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biomechanical risk

Peng-Fei Han, Lei Wei, Zhi-Qing Duan, Zhi-Liang Zhang, Tao-Yu Chen, Jian-Gong Lu, Rui-Peng Zhao, Xiao-Ming Cao, Peng-Cui Li, Zhi Lv, Xiao-Chun Wei
BACKGROUND: It has been noted that anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury-induced cartilage degeneration is the key risk factor for post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). However, whether the cartilage degeneration after ACL injury is caused by inflammation, abnormal biomechanics or both remains largely unknown, as there has been no animal model for separating the two factors so far. METHODS: Eighteen-month-old female mini-pigs were divided into an "idealized" anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (IACLR) group and a control group (n = 16 limbs per group)...
October 11, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
C Deckers, P Stephan, K E Wever, C R Hooijmans, G Hannink
OBJECTIVE: It is unclear if anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction can prevent the onset of degenerative changes in the knee. Previous studies were inconclusive on this subject. The aim of this study was to systematically review all studies on the effect of ACL reconstruction on articular cartilage in animals. DESIGN: Pubmed and Embase were searched to identify all original articles concerning the effect of ACL reconstruction on articular cartilage compared with both its positive (ACL transection) and negative (sham and/or non-operated) control in animals...
October 11, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Luis Cardoso, Sheldon Weinbaum
For many decades, cardiovascular calcification has been considered as a passive process, accompanying atheroma progression, correlated with plaque burden, and apparently without a major role on plaque vulnerability. Clinical and pathological analyses have previously focused on the total amount of calcification (calcified area in a whole atheroma cross section) and whether more calcification means higher risk of plaque rupture or not. However, this paradigm has been changing in the last decade or so. Recent research has focused on the presence of microcalcifications (μCalcs) in the atheroma and more importantly on whether clusters of μCalcs are located in the cap of the atheroma...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Andreas Lundberg Zachrisson, Pia Desai, Jon Karlsson, Elias Johanesson, Stefan Grau
BACKGROUND: Overuse injuries (OI) are common in elite athletics. Previous studies have had athletes self-report injuries rather than having a medical professional provide a clear diagnosis. This might be a major reason for the inconsistencies in reported incident proportions of OI in elite athletics, in addition to the varying definitions of OI in current literature. Risk factors or combinations of risk factors (biomechanical, clinical, and training-related) have been shown to be important in the developmental process of OI...
October 13, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Matthew Martinez, Phillip L De Leon, David Keeley
BACKGROUND: Prior research in falls risk prediction often relies on qualitative and/or clinical methods. There are two challenges with these methods. First, qualitative methods typically use falls history to determine falls risk. Second, clinical methods do not quantify the uncertainty in the classification decision. In this paper, we propose using Bayesian classification to predict falls risk using vectors of gait variables shown to contribute to falls risk. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: (1) Using a vector of risk ratios for specific gait variables shown to contribute to falls risk, how can older adults be classified as low or high falls risk? and (2) how can the uncertainty in the classifier decision be quantified when using a vector of gait variables? METHODS: Using a pressure sensitive walkway, biomechanical measurements of gait were collected from 854 adults over the age of 65...
October 1, 2018: Gait & Posture
Bertrand Sonnery-Cottet, Cesar Praz, Nikolaus Rosenstiel, William G Blakeney, Herve Ouanezar, Vikram Kandhari, Thais Dutra Vieira, Adnan Saithna
BACKGROUND: Ramp lesions are characterized by disruption of the peripheral meniscocapsular attachments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Ramp repair performed at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has been shown to improve knee biomechanics. PURPOSE: The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for ramp lesions among a large series of patients undergoing ACLR. Secondary objectives were to determine the reoperation rate for failure of ramp repair, defined by subsequent reoperations for partial medial meniscectomy...
October 11, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Christoph H F Hämmerle, Luca Cordaro, Karol A Apaza Alccayhuaman, Daniele Botticelli, Marco Esposito, Lino E Colomina, Alfonso Gil, Felix L Gulje, Alexis Ioannidis, Henny Meijer, Spyridon Papageorgiou, Gerry Raghoebar, Eugenio Romeo, Franck Renouard, Stefano Storelli, Ferruccio Torsello, Hannes Wachtel
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present publication was to report on the EAO Workshop group-4 discussions and consensus statements on the five reviews previously prepared. These reviews provided the scientific evidence on the effect of crown-to-implant ratio, on reconstructions with cantilevers in fully and partially edentulous patients, on biological and technical complications of tilted in comparison with straight implants, and on the effects of osseointegrated implants functioning in a residual dentition...
October 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Xiaogai Li, Svein Kleiven
Playground-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in children remain a considerable problem world-wide and current safety standards are being questioned due to historical reasons where the injury thresholds had been perpetuated from automobile industry. Here we investigated head injury mechanisms due to falls on playgrounds using a previously developed and validated age-scalable and positionable whole body child model impacted at front, back and side of the head simulating head-first falls from 1.59 meters (m)...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Benjamin M Strong, Ilya Voloshin
PURPOSE: Fixation with a cortical button is the biomechanically strongest surgical approach for distal biceps repair, and utilization of the 2-incision approach may provide a more anatomical repair and improved terminal supination strength. The risk of injury to the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) associated with this approach requires further investigation. METHODS: A distal biceps repair with a cortical button was performed on 10 cadavers, 5 utilizing the single-incision approach and 5 utilizing the 2-incision approach...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Hayley M Ericksen, Caitlin Lefevre, Brittney A Luc-Harkey, Abbey C Thomas, Phillip A Gribble, Brian Pietrosimone
CONTEXT: High vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) when initiating ground contact during jump-landing is one biomechanical factor that may increase risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Intervention programs have been developed to decrease vGRF to reduce injury risk, yet generating high forces is still critical for performing dynamic activities such as a vertical jump task. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if a jump-landing feedback intervention, cueing a decrease in vGRF, would impair vertical jump performance in a separate task (Vertmax )...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Dan-Feng Xu, Guo-Xin Qu, Shi-Gui Yan, Xun-Zi Cai
Microbubbles magnify the acoustic pressure of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and may enhance its bioeffect for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This study compared the effect of this novel microbubble-mediated ultrasound (MUS) with that of the traditional LIPUS on osteogenesis and neovascularization in a rabbit model of steroid-associated osteonecrosis. We hypothesized that MUS might outweigh LIPUS on promoting osteogenesis and neovascularization in steroid-associated osteonecrosis. The bilateral femoral head necrosis was induced by lipopolysaccharide and methylprednisolone in the rabbits...
2018: BioMed Research International
Doran S Mix, Michael C Stoner, Steven W Day, Michael S Richards
Ultrasound (US) elastography, or elasticity imaging, is an adjunct imaging technique that utilizes sequential US images of soft tissues to measure the tissue motion and infer or quantify the underlying biomechanical characteristics. For abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), biomechanical properties such as changes in the tissue's elastic modulus and estimates of the tissue stress may be essential for assessing the need for the surgical intervention. Abdominal aortic aneurysms US elastography could be a useful tool to monitor AAA progression and identify changes in biomechanical properties characteristic of high-risk patients...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Luke G Perraton, Ross A Clark, Kay M Crossley, Yong-Hao Pua, Tim S Whitehead, Hayden G Morris, Adam G Culvenor, Adam L Bryant
PURPOSE: Individuals with impaired knee function after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) may be at greater risk of developing knee osteoarthritis related to abnormal knee joint movement and loading. The aim of this study was to assess the association between knee biomechanics and knee laxity during hopping and clinically assessed knee function (i.e., patient-reported knee function and hop tests) following ACLR. METHODS: Sixty-six participants (23 women, mean age 28 ± 6 years, mean 18 ± 3 months following ACLR) completed a standardized single-leg hopping task...
October 6, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Wen Min, Penghua Fang, Guicheng Huang, Mingyi Shi, Zhenwen Zhang
Age is a major risk factor for developing chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. Emerging evidences suggest that the disorder of bone metabolism in osteoporosis is involved in the pathogenesis of glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, their etiology and relative regulatory factors still remain elusive to clinicians and researchers. In this study, rats were divided into two groups: normal sham surgery control and ovariectomized (OVX) groups. We evaluated the global bone parameters, glucose metabolism, protein and gene expressions in both skeletal muscle and adipocytes...
October 4, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Pranawa Koirala, Seth E Wolpin, Janet T Peterson
INTRODUCTION: Porters working at high altitude face a number of preventable health risks ranging from frostbite to potentially fatal high-altitude pulmonary and cerebral edema. Porters are often recruited from impoverished low-altitude areas, poorly equipped in terms of protective clothing, and tasked with carrying loads that equal or exceed their body mass to high elevations. Despite a large population of porters working throughout mountainous parts of the world, there is little documentation regarding knowledge levels, attitudes, and practices related to the prevention of altitude illness in this population...
October 3, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Susumu Yoneda, Hirotaka Okubo, Stephen W Linderman, Nozomu Kusano, Matthew J Silva, Stavros Thomopoulos, Fuminori Kanaya, Richard H Gelberman
The failure rate of intrasynovial tendon repair is high due to substantial elongation at the repair site and to the development of adhesions between the tendon's surface and the surrounding digital sheath. To minimize these complications, we sought to reduce the incidence of gapping and to facilitate the initiation of early motion by improving the time zero structural properties of repair. The Winters-Gelberman 8-strand repair technique was modified by adding surface lock loops and by using Fiberwire suture material...
2018: PloS One
Denis Gagnon, André Plamondon, Christian Larivière
There is a clear relationship between lumbar spine loading and back musculoskeletal disorders in manual materials handling. The incidence of back disorders is greater in women than men, and for similar work demands females are functioning closer to their physiological limit. It is crucial to study loading on the spine musculoskeletal system with actual handlers, including females, to better understand the risk of back disorders. Extrapolation from biomechanical studies conducted on unexperienced subjects (mainly males) might not be applicable to actual female workers...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Leo Pauzenberger, Philipp R Heuberer, Felix Dyrna, Elifho Obopilwe, Bernhard Kriegleder, Werner Anderl, Augustus D Mazzocca
BACKGROUND: Delamination in rotator cuff tears has been identified as a prognostic factor for negative outcome after repair, with a reported prevalence between 38% and 88%. PURPOSE: To compare biomechanical properties of 3 repair techniques for delaminated rotator cuff tears. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Eighteen fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were used to evaluate rotator cuff footprint reconstruction, contact area and pressure, displacement under cyclical loading, and load to failure of 3 double-row repair configurations: double-row suture repair with medial row knots (medially knotted bridge, mkB); knotless double-row repair using suture tapes (knotless bridge, klB); and knotless double-row, double-layer-specific repair (double-layer, DL)...
October 4, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Chang-Chen Yang, Jui-Teng Chien, Tzung-Yi Tsai, Kuang-Ting Yeh, Ru-Ping Lee, Wen-Tien Wu
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is widely used to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). The influence of timing (early vs. late) of PVP on the development of adjacent vertebral fractures (AVF) has rarely been discussed. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the incidence of AVF among patients who received early PVP (= 30 days after symptom onset, EPVP) or late PVP (> 30 days after symptom onset, LPVP) in the thoracolumbar region (T10 to L2) after a 1-year follow up...
September 2018: Pain Physician
Christopher Chaput, Nathan B Haile, Aditya M Muzumdar, David M Gloystein, Vasilios A Zerris, Paul J Tortolani, Mark Rahm, Mark Moldavsky, Suresh Chinthakunta, Saif Khalil
Background: Unilateral fractures involving complete separation of the lateral mass from the vertebra and lamina (floating lateral mass fractures) are a unique subset of cervical spine fractures. These injuries are at significant risk for displacement without operative fixation. Posterior fixation has proven to facilitate adequate fusion. However, there are few data supporting the clinical success of single-level anterior fixation. Methods: Biomechanical evaluation of floating lateral mass fractures and a consecutive case series of patients with rotationally unstable floating lateral mass fractures treated with anterior fixation using an integrated cage-screw device with anterior plating (ICSD) was performed...
January 2018: International Journal of Spine Surgery
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