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zygote activation

Sarah Wyck, Carolina Herrera, Cristina E Requena, Lilli Bittner, Petra Hajkova, Heinrich Bollwein, Raffaella Santoro
BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress is well known to play a major role in male infertility. Sperm are sensitive to ROS damaging effects because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. However, how oxidative DNA lesions in sperm affect early embryonic development remains elusive. RESULTS: Using cattle as model, we show that fertilization using sperm exposed to oxidative stress caused a major developmental arrest at the time of embryonic genome activation...
October 17, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Ryan C Range
The spatiotemporal expression of Frizzled receptors is critical for patterning along the early anterior-posterior axis during embryonic development in many animal species. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the expression of Frizzled receptors are incompletely understood in any species. In this study, we examine how the expression of two Frizzled receptors, Fzl1/2/7 and Fzl5/8, is controlled by the Wnt signaling network which directs specification and positioning of early regulatory states along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis of sea urchin embryos...
October 14, 2018: Developmental Biology
Peter Karagiannis, Kazutoshi Takahashi, Megumu Saito, Yoshinori Yoshida, Keisuke Okita, Akira Watanabe, Haruhisa Inoue, Jun K Yamashita, Masaya Todani, Masato Nakagawa, Mitsujiro Osawa, Yoshimi Yashiro, Shinya Yamanaka, Kenji Osafune
The discovery of somatic cell nuclear transfer proved that somatic cells can carry the same genetic code as the zygote, and that activating parts of this code are sufficient to reprogram the cell to an early developmental state. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) nearly half a century later provided a molecular mechanism for the reprogramming. The initial creation of iPSCs was accomplished by the ectopic expression of four specific genes (OCT4, KLF4, SOX2, and c-Myc; OSKM). iPSCs have since been acquired from a wide range of cell types and a wide range of species, suggesting a universal molecular mechanism...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Junhao Ning, Chengwen Song, Danli Luo, Yuan Liu, Hourong Liu, Zhaoxia Cui
The maternal genome directs almost all aspects of early animal development. As development proceeds, the elimination of maternal gene products and zygotic genome activation (ZGA) occur during the maternal to zygotic transition (MZT). To study the molecular mechanisms regulating this developmental event in Eriocheir sinensis, RNA-Seq technology was applied to generate comprehensive information on transcriptome dynamics during early embryonic stages. In total, 32,088 annotated unigenes were obtained from the transcriptomes of fertilized eggs and embryos at the cleavage (2-4 cell) and blastula stage...
October 12, 2018: Gene
Svetlana Surkova, Elena Golubkova, Ludmila Mamon, Maria Samsonova
Here, we review the latest publications on dynamics and interpretation of morphogen gradients in Drosophila early embryo. The instructive cues provided by these gradients are further interpreted by target genes to enable correct cell fate specification. Moreover, recent studies point on the dynamic and active input from gradients themselves. Latest research has demonstrated that the decay of maternal gradients affects the positional dynamics of target gap gene expression. Study of temporal interpretation of the Bicoid (Bcd) morphogen signal revealed that the Bcd-dependent cell fate specification proceeds sequentially from the posterior towards the anterior...
October 10, 2018: Bio Systems
Yong Liu, Fengrui Wu, Ling Zhang, Xiaoqing Wu, Dengkun Li, Jing Xin, Juan Xie, Feng Kong, Wenying Wang, Qiaoqin Wu, Di Zhang, Rong Wang, Shaorong Gao, Wenyong Li
BACKGROUND: Nuclear reprogramming reinstates totipotency or pluripotency in somatic cells by changing their gene transcription profile. This technology is widely used in medicine, animal husbandry and other industries. However, certain deficiencies severely restrict the applications of this technology. RESULTS: Using single-embryo RNA-seq, our study provides complete transcriptome blueprints of embryos generated by cumulus cell (CC) donor nuclear transfer (NT), embryos generated by mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) donor NT and in vivo embryos at each stage (zygote, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, morula, and blastocyst)...
October 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
Catherin Marin-Mogollon, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Fiona J A van Pul, Jai Ramesar, Ahmad Syibli Othman, Hans Kroeze, Jun Miao, Liwang Cui, Kim C Williamson, Robert W Sauerwein, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan
Two members of 6-cysteine (6-cys) protein family, P48/45 and P230, are important for gamete fertility in rodent and human malaria parasites and are leading transmission blocking vaccine antigens. Rodent and human parasites encode a paralog of P230, called P230p. While P230 is expressed in male and female parasites, P230p is expressed only in male gametocytes and gametes. In rodent malaria parasites this protein is dispensable throughout the complete life-cycle; however, its function in P. falciparum is unknown...
October 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shou Soeda, Kaori Yamada-Nomoto, Tatsuo Michiue, Miho Ohsugi
During vertebrate fertilization, sperm chromatin remodeling occurs concomitantly with maternal chromosome segregation at anaphase II, leading to simultaneous formation of two pronuclei. In mammals, these processes take much longer than in other vertebrates. Here, we explore the molecular basis and physiological importance of this mammalian-specific temporal regulation using mouse oocytes. We demonstrate the involvement of protein phosphatase in temporal regulation. Early onset of pronuclear formation causes paternal-biased abnormalities in pronuclear morphology and chromosome segregation at the first mitosis...
September 28, 2018: Developmental Cell
Clemens B Hug, Juan M Vaquerizas
The 3D structure of chromatin in the nucleus is important for the regulation of gene expression and the correct deployment of developmental programs. The differentiation of germ cells and early embryonic development (when the zygotic genome is activated and transcription is taking place for the first time) are accompanied by dramatic changes in gene expression and the epigenetic landscape. Recent studies used Hi-C to investigate the 3D chromatin organization during these developmental transitions, uncovering remarkable remodeling of the 3D genome...
October 3, 2018: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Tuğba Kotil, M Ertan Kervancıoğlu, Gülçin Ekter Kanten, Gülden Tunalı, Seyhun Solakoğlu
SummaryDigyny, the presence of a third pronucleus due to the failure of second polar body extrusion, is problematic after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) practices. Mitochondria have critical roles such as production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis during oocyte maturation, fertilization and the following development, while the regulation of meiotic spindle formation, chromosome segregation, pronuclear apposition and cytokinesis is closely associated with the cytoskeleton...
October 3, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Hongzheng Sun, Jian Kang, Jianmin Su, Jinjing Zhang, Lei Zhang, Xin Liu, Jingcheng Zhang, Fengyu Wang, Zhenzhen Lu, Xupeng Xing, HuanHuan Chen, Yong Zhang
Methionine adenosyltransferase II (MAT2A) is essential to the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, a major methyl donor, from L-methionine and ATP. Upon fertilization, zygotic genome activation (ZGA) marks the period that transforms the genome from transcriptional quiescence to robust transcriptional activity. During this period, embryonic epigenome undergoes extensive modifications, including histone methylation changes. However, whether MAT2A participates in histone methylation at the ZGA stage is unknown. Herein, we identified that MAT2A is a pivotal factor for ZGA in mouse embryos...
September 27, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
M Esbert, A Pacheco, S R Soares, D Amorós, M Florensa, A Ballesteros, M Meseguer
BACKGROUND: Time-lapse monitoring (TLM) technology has been implemented in the clinical setting for the culture and selection of human embryos. Many studies have assessed the association between sperm DNA fragmentation (sDNAf) and clinical outcomes after ART, but little is known about the influence of sDNA on embryo morphokinetics. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this retrospective study, which includes 971 embryos from 135 consecutive ICSI cycles (56 cases with own oocytes, 79 with oocytes from young and healthy donors), was to assess if sDNAf has an impact on embryo morphokinetics...
September 26, 2018: Andrology
Elzbieta Wolny, Alexander Betekhtin, Magdalena Rojek, Agnieszka Braszewska-Zalewska, Joanna Lusinska, Robert Hasterok
Successful germination and seedling development are crucial steps in the growth of a new plant. In this study, we investigated the course of the cell cycle during germination in relation to grain hydration in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) for the first time. Flow cytometry was performed to monitor the cell cycle progression during germination and to estimate DNA content in embryo tissues. The analyses of whole zygotic embryos revealed that the relative DNA content was 2C, 4C, 8C, and 16C...
September 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rasoul Godini, Hossein Fallahi
Development of an embryo from a single cell, zygote, to multicellular morulae requires activation of hundreds of genes that were mostly inactivated before fertilization. Inevitably, transcription factors (TFs) would be involved in modulating the drastic changes in gene expression pattern observed at all preimplantation stages. Despite many ongoing efforts to uncover the role of TFs at the early stages of embryogenesis, still many unanswered questions remained that need to be explored. This could be done by studying the expression pattern of multiple genes obtained by high-throughput techniques...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Federica Marinaro, Eva Pericuesta, Francisco Miguel Sánchez-Margallo, Javier G Casado, Verónica Álvarez, Elvira Matilla, Nuria Hernández, Rebeca Blázquez, Lauro González-Fernández, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán, Beatriz Macías-García
Advanced age reduces the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF) being this effect partly mediated by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that trigger apoptosis. It has been demonstrated that extracellular vesicles derived from endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EV-endMSCs) exert an antioxidant effect and can be used as IVF coadjutants. In this work, endMSCs were isolated from human menstrual blood (n = 4) and characterized according to multipotentiality and surface marker expression prior EV-endMSCs isolation...
September 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Meisam Naeimi Kararoudi, Seyyed S Hejazi, Ezgi Elmas, Mats Hellström, Maryam Naeimi Kararoudi, Arvind M Padma, Dean Lee, Hamid Dolatshad
Genetically modified pigs have been considered favorable resources in xenotransplantation. Microinjection of randomly integrating transgenes into zygotes, somatic cell nuclear transfer, homologous recombination, zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and most recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) are the techniques that have been used to generate these animals. Here, we provide an overview of the CRISPR approaches that have been used to modify genes which are vital in improving xenograft survival rate, including cytidine monophosphate- N -acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase, B1,4N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, isoglobotrihexosylceramide synthase, class I MHC, von Willebrand factor, C3, and porcine endogenous retroviruses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Minako Ueda, Frédéric Berger
Plant embryogenesis initiates with the fusion of sperm and egg cell, and completes the generation of the basic outline of the future plant. Here, we summarize the recent findings about the signaling cascade triggering the zygotic transcription, and the intracellular events and regulatory factors involved in the formation of the two major body axes. We highlight the lack of systematic de novo transcriptional activation in the zygote, and emphasize the importance of cytoskeletal reorganization to polarize the zygote and control the first asymmetric division that establishes the apical-basal axis...
September 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Jeremy Kreher, Teruaki Takasaki, Chad Cockrum, Simone Sidoli, Benjamin A Garcia, Ole N Jensen, Susan Strome
Epigenetic information contributes to proper gene expression and development and can be transmitted not only through mitotic divisions but also from parents to progeny. We investigated the roles in epigenetic inheritance of MES-4 and MET-1, the two Caenorhabditis elegans enzymes that methylate H3K36. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed immunostaining results showing that both MES-4 and MET-1 catalyze H3K36me3. In the adult germline, MES-4 is enriched in the distal mitotic zone and MET-1 enriched in the meiotic pachytene zone...
September 14, 2018: Genetics
Miki Jishage, Xiaodi Yu, Yi Shi, Sai J Ganesan, Wei-Yi Chen, Andrej Sali, Brian T Chait, Francisco J Asturias, Robert G Roeder
Tight binding of Gdown1 represses RNA polymerase II (Pol II) function in a manner that is reversed by Mediator, but the structural basis of these processes is unclear. Although Gdown1 is intrinsically disordered, its Pol II interacting domains were localized and shown to occlude transcription factor IIF (TFIIF) and transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) binding by perfect positioning on their Pol II interaction sites. Robust binding of Gdown1 to Pol II is established by cooperative interactions of a strong Pol II binding region and two weaker binding modulatory regions, thus providing a mechanism both for tight Pol II binding and transcription inhibition and for its reversal...
September 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Yoel Shufaro, Ann Saada, Monica Simeonov, Ben-Zion Tsuberi, Corinne Alban, Aviram Kogot-Levin, Tzippy Shochat, Benjamin Fisch, Ronit Abir
AIM: To determine the effect of nonylphenol-ethoxylate-10 (NP-10) on the ovarian reserve in a mouse model. DESIGN: Female mice were maintained on purified water or exposed to NP-10 from 3-7-weeks of age. At 7-weeks they were stimulated, mated and the zygotes were cultured in-vitro. Three and 7-weeks old mice were untreated controls. Identical groups were sacrificed without stimulation. Ovaries were analysed for follicular composition. Respiratory-chain (RC) activity and reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) production were measured in brains and livers...
October 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
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