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zygote activation

Imtiyaz Khanday, Debra Skinner, Bing Yang, Raphael Mercier, Venkatesan Sundaresan
The molecular pathways that trigger the initiation of embryogenesis after fertilization in flowering plants, and prevent its occurrence without fertilization, are not well understood1 . Here we show in rice (Oryza sativa) that BABY BOOM1 (BBM1), a member of the AP2 family2 of transcription factors that is expressed in sperm cells, has a key role in this process. Ectopic expression of BBM1 in the egg cell is sufficient for parthenogenesis, which indicates that a single wild-type gene can bypass the fertilization checkpoint in the female gamete...
December 12, 2018: Nature
Jacinta H Martin, R John Aitken, Elizabeth G Bromfield, Brett Nixon
BACKGROUND: DNA integrity and stability are critical determinants of cell viability. This is especially true in the female germline, wherein DNA integrity underpins successful conception, embryonic development, pregnancy and the production of healthy offspring. However, DNA is not inert; rather, it is subject to assault from various environment factors resulting in chemical modification and/or strand breakage. If structural alterations result and are left unrepaired, they have the potential to cause mutations and propagate disease...
December 12, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Anushi Shukla, Neha Bunkar, Rajat Kumar, Arpit Bhargava, Rajnarayan Tiwari, Koel Chaudhury, Irina Y Goryacheva, Pradyumna K Mishra
Air pollution is one of the leading causes of deaths in Southeast Asian countries including India. Exposure to air pollutants affects vital cellular mechanisms and is intimately linked with the etiology of a number of chronic diseases. Earlier work from our laboratory has shown that airborne particulate matter disturbs the mitochondrial machinery and causes significant damage to the epigenome. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species possess the ability to trigger redox-sensitive signaling mechanisms and induce irreversible epigenomic changes...
November 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Tristan Frum, Tayler M Murphy, Amy Ralston
During mammalian development, the challenge for the embryo is to override intrinsic cellular plasticity to drive cells to distinct fates. Here, we unveil novel roles for the HIPPO signaling pathway in controlling cell positioning and expression of Sox2 , the first marker of pluripotency in the mouse early embryo. We show that maternal and zygotic YAP1 and WWTR1 repress Sox2 while promoting expression of the trophectoderm gene Cdx2 in parallel. Yet, Sox2 is more sensitive than Cdx2 to Yap1/Wwtr1 dosage, leading cells to a state of conflicted cell fate when YAP1/WWTR1 activity is moderate...
December 11, 2018: ELife
Matthias Reisser, Anja Palmer, Achim P Popp, Christopher Jahn, Gilbert Weidinger, J Christof M Gebhardt
Zygotic genome activation (ZGA), the onset of transcription after initial quiescence, is a major developmental step in many species, which occurs after ten cell divisions in zebrafish embryos. How transcription factor (TF)-chromatin interactions evolve during early development to support ZGA is largely unknown. We establish single molecule tracking in live developing zebrafish embryos using reflected light-sheet microscopy to visualize two fluorescently labeled TF species, mEos2-TBP and mEos2-Sox19b. We further develop a data acquisition and analysis scheme to extract quantitative information on binding kinetics and bound fractions during fast cell cycles...
December 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Yingfeng Li, Zhuqiang Zhang, Jiayu Chen, Wenqiang Liu, Weiyi Lai, Baodong Liu, Xiang Li, Liping Liu, Shaohua Xu, Qiang Dong, Mingzhu Wang, Xiaoya Duan, Jiajun Tan, Yong Zheng, Pumin Zhang, Guoping Fan, Jiemin Wong, Guo-Liang Xu, Zhigao Wang, Hailin Wang, Shaorong Gao, Bing Zhu
Postnatal growth of mammalian oocytes is accompanied by a progressive gain of DNA methylation, which is predominantly mediated by DNMT3A, a de novo DNA methyltransferase1,2 . Unlike the genome of sperm and most somatic cells, the oocyte genome is hypomethylated in transcriptionally inert regions2-4 . However, how such a unique feature of the oocyte methylome is determined and its contribution to the developmental competence of the early embryo remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the importance of Stella, a factor essential for female fertility5-7 , in shaping the oocyte methylome in mice...
November 28, 2018: Nature
Varvara Fazalova, Bruno Nevado, Ailsa McLean, H Charles J Godfray
Human activities may weaken or destroy reproductive isolation between young taxa, leading to their fusion with consequences for population and community ecology. Pea aphid host races are adapted to different legume taxa, providing a degree of pre-mating isolation mediated by habitat choice. Yet, all races can feed and reproduce on the broad bean ( Vicia faba ), a major crop which represents a 'universal host plant', which can promote hybridization between races. Here, we ask if pea aphid host races have reproductive barriers which prevent or reduce gene flow when they co-occur on the universal host plant...
November 28, 2018: Biology Letters
Meiying Feng, Nannan Dang, Yinshan Bai, Hengxi Wei, Li Meng, Kai Wang, Zhihong Zhao, Yun Chen, Fenglei Gao, Zhilin Chen, Li Li, Shouquan Zhang
Pronuclear migration, which is the initial stage of embryonic development and the marker of zygote formation, is a crucial process during mammalian preimplantation embryonic development. Recent studies have revealed that long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve an important role in early embryonic development. However, the functional regulation of lncRNAs in this process has yet to be elucidated, largely due to the difficulty of assessing gene expression alterations during the very short time in which pronuclear migration occurs...
November 20, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Qian-Qian Sha, Jia-Li Yu, Jing-Xin Guo, Xing-Xing Dai, Jun-Chao Jiang, Yin-Li Zhang, Chao Yu, Shu-Yan Ji, Yu Jiang, Song-Ying Zhang, Li Shen, Xiang-Hong Ou, Heng-Yu Fan
Meiotic resumption-coupled degradation of maternal transcripts occurs during oocyte maturation in the absence of mRNA transcription. The CCR4-NOT complex has been identified as the main eukaryotic mRNA deadenylase. In vivo functional and mechanistic information regarding its multiple subunits remains insufficient. Cnot6l , one of four genes encoding CCR4-NOT catalytic subunits, is preferentially expressed in mouse oocytes. Genetic deletion of Cnot6l impaired deadenylation and degradation of a subset of maternal mRNAs during oocyte maturation...
November 26, 2018: EMBO Journal
Zahid Hameed Siddiqui, Zahid Khorshid Abbas, Mohammad Wahid Ansari, Mohammad Nasir Khan
Somatic embryogenesis (SEG) is one of the best techniques for mass production of economically important plants. It is also used for the study of morphology, anatomy, physiology, genetics and molecular mechanism of embryo development. Somatic Embryos (SE) are bipolar structures that develop from a cell other than a gamete or zygote. SEG reflects the unique developmental potential of plant somatic cells, resulting in the transition of the differentiated somatic cells to embryogenic cells to follow the zygotic embryo stages...
November 23, 2018: Genomics
M Rotman, N A T Hamdy, N M Appelman-Dijkstra
Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a genetic, non-inheritable rare bone disease caused by a post-zygotic activating mutation of the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G-protein (Gαs) causing increased abnormal bone formation leading to pain, deformity and fractures. To date, no cure has been identified for FD/MAS and treatment is symptomatic and aimed at decreasing pain and/or local bone turnover. Various drugs have been used to achieve clinical improvement in FD/MAS patients including bisphosphonates and denosumab, however further translational studies are also warranted to address unresolved pathophysiological issues and explore novel pharmacological targets for the management of FD/MAS...
November 24, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
L T M Vandenberghe, B Heindryckx, K Smits, M Popovic, K Szymanska, D Bonte, L Peelman, D Deforce, P De Sutter, A Van Soom, C De Schauwer
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a well-known marker for embryo quality and viability. For the first time, we describe an intracellular localisation of PAF in oocytes and embryos of cattle, mice and humans. We showed that PAF is represented in the nucleus, a signal that was lost upon nuclear envelope breakdown. This process was confirmed by treating the embryos with nocodazole, a spindle-disrupting agent that, as such, arrests the embryo in mitosis, and by microinjecting a PAF-specific antibody in bovine MII oocytes...
November 21, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jens Preussner, Jiasheng Zhong, Krishnamoorthy Sreenivasan, Stefan Günther, Thomas Engleitner, Carsten Künne, Markus Glatzel, Roland Rad, Mario Looso, Thomas Braun, Johnny Kim
The identity of tumor-initiating cells in many cancer types is unknown. Tumors often express genes associated with embryonic development, although the contributions of zygotic programs to tumor initiation and formation are poorly understood. Here, we show that regeneration-induced loss of quiescence in p53-deficient muscle stem cells (MuSCs) results in rhabdomyosarcoma formation with 100% penetrance. Genomic analyses of purified tumor cells revealed spontaneous and discrete oncogenic amplifications in MuSCs that drive tumorigenesis, including, but not limited to, the amplification of the cleavage-stage Dux transcription factor (TF) Duxbl...
November 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Hélène Bouvrais, Laurent Chesneau, Sylvain Pastezeur, Danielle Fairbrass, Marie Delattre, Jacques Pécréaux
During asymmetric division of the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote, to properly distribute cell fate determinants, the mitotic spindle is asymmetrically localized by a combination of centering and cortical-pulling microtubule-mediated forces, the dynamics of the latter being regulated by mitotic progression. Here, we show a, to our knowledge, novel and additional regulation of these forces by spindle position itself. For that, we observed the onset of transverse spindle oscillations, which reflects the burst of anaphase pulling forces...
October 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Bingjie Zhang, Xiaotong Wu, Wenhao Zhang, Weimin Shen, Qingrui Sun, Kaili Liu, Yu Zhang, Qiujun Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Anming Meng, Wei Xie
The epigenome plays critical roles in controlling gene expression and development. However, how the parental epigenomes transit to the zygotic epigenome in early development remains elusive. Here we show that parental-to-zygotic transition in zebrafish involves extensive erasure of parental epigenetic memory, starting with methylating gametic enhancers. Surprisingly, this occurs even prior to fertilization for sperm. Both parental enhancers lose histone marks by the 4-cell stage, and zygotic enhancers are not activated until around zygotic genome activation (ZGA)...
November 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
Joakim Palovaara, Dolf Weijers
In the early embryo of vascular plants, the different cell types and stem cells of the seedling are specified as the embryo develops from a zygote towards maturity. How the key steps in cell and tissue specification are instructed by genome-wide transcriptional activity is poorly understood. Progress in defining transcriptional regulation at the genome-wide level in plant embryos has been hampered by difficulties associated with capturing cell-type-specific transcriptomes in this small and inaccessible structure...
November 15, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Obaid Ullah, Zhongshu Li, Ihsan Ali, Lijie Xu, Haixing Liu, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Nanzhu Fang
Pterostilbene (PTS) in blueberries is a phytoalexin with antioxidant properties. PTS exerts strong cytoprotective effects on various cells via Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2 like 2 (NFE2L2) pathway. We evaluated the antioxidant PTS treatment in mouse preimplantation embryos. In vitro culture media were supplemented with different concentrations of PTS. Treatment of zygotes with 0.25 μM PTS improved the development of day 4 blastocysts (P < 0.05). Moreover, H2 O2 treatment significantly increased the reactive oxygen species level and reduced the glutathione level in mouse blastocyst, whereas PTS treatment counteracted these effects...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Lei Yang, Lishuang Song, Xuefei Liu, Lige Bai, Guangpeng Li
Despite the success of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in many species, the method is limited by its low efficiency. After zygotic genome activation (ZGA) during mouse development, a large number of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are expressed, including the murine endogenous retrovirus-L (MuERVL/MERVL). In this study, we generate a series of MERVL reporter mouse strains to detect the ZGA event in embryos. We show that the majority of SCNT embryos do not undergo ZGA, and H3K27me3 prevents SCNT reprogramming...
November 2, 2018: EMBO Reports
Young Sun Hwang, Minseok Seo, Sang Kyung Kim, Sohyun Bang, Heebal Kim, Jae Yong Han
The first wave of transcriptional activation occurs after fertilisation in a species-specific pattern. Despite its importance to initial embryonic development, the characteristics of transcription following fertilisation are poorly understood in Aves. Here, we report detailed insights into the onset of genome activation in chickens. We established that two waves of transcriptional activation occurred, one shortly after fertilisation and another at Eyal-Giladi and Kochav Stage V. We found 1544 single nucleotide polymorphisms across 424 transcripts derived from parents that were expressed in offspring during the early embryonic stages...
October 30, 2018: ELife
Stephania Madrid Gaviria, Sergio A Morado, Albeiro López Herrera, Giovanni Restrepo Betancur, Rodrigo A Urrego Álvarez, Julián Echeverri Zuluaga, Pablo D Cética
Although vitrification is the current method of choice for oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, it may have detrimental effects on reduction-oxidation status and mitochondrial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing in vitro culture (IVC) media and/or vitrification solutions with the antioxidant resveratrol on active mitochondria, mitochondrial superoxide production and lipid peroxidation. Abattoir-derived oocytes were matured and fertilised in vitro using standard procedures...
October 30, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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