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Air pollution policy

Kevin J Horn, R Quinn Thomas, Christopher M Clark, Linda H Pardo, Mark E Fenn, Gregory B Lawrence, Steven S Perakis, Erica A H Smithwick, Douglas Baldwin, Sabine Braun, Annika Nordin, Charles H Perry, Jennifer N Phelan, Paul G Schaberg, Samuel B St Clair, Richard Warby, Shaun Watmough
Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) influences forest demographics and carbon (C) uptake through multiple mechanisms that vary among tree species. Prior studies have estimated the effects of atmospheric N deposition on temperate forests by leveraging forest inventory measurements across regional gradients in deposition. However, in the United States (U.S.), these previous studies were limited in the number of species and the spatial scale of analysis, and did not include sulfur (S) deposition as a potential covariate...
2018: PloS One
Weicong Fu, Qunyue Liu, Cecil Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Ziru Chen, Zhipeng Zhu, Jinda Qi, Mo Wang, Emily Dang, Jianwen Dong
Atmospheric visibility (AV), one of the most concerning environmental issues, has shown a continuous decline in China's urban areas, especially in Southeastern China. Existing studies have shown that AV is affected by air pollutants and climate change, which are always caused by human activities that are linked to socioeconomic factors, such as urban size, residents' activities, industrial activities, and urban greening. However, the contribution of socioeconomic factors to AV is still not well understood, especially from a long-term perspective, which sometimes leads to ineffective policies...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Emma Garnett, Judith Green, Zaid Chalabi, Paul Wilkinson
Societal impact is an increasingly important imperative of academic funding. However, there is little research to date documenting how impact is accomplished in practice. Drawing on insights from Actor-Network Theory, we explore the research-policy interface within an interdisciplinary research project on the relationships between air pollution and human health. Health policy impact was important to the researchers for moral as well as pragmatic reasons but it was a goal that was seen as potentially in tension with that of doing science...
October 12, 2018: Health (London)
Carlos F Gould, Samuel Schlesinger, Andres Ochoa Toasa, Mark Thurber, William F Waters, Jay P Graham, Darby W Jack
After more than three decades of access to low-cost liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) financed by large direct government subsidies, more than 90% of Ecuadorian households cook primarily with LPG. Due to the large fiscal burden of the LPG subsidy, increases in electricity from hydropower, and other sociopolitical factors, the Government of Ecuador launched a major induction stove program (PEC) to reduce the demand for LPG. We assess the effects of the LPG subsidies and PEC using government records, interviews, academic literature, newspaper reports, household surveys, and focus groups...
October 2018: Energy for Sustainable Development: the Journal of the International Energy Initiative
Donglan Zha, Ting Zhao, Anil Savio Kavuri, Fei Wu, Qunwei Wang
Since marketization of the refined oil price, the Chinese government has used refined oil price adjustments to control air pollution. Using an event study analysis, we examine whether these price adjustments have impacted air quality. We test the abnormal returns of 12 price adjustments between 2014 and 2015 in 51 major cities of China. The results show that the impact on air quality of refined oil price decreases is larger than the impact of oil price increases. Although results indicate air quality has deteriorated, the impact is insignificant for most of the cities...
October 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sha He, Sanyi Tang, Yanni Xiao, Robert A Cheke
The impact of air pollution on people's health and daily activities in China has recently aroused much attention. By using stochastic differential equations, variation in a 6 year long time series of air quality index (AQI) data, gathered from air quality monitoring sites in Xi'an from 15 November 2010 to 14 November 2016 was studied. Every year the extent of air pollution shifts from being serious to not so serious due to alterations in heat production systems. The distribution of such changes can be predicted by a Bayesian approach and the Gibbs sampler algorithm...
October 2, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Heather M Strosnider, Howard H Chang, Lyndsey A Darrow, Yang Liu, Ambarish Vaidyanathan, Matthew J Strickland
RATIONALE: While associations between air pollution and respiratory morbidity for adults 65 and older are well-documented in the United States, the evidence for people under 65 is less extensive. To address this gap, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program collected respiratory emergency department (ED) data from 17 states. OBJECTIVES: Estimate age-specific acute effects of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2...
October 2, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Daniel Pope, Nigel Bruce, James Higgerson, Lirije Hyseni, Debbi Stanistreet, Bertrand MBatchou, Elisa Puzzolo
Currently 70% of the population in Cameroon are reliant on solid fuel for cooking (90% in rural communities) and the associated household air pollution contributes to significant mortality and morbidity in the country. To address the problems of energy security, deforestation and pollution the government has developed a strategy (Masterplan) to increase use of liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as a cooking fuel from 12% to 58% by 2030. As a clean fuel scaled adoption of LPG has the potential to make significant positive impacts on population health...
October 1, 2018: EcoHealth
Yvonne Vallès, M Pilar Francino
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review how an altered microbiome in early life impacts on immune, metabolic, and neurological development, focusing on some of the most widespread diseases related to each of these processes, namely atopic disease, obesity, and autism. RECENT FINDINGS: The early development of the microbial communities that inhabit the human body is currently challenged by factors that range from reduced exposure to microbes, antibiotic use, and poor dietary choices to widespread environmental pollution...
September 29, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Xianmang Xu, Hefeng Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Qing Li, Xinfeng Wang, Wenxing Wang, Qingzhu Zhang, Likun Xue, Aijun Ding, Abdelwahid Mellouki
Aiming to a better understanding sources contributions and regional sources of fine particles, a total of 273 filter samples (159 of PM2.5 and 114 of PM1.0 ) were collected per 8 h during the winter 2016 at a southwest suburb of Beijing. Chemical compositions, including water soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC), as well as secondary organic carbon (SOC), were systematically analyzed and estimated. The total ions concentrations (TIC), OC, and SOC of PM2.5 were with the following order: 16:00-24:00 > 08:00-16:00 > 00:00-08:00...
December 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Dan Tong, Qiang Zhang, Fei Liu, Guannan Geng, Yixuan Zheng, Tao Xue, Chaopeng Hong, Ruili Wu, Yu Qin, Hongyan Zhao, Liu Yan, Kebin He
As the largest energy infrastructure in China, power sector consumed approximately half of China's coal over the past decade and threatened air quality and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement target. In this work, we assessed the evolution of coal-fired power plants and associated emissions in China during 2010-2030 by using a unit-based emission projection model which integrated the historical power plants information, turnover of the future power plant fleet, and the evolution of end-of-pipe control technologies...
September 25, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kamal Jyoti Maji, Wei-Feng Ye, Mohit Arora, S M Shiva Nagendra
China is in a critical stage of ambient air quality management after global attention on pollution in its cities. Industrial development and urbanization have led to alarming levels of air pollution with serious health hazards in densely populated cities. The quantification of cause-specific PM2.5 -related health impacts and corresponding economic loss estimation is crucial for control policies on ambient PM2.5 levels. Based on ground-level direct measurements of PM2.5 concentrations in 338 Chinese cities for the year 2016, this study estimates cause-specific mortality using integrated exposure-response (IER) model, non-linear power law (NLP) model and log-linear (LL) model followed by morbidity assessment using log-linear model...
September 21, 2018: Environment International
Xiurui Guo, Lijuan Zhao, Dongsheng Chen, Yuhuan Jia, Na Zhao, Wenwen Liu, Shuiyuan Cheng
Large amounts of air pollutants emitted from massive coal combustion result in the air quality deterioration and threaten public health in China. To improve air quality, the Chinese government released the coal cap policy to reduce coal consumption. So it is important and necessary to understand the possible environmental impact and relevant health benefits from the coal cap policy. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the air quality improvement and to evaluate the health benefits from the implementation of the coal cap policy, with the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region as the study area...
September 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2016, provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of lower respiratory infections in 195 countries. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies spanning the past 26 years and shows how the burden of lower respiratory infection has changed in people of all ages. METHODS: We used three separate modelling strategies for lower respiratory infections in GBD 2016: a Bayesian hierarchical ensemble modelling platform (Cause of Death Ensemble model), which uses vital registration, verbal autopsy data, and surveillance system data to predict mortality due to lower respiratory infections; a compartmental meta-regression tool (DisMod-MR), which uses scientific literature, population representative surveys, and health-care data to predict incidence, prevalence, and mortality; and modelling of counterfactual estimates of the population attributable fraction of lower respiratory infection episodes due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, influenza, and respiratory syncytial virus...
September 19, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Tianhang Huang, Yunjiang Yu, Yigang Wei, Huiwen Wang, Wenyang Huang, Xuchang Chen
As China's political and economic centre, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) urban agglomeration experiences serious environmental challenges on particulate matter (PM) concentration, which results in fundamental or irreparable damages in various socioeconomic aspects. This study investigates the seasonal and spatial distribution characteristics of PM2.5 concentration in the BTH urban agglomeration and their critical impact factors. Spatial interpolation are used to analyse the real-time monitoring of PM2.5 data in BTH from December 2013 to May 2017, and partial least squares regression is applied to investigate the latest data of potential polluting variables in 2015...
2018: PloS One
Qi Zhou, Jianxun Yang, Miaomiao Liu, Yang Liu, Stefanie Sarnat, Jun Bi
Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration has developed rapidly in China. However, the air pollution-related health risks attributable to MSW incinerators are still far from known. In this context, an MSW incineration emission inventory was compiled using plant-level activity data and localized emission factors. Subsequently, Gaussian Plume Model and Risk Quotients Model were utilized to calculate the spatialized hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (CR). Altogether, 76449 tons (t) of NO X , 25725 t of SO2 , 16937 t of CO, 9279 t of HCl, 5629 t of particulate matter, 33 t of Cr, 33 t of Pb, 20 t of Hg, 6 t of Cd, 4 t of Ni, 0...
October 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Lisa M Thompson, Mayari Hengstermann, John R Weinstein, Anaite Diaz-Artiga
Household air pollution is the sixth leading risk factor for premature mortality in Guatemala. Households in Guatemala are gradually adopting liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stoves, but a strong tradition of woodstove use persists. We conducted a mixed-methods study of LPG stove use in peri-urban Guatemala. We used knowledge, attitudes and practices surveys with 187 LPG stove owners who also used woodstoves to identify perceptions of stove and cooking practices. Barriers to sustained use of LPG stoves were evaluated through focus groups, participant observations with stove users, and key informant interviews with community leaders...
September 18, 2018: EcoHealth
Julia Kravchenko, H Kim Lyerly, William Ross
The North Carolina Clean Smokestacks Act and related policies led to substantial decreases of emitted air pollutants from coal-fired power plants. Improved air quality was associated with statewide improvements in respiratory, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular health in North Carolina. The effectiveness of environmental policies can be monitored for impact on both environmental and health outcomes.
September 2018: North Carolina Medical Journal
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The burden of cardiovascular diseases is increasing in India, but a systematic understanding of its distribution and time trends across all the states is not readily available. In this report, we present a detailed analysis of how the patterns of cardiovascular diseases and major risk factors have changed across the states of India between 1990 and 2016. METHODS: We analysed the prevalence and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to cardiovascular diseases and the major component causes in the states of India from 1990 to 2016, using all accessible data sources as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016...
September 11, 2018: Lancet Global Health
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: India has 18% of the global population and an increasing burden of chronic respiratory diseases. However, a systematic understanding of the distribution of chronic respiratory diseases and their trends over time is not readily available for all of the states of India. Our aim was to report the trends in the burden of chronic respiratory diseases and the heterogeneity in their distribution in all states of India between 1990 and 2016. METHODS: Using all accessible data from multiple sources, we estimated the prevalence of major chronic respiratory diseases and the deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) caused by them for every state of India from 1990 to 2016 as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016...
September 11, 2018: Lancet Global Health
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