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Air pollution policy

Xiao Ouyang, Qinglong Shao, Xiang Zhu, Qingyun He, Chao Xiang, Guoen Wei
Particles with a diameter of <2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) have serious adverse-effects on human health, which have caused widespread public concern in recent decades. Currently, most of the existing research on PM2.5 have used linear regression analysis; very few studies on the subject have been conducted using non-linear models. This study adopts a panel threshold model, which is seldom used in environmental studies, to examine the non-linear effects of environmental regulation and economic growth on PM2.5 in 30 OECD countries, and we also explore the key driving socio-economic factors for PM2...
December 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nicholas Chartres, Lisa A Bero, Susan L Norris
BACKGROUND: Approximately one quarter of all deaths globally are attributed to living or working in an unhealthy environment, with household and ambient air pollution, along with exposures to ultraviolet radiation and chemicals amongst the leading causes. At present there are no international standards for assessing the risks of these environmental hazards. The use of heterogeneous methods to identify health risks from environmental hazards may reduce the level of confidence the public has in the conclusions that are made...
December 8, 2018: Environment International
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is a major planetary health risk, with India estimated to have some of the worst levels globally. To inform action at subnational levels in India, we estimated the exposure to air pollution and its impact on deaths, disease burden, and life expectancy in every state of India in 2017. METHODS: We estimated exposure to air pollution, including ambient particulate matter pollution, defined as the annual average gridded concentration of PM2...
December 5, 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Henry E Obanya, Nnamdi H Amaeze, Olusola Togunde, Adebayo A Otitoloju
Background: Industrialization and urbanization, while associated with increased productivity, are also potential causes of increased air pollution. Urban air quality has the potential to affect the health and wellbeing of residents of urban areas. Objectives: The present study investigated the levels of air pollutants around residential areas and transport sector locations (TSLs) in Lagos, Nigeria. Residential areas were defined as areas around inner streets and living quarters, while TSLs included busy roads, dual carriage roads, bus stops and major car parks in the Yaba Local Council Development Area of Lagos Mainland, Lagos, Nigeria...
September 2018: Journal of health & pollution
Khaiwal Ravindra
The use of biomass solid fuels (BSFs) for cooking, contribute significantly to the household air pollution (HAP) in developing countries. Emissions resulting from a variety of BSFs (cow dung cakes, wood, and agriculture residues) contain a significant amount of air pollutants, which are now recognized for their role in climatic change and adverse human health impacts. In the current study, daily variations in black carbon (BC) or Short-Lived Climate Forcer concentrations were studied from rural household kitchens using portable aethalometer...
December 3, 2018: Environment International
X H Gao, R J Chen, H D Kan, W Liu, F R Deng, J G Li, Y P Zhang, Y H Lu, Z H Zhao
In the past decades, people's work and life styles have dramatically changed during the rapid economic development and urbanization in China. A national survey reported that Chinese adults spend an average of 81% of daily time in indoor environment. Exposure to indoor air pollution plays key roles for human health but is likely to be neglected due on the relatively lower concentration levels and lower awareness among common people. Till now, published studies focus more on the pollution levels or the toxicological effects of indoor air pollutants but there is a lack of disease burden assessment attributable to indoor air pollution...
December 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Francesca Valeria Hansstein, Fabián Echegaray
BACKGROUND: Wearing a pollution mask is an effective, practical, and economic way to prevent the inhalation of dangerous particulate matter (PM). However, it is not uncommon to observe negligence in adopting such behaviour, and this especially among young segments of the population. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as conceptual framework, this study explores the role of socio-cognitive factors that affect the decision of wearing a pollution mask in the context of young educated people...
December 4, 2018: Globalization and Health
Crystal M North, Mary B Rice, Thomas Ferkol, David Gozal, Christopher Hui, Soon-Hee Jung, Kozo Kuribayashi, Meredith C McCormack, Michiaki Mishima, Yasuo Morimoto, Yuanlin Song, Kevin C Wilson, Woo Jin Kim, Kwun M Fong
Industrial and technological developments have led to major economic growth in the Asia Pacific, but an unintended consequence has been an increase in illness associated with air pollution. Given the complementary mandates of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology and the American Thoracic Society, the organizations partnered to focus on the need for clean air. A task force was assembled with individuals who have expertise in the effects of air pollution or the development of professional society policy statements...
December 3, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification that offers a useful tool for synthesising evidence on risks and risk-outcome associations. With each annual GBD study, we update the GBD CRA to incorporate improved methods, new risks and risk-outcome pairs, and new data on risk exposure levels and risk-outcome associations. METHODS: We used the CRA framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or groups of risks from 1990 to 2017...
November 10, 2018: Lancet
Ying Long, Jianghao Wang, Kang Wu, Junjie Zhang
Fine-particulate pollution is a major public health concern in China. Accurate assessment of the population exposed to PM2.5 requires high-resolution pollution and population information. This paper assesses China's potential population exposure to PM2.5 , maps its spatiotemporal variability, and simulates the effects of the recent air pollution control policy. We relate satellite-based Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrievals to ground-based PM2.5 observations. We employ block cokriging (BCK) to improve the spatial interpolation of PM2...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kan Yi, Junfeng Liu, Xuejun Wang, Jianmin Ma, Jianying Hu, Yi Wan, Jiayu Xu, Haozhe Yang, Huazhen Liu, Songlin Xiang, Shu Tao
In recent years, the Chinese government has made tremendous efforts to reduce the emissions of atmospheric pollutants throughout the country. An apparent improvement in air quality was observed in Beijing and its adjacent region during the winter of 2017/2018. However, caution should be taken in directly attributing this improvement to air control actions without taking the effects of climate variability into account. Here, we develop a statistical prediction model that can successfully predict the variability of wintertime PM2...
November 19, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yushi Kunugi, Toshi H Arimura, Kazuyuki Iwata, Eiji Komatsu, Yoshie Hirayama
To attain cleaner air, it is important that authorities make informed decisions when selecting a strategy. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) are high in the Tokyo metropolitan area, even though concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10) have dropped dramatically since the implementation of the NOx-PM Act. Currently, monitored concentration levels continue to exceed the designated ambient air quality standard set by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment...
2018: PloS One
Sisi Pu, Zhijuan Shao, Minrui Fang, Lei Yang, Riyang Liu, Jun Bi, Zongwei Ma
Severe air pollution problems have led to a rise in the Chinese public's concern. Risk perception is one of the most important indicators of the public's concern about air pollution. However, there existed few studies exploring the spatial distribution of risk perception. To fill the gap, psychometric paradigm methods was adopted to assess the public's risk perception of air pollution. A nationwide empirical study was conducted from December 2016 to February 2017 and 10,653 completed questionnaires were collected...
November 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Francisca M Santos, Álvaro Gómez-Losada, José C M Pires
Air pollution is an increasing concern due to the negative impacts on human health, environment, and patrimony. The implementation of a Low Emission Zone (LEZ) is an important air quality policy action to reduce air pollutant emissions. This study aims to assess the air quality improvements in Lisbon with the LEZ implementation, analysing its impact on the air pollutant concentrations. The analysis performed from 2009 to 2016 showed an improvement in air quality. In the Zone 1, the reduction of PM10 and NO2 annual average concentrations were 29% and 12%, respectively, while, in the Zone 2, the reduction of PM10 and NO2 annual average concentrations were 23% and 22%, respectively...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Benjamin Mason Meier, Ipsita Das, Pamela Jagger
With over 3 billion people dependent on traditional cooking and heating technologies, efforts to address the health burden of exposure to household air pollution (HAP), as well as other sociodemographic impacts associated with energy poverty, are central to sustainable development objectives. Yet despite overwhelming scientific consensus on the health burden of HAP exposure, particularly harms to impoverished women and children in developing countries, advocates currently lack a human rights framework to mitigate HAP exposure through improved access to cleaner household energy systems...
March 2018: Journal of human rights and the environment
Toon Vandyck, Kimon Keramidas, Alban Kitous, Joseph V Spadaro, Rita Van Dingenen, Mike Holland, Bert Saveyn
Local air quality co-benefits can provide complementary support for ambitious climate action and can enable progress on related Sustainable Development Goals. Here we show that the transformation of the energy system implied by the emission reduction pledges brought forward in the context of the Paris Agreement on climate change (Nationally Determined Contributions or NDCs) substantially reduces local air pollution across the globe. The NDCs could avoid between 71 and 99 thousand premature deaths annually in 2030 compared to a reference case, depending on the stringency of direct air pollution controls...
November 22, 2018: Nature Communications
D Alex Quistberg, Ana V Diez Roux, Usama Bilal, Kari Moore, Ana Ortigoza, Daniel A Rodriguez, Olga L Sarmiento, Patricia Frenz, Amélia Augusta Friche, Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa, Alejandra Vives, J Jaime Miranda
Studies examining urban health and the environment must ensure comparability of measures across cities and countries. We describe a data platform and process that integrates health outcomes together with physical and social environment data to examine multilevel aspects of health across cities in 11 Latin American countries. We used two complementary sources to identify cities with ≥ 100,000 inhabitants as of 2010 in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and Peru...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Mercè Labordena, David Neubauer, Doris Folini, Anthony Patt, Johan Lilliestam
Air pollution is the single most important environmental health risk, causing about 7 million premature deaths annually worldwide. China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, which causes major negative health consequences. The Chinese government has implemented several policies to reduce air pollution, with success in some but far from all sectors. In addition to the health benefits, reducing air pollution will have side-benefits, such as an increase in the electricity generated by the solar photovoltaic panels via an increase in surface solar irradiance through a reduction of haze and aerosol-impacted clouds...
2018: PloS One
Dickella Gamaralalage Jagath Premakumara, S N M Menikpura, Rajeev Kumar Singh, Matthew Hengesbaugh, Albert Altarejos Magalang, Eligio T Ildefonso, Maria Delia Cristina M Valdez, Liz C Silva
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is considered one of the serious environmental issues in the Philippines, with corresponding linkages to the climate change and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, methane (CH4 ) linked with indiscriminate dumping of municipal solid waste has received the much attention with regard to public health and climate change. The impacts of black carbon (BC) are less documented and understood. This paper aims to review the status of MSWM in the Philippines and makes efforts to assess the scale of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), including both CH4 , and BC, associated with the country's waste sector...
October 2018: Waste Management
Alec Davies, Mark A Green, Alex D Singleton
The availability alongside growing awareness of medicine has led to increased self-treatment of minor ailments. Self-medication is where one 'self' diagnoses and prescribes over the counter medicines for treatment. The self-care movement has important policy implications, perceived to relieve the National Health Service (NHS) burden, increasing patient subsistence and freeing resources for more serious ailments. However, there has been little research exploring how self-medication behaviours vary between population groups due to a lack of available data...
2018: PloS One
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