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Non Linear

Ekp Jillings, R A Squires, S Azarpeykan, N Lopez-Villalobos
AIMS: To determine the effect of contamination of urine with 0-5% blood, varying in haematocrit and protein concentrations, on the urine protein to creatinine ratio (UPC) in dogs, and to determine whether the colour of urine can be used to aid interpretation of UPC results. METHODS: Urine samples were collected by free catch from 18 dogs, all of which had UPC <0.2. Venous blood samples were also collected from each dog, and the blood from each dog was added to its own urine to produce serial concentrations of 0...
December 5, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Arjola Bano, Earn Gan, Caroline Addison, Kilimangalam Narayanan, Jolanta U Weaver, Vasileios Tsatlidis, Salman Razvi
Context: Thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease (GD). However, factors that influence the association of TRAbs with thyroid hormones and relapse risk in GD remain unclear. Objective: We investigated: (i) the associations of TRAbs at diagnosis with thyroid hormones and relapse risk; (ii) potential factors that can influence these associations in GD. Design and Setting: A prospective study in GD patients from a single endocrine centre in the north-east of England, seen between January 2008 and March 2018...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Feng J He, Norm R C Campbell, Yuan Ma, Graham A MacGregor, Mary E Cogswell, Nancy R Cook
Background: Several cohort studies with inaccurate estimates of sodium reported a J-shaped relationship with mortality. We compared various estimated sodium intakes with that measured by the gold-standard method of multiple non-consecutive 24-h urine collections and assessed their relationship with mortality. Methods: We analysed the Trials of Hypertension Prevention follow-up data. Sodium intake was assessed in four ways: (i) average measured (gold standard): mean of three to seven 24-h urinary sodium measurements during the trial periods; (ii) average estimated: mean of three to seven estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretions from sodium concentration of 24-h urine using the Kawasaki formula; (iii) first measured: 24-h urinary sodium measured at the beginning of each trial; (iv) first estimated: 24-h urinary sodium estimated from sodium concentration of the first 24-h urine using the Kawasaki formula...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Xuebin Qi, Qu Zhang, Yaoxi He, Lixin Yang, Xiaoming Zhang, Peng Shi, Linping Yang, Zhengheng Liu, Fuheng Zhang, Fengyun Liu, Shiming Liu, Tianyi Wu, Chaoying Cui, Ouzhuluobu, Caijuan Bai, Baimakangzhuo, Jianlin Han, Shengguo Zhao, Chunnian Liang, Bing Su
Yak is one of the largest native mammalian species at the Himalayas, the highest plateau area in the world with an average elevation of more than 4,000 meters above the sea level. Yak is well adapted to high altitude environment with a set of physiological features for a more efficient blood flow for oxygen delivery under hypobaric hypoxia. Yet, the genetic mechanism underlying its adaptation remains elusive. We conducted a cross-tissue, cross-altitude and cross-species study to characterize the transcriptomic landscape of domestic yaks...
December 4, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Regina Tomie Ivata Bernal, Eduardo Vieira Neto, Katia Audi Curci, Maria Tereza de Marsillac Pasinato, Raquel Medeiros Lisbôa, Renata Fernandes Cachapuz, Karla Santa Cruz Coelho
OBJECTIVE: To analyze trends in risk and protective factors for non-communicable diseases (NCD) and access to preventive tests in the population with health insurance in Brazilian state capitals between 2008 and 2015. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that analyzed data collected from the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for non-communicable diseases (NCD) Telephone Survey (Sistema Nacional de Vigilância de Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico - Vigitel) on adults aged 18 years and older...
November 29, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Emerson Tavares de Sousa, Vanessa Feitosa Alves, Fabiana Barros Marinho Maia, Marinês Nobre-Dos-Santos, Franklin Delano Soares Forte, Fábio Correia Sampaio
This research aimed to determine the influence of fluoridated groundwater and 1,100 ppm fluoride dentifrice on biomarkers of exposure to fluoride in preschoolers. A cross-sectional study was performed on thirty preschoolers recruited from naturally fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas (n=15). Total Daily Fluoride Intake (TDFI) from diet and dentifrice, and Daily Urinary Fluoride Excretion (DUFE) was measured over 24 h. Nails samples were collected twice during 30 days. Fluoride analyses were performed using a fluoride-ion-specific electrode...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Luciana Falcão da Cruz, Márcia Marques Dos Santos Felix, Maria Beatriz Guimarães Ferreira, Patrícia da Silva Pires, Elizabeth Barichello, Maria Helena Barbosa
OBJECTIVE: To identify the influence of the variables sex, age, type of anesthesia, occurrence of intraoperative complications, pain and surgical complexity on the Aldrete-Kroulik Scoring System in patients in the immediate postoperative period, in the post-anesthesia care unit. METHOD: Non-experimental, longitudinal study, with a quantitative approach, conducted with 241 surgical patients. Descriptive analysis, Student's t-test, Pearson and Spearman Correlation Indexes and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the data...
November 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Prabha Siddarth, Alison C Burggren, David A Merrill, Linda M Ercoli, Zanjbeel Mahmood, Jorge R Barrio, Gary W Small
BACKGROUND: The translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 (TOMM40), which lies in linkage disequilibrium with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). TOMM40 influences AD pathology through mitochondrial neurotoxicity, and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is the most likely brain region for identifying early manifestations of AD-related morphology changes. While early reports indicated that the longer length poly-T allele of TOMM40 increases risk for AD, these findings have not been consistently replicated in further studies...
2018: PloS One
Manon Azaïs, Stéphane Blanco, Richard Bon, Richard Fournier, Marie-Hélène Pillot, Jacques Gautrais
Monitoring small groups of sheep in spontaneous evolution in the field, we decipher behavioural rules that sheep follow at the individual scale in order to sustain collective motion. Individuals alternate grazing mode at null speed and moving mode at walking speed, so cohesive motion stems from synchronising when they decide to switch between the two modes. We propose a model for the individual decision making process, based on switching rates between stopped / walking states that depend on behind / ahead locations and states of the others...
2018: PloS One
Tahir Rehman, Zhi-Xi Liu, Tsz-Ki Lau, Zhi-Peng Yu, Minmin Shi, Xinhui Lu, Chang-Zhi Li, Hongzheng Chen
To further advance polymer solar cells requires the fast evolution of π-conjugated materials, as well as better understanding of their structure-property relationships. Herein, we present three co-polymers (PT1, PT2, PT3) made through tuning π-bridges (without any group, thiophene, and 3-hexylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene) between electron rich (D: BDTT) and deficient (A: BDD) units. The comparative studies reveal the unique correlation that the tune of π-bridge on the polymeric backbone governs the solid stacking and photovoltaic properties of resultant poly(BDTT-alt-BDD)s, which provide an effective way to deliver new and efficient polymer with feasible processability...
December 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Un Jeong Kim, Jun Suk Kim, Noejung Park, Sanghyub Lee, Ukjae Lee, Yeonsang Park, Jinbong Seok, Sungwoo Hwang, Hyungbin Son, Young Hee Lee
Metal/graphene interface has been one of the most important research topics with regard to charge screening, charge transfer, contact resistance, and solar cells. Chemical bond formation of metal/graphene can be deduced from the defect induced D-band and its second-order mode, 2D band, measured by Raman spectroscopy, as a simple and non-destructive method. However, a phonon mode located at ~ 1350 cm-1 , which is normally known as the defect-induced D-band, is intriguing for graphene deposited with noble metals (Ag, Au, and Cu)...
December 5, 2018: ACS Nano
Jennifer A Hutcheon, Olof Stephansson, Sven Cnattingius, Lisa M Bodnar, KariJ Johansson
BACKGROUND: Observational cohort studies have consistently shown that maternal weight gain in pregnancy is positively associated with fetal size, but it is unknown whether the association is causal. This study investigated the effect of pregnancy weight gain on fetal growth using a sibling comparison design to control for unmeasured confounding by genetic and shared environmental factors. METHODS: Our study population included 44,457 infants (21,680 women) with electronic medical records in the Stockholm-Gotland Obstetrical Database, 2008-2014...
December 3, 2018: Epidemiology
D Delibashvili, Z Dumbadze, I Krynytska, M Marushchak, H Habor, L Holovatiuk
The use of food additives in food manufacturing has been a public health issue for many years. Currently, more than 3000 food additives have been approved and estimates has shown that each person may consume 3.6 to 4.5 kg of food additives per year on average. One of the most common food additives in Ukraine and in Europe is monosodium glutamate (MSG). This paper reports the effect of monosodium glutamate administration at "safe" (allowed) doses on the generation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in leukocyte blood suspension of rats...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
T Kmet, N Filipets, T Hrachova, T Bulyk, O Kushnir
The experiments conducted on non-linear mature laboratory albino rats determined that under conditions of subacute cadmium-nitrate intoxication the indices of proteinuria and acid-regulating renal function depend on acetylation phenotype. Unlike rapid acetylators considerable increase of protein concentration in urine (192,8%, р<0,05) and standardized by glomerular filtration protein excretion (141,7%, р<0,05) are indicative of higher susceptibility of rats with slow acetylation type to nephrotoxic action of cadmium chloride and sodium nitrate...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Reza Sharif Razavian, Borna Ghannadi, John McPhee
This paper presents a computational framework for the fast feedback control of musculoskeletal systems using muscle synergies. The proposed motor control framework has a hierarchical structure. A feedback controller at the higher level of hierarchy handles the trajectory planning and error compensation in the task space. This task space controller only deals with the task-related kinematic variables, thus is computationally efficient. The output of the task space controller is a force vector in the task space, which is fed to the low-level controller to be translated into muscle activity commands...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Beibei Zhu, Chunmei Liang, Xun Xia, Kun Huang, Shuangqin Yan, Jiahu Hao, Peng Zhu, Hui Gao, Fangbiao Tao
Iron is an essential micronutrient while its excessive load has been related to the etiology of diabetes. We used data of 3289 pregnant women from the Ma'anshan birth cohort (MABC) study in China to examine the associations of three iron-related factors (i.e., serum iron (SI) concentration, hemoglobin level, and use of iron supplements) with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Emphatically explore the potential non-linear relationship between SI concentration and risk of GDM. SI concentration was measured in fasting blood using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
December 5, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Thérésa Lebacq, Maud Dujeu, Estelle Méroc, Nathalie Moreau, Camille Pedroni, Isabelle Godin, Katia Castetbon
PURPOSE: The current study investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among a large and non-clinical sample of adolescents, and tested the possible moderating effect of perceived teacher and classmate support on this association. METHODS: French-speaking Belgian adolescents (n = 11,342) self-reported height and weight, HRQoL (KIDSCREEN-10), as well as their perception of teacher and classmate relationships...
December 4, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Maria Pia Francescato, Valentina Cettolo
PURPOSE: Reduction of noise of breath-by-breath gas-exchange data is crucial to improve measurements. A recently described algorithm ("independent breath"), that neglects the contiguity in time of breaths, was tested. METHODS: Oxygen, carbon dioxide fractions, and ventilatory flow were recorded continuously over 26 min in 20 healthy volunteers at rest, during unloaded and moderate intensity cycling and subsequent recovery; oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) was calculated with the "independent breath" algorithm (IND) and, for comparison, with three other "classical" algorithms...
December 4, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Danielle D Sliva, Christopher J Black, Paul Bowary, Uday Agrawal, Juan F Santoyo, Noah S Philip, Benjamin D Greenberg, Christopher I Moore, Stephanie R Jones
The (8-12 Hz) neocortical alpha rhythm is associated with shifts in attention across sensory systems, and is thought to represent a sensory gating mechanism for the inhibitory control of cortical processing. The present preliminary study sought to explore whether alpha frequency transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) could modulate endogenous alpha power in the somatosensory system, and whether the hypothesized modulation would causally impact perception of tactile stimuli at perceptual threshold...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Elin Dybjer, Peter M Nilsson, Gunnar Engström, Catherine Helmer, Katarina Nägga
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for cognitive impairment, but whether there is also a link between pre-diabetes and cognitive dysfunction is not yet fully established. The aim of this observational study was to investigate associations between pre-diabetes/diabetes and cognitive test results, and also between glucose levels measured during the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and cognitive outcomes. METHODS: During 2007-2012, in all 2994 people (mean age 72 years), residing in Malmö, Sweden, underwent a clinical examination including the OGTT, cardiovascular measurements including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV) and two cognitive tests, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), measuring global cognitive function, and A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT), measuring processing speed and executive functioning...
December 4, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
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