allograft-and-scapular-spinal-autograft-for-posterior-shoulder-instability-with-glenoid-bone-loss
#16
Christopher Nacca, Joseph A Gil, Steven F DeFroda, Rohit Badida, Brett D Owens
Background: Posterior glenoid bone deficiency can occur with recurrent glenohumeral instability. Glenoid reconstruction with a distal tibial allograft (DTA) has been reported to successfully restore contact pressures that occur during posterior glenohumeral translation. However, there are concerns regarding the risk of allograft resorption, availability, and costs. Extracapsular reconstruction using a scapular spinal autograft (SSA) has been reported as an alternative technique secondary to its anatomic location relative to the posterior shoulder and preferable autograft properties...
July 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081306/association-between-gait-mechanics-and-ultrasonographic-measures-of-femoral-cartilage-thickness-in-individuals-with-acl-reconstruction
#17
Derek N Pamukoff, Melissa M Montgomery, Skylar C Holmes, Tyler J Moffit, Steven A Garcia, Michael N Vakula
BACKGROUND: Individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are at greater risk for knee osteoarthritis, which may be in part due to altered gait biomechanics. Articular cartilage thickness is typically imaged using magnetic resonance imaging, which is costly and lacks portability. Ultrasonography may provide an alternative imaging method for articular cartilage. It is unclear if ultrasonographic measurements of cartilage thickness are associated with gait biomechanics in individuals with ACLR...
July 24, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078157/an-ergonomic-field-study-to-evaluate-the-effects-of-a-rotatable-handle-piece-on-muscular-stress-and-fatigue-as-well-as-subjective-ratings-of-usability-wrist-posture-and-precision-during-laparoscopic-surgery-an-explorative-pilot-study
#18
Bernhard Kraemer, Robert Seibt, Anne-Katrin Stoffels, Ralf Rothmund, Sara Y Brucker, Monika A Rieger, Benjamin Steinhilber
PURPOSE: The interface between surgeon and the laparoscopic instrument is an important factor in biomechanical stress that may increase the risk of musculoskeletal complaints in surgeons. This article investigates the effect of a laparoscopic instrument with a rotatable handle piece (rot-HP) on muscular stress and fatigue during routine laparoscopic procedures (LP) as well as usability, wrist posture and working precision. METHODS: 40 LP (subtotal hysterectomies) performed by 11 surgeons were investigated...
August 4, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077264/editorial-commentary-when-it-comes-to-patient-outcome-femoral-tunnel-vision-may-miss-the-point-in-knee-medial-patellofemoral-ligament-reconstruction
#19
EDITORIAL
Seth L Sherman
Surgeons care deeply about optimizing femoral tunnel position in medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction. We use a combination of anatomy, isometry, and fluoroscopy to determine the appropriate position of our graft. Although malposition does increase the risk of surgical complication, it is unclear whether femoral tunnel position actually matters for clinical outcome. Surgeons should avoid "tunnel vision" in medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction by recognizing the combination of anatomic, biomechanical, patient-specific, and technique-dependent variables that may drive patient satisfaction and subjective outcome...
August 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077262/editorial-commentary-fracture-risk-after-arthroscopic-osteochondroplasty-for-femoroacetabular-impingement-how-can-we-become-better
#20
EDITORIAL
Esin Rothenfluh
There is an increased risk of fracture following osteochondroplasty at the femoral head-neck junction for cam-type femoroacetabular impingement. The amount of safe resection has previously been investigated through several biomechanical models, including composite bone, cadaver, animal, and finite element models. Translation of ex vivo results regarding safe resection to an arthroscopic procedure on an actual patient remains a research and clinical challenge.
August 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
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