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Air pollution policy

Ruiqiao Bai, Jacqueline C K Lam, Victor O K Li
Over the last three decades, rapid industrialization in China has generated an unprecedentedly high level of air pollution and associated health problems. Given that China accounts for one-fifth of the world population and suffers from severe air pollution, a comprehensive review of the indicators accounting for the health costs in relation to air pollution will benefit evidence-based and health-related environmental policy-making. This paper reviews the conventional static and the new dynamic approach adopted for air pollution-related health cost accounting in China and analyzes the difference between the two in estimating GDP loss...
August 10, 2018: Environment International
Ashish Sharma, Prashant Kumar
Air pollution exposure to in-pram babies poses a serious threat to their early childhood development, necessitating a need for effective mitigation measures. We reviewed the scientific and grey literature on in-pram babies and their personal exposure to traffic generated air pollutants such as particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10 ), ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 ), ≤0.10 μm (ultrafine particles) in size, black carbon and nitrogen oxides and potential mitigation pathways. In-pram babies can be exposed up to ~60% higher average concentrations depending on the pollutant types compared with adults...
August 10, 2018: Environment International
Wei Du, Xi Zhu, Yuanchen Chen, Weijian Liu, Wei Wang, Guofeng Shen, Shu Tao, James J Jetter
Residential combustion emission contributes significantly to ambient and indoor air pollution in China; however, this pollution source is poorly characterized and often overlooked in national pollution control policies. Few studies, and even fewer field-based investigations, have evaluated pollutant emissions from indoor biomass burning. One significant feature of Chinese household biofuel stoves is that many are built on site. In this study, 112 tests were conducted to investigate pollutant emission factors and variations for 11 fuel-stove combinations in actual use in the field...
July 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Keunje Yoo, Hyunji Yoo, Jae Min Lee, Sudheer Kumar Shukla, Joonhong Park
Despite progress in monitoring and modeling Asian dust (AD) events, real-time public hazard prediction based on biological evidence during AD events remains a challenge. Herein, both a classification and regression tree (CART) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were applied to assess the applicability of prediction for potential urban airborne bacterial hazards during AD events using metagenomic analysis and real-time qPCR. In the present work, Bacillus cereus was screened as a potential pathogenic candidate and positively correlated with PM10 concentration (p < 0...
August 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Antonella De Donno, Mattia De Giorgi, Francesco Bagordo, Tiziana Grassi, Adele Idolo, Francesca Serio, Elisabetta Ceretti, Donatella Feretti, Milena Villarini, Massimo Moretti, Annalaura Carducci, Marco Verani, Silvia Bonetta, Cristina Pignata, Silvia Bonizzoni, Alberto Bonetti, Umberto Gelatti
Air pollution in urban areas is a major concern as it negatively affects the health of a large number of people. The purpose of this study was to assess the inhalation health risk for exposure to PM10 and benzene of the populations living in three Italian cities. Data regarding PM10 and benzene daily measured by "traffic" stations and "background" stations in Torino, Perugia, and Lecce during 2014 and 2015 were compared to the limits indicated in the Directive 2008/50/EC. In addition, an inhalation risk analysis for exposure to benzene was performed for adults and children by applying the standard United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) methodology...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kristin Aunan, Qiao Ma, Marianne T Lund, Shuxiao Wang
Fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5 ) is a major risk factor for premature death globally. Studies of the PM2.5 health burden usually treat exposure to ambient air pollution (AAP) and household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP) as separate risk factors. AAP and HAP can, however, be closely interrelated. Taking as the starting point that the total exposure to PM2.5 is what matters for health, and recognizing the curvilinear form of exposure-response functions for important health effects, we develop a method for estimating the total annual mean population-weighted personal exposure, denoted integrated population-weighted exposure (IPWE)...
August 2, 2018: Environment International
Jing Huang, Xiaochuan Pan, Xinbiao Guo, Guoxing Li
BACKGROUND: To mitigate the serious levels of air pollution in China, the State Council of China issued the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (APPCAP) in 2013. This policy is a milestone in air quality control in China. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the APPCAP on long-term air quality management and the related health impacts in China. METHODS: We did an analysis of national air quality monitoring and mortality data to estimate the health impact of the APPCAP from 2013 to 2017 in 74 key cities in China...
July 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Silvia Baldacci, Francesca Gorini, Michele Santoro, Anna Pierini, Fabrizio Minichilli, Fabrizio Bianchi
INTRODUCTION: Congenital anomalies (CAs) represent one of the main cause of foetal death, infant mortality and morbidity, and long-term disability. CAs have been object of systematic registration activity for a long-time in many geographical areas in Europe and worldwide. CAs are often associated with disabilities of different types and severity, including the developed Countries worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), each year approximately 3,2 million of children worldwide are born with a CA and approximately 300,000 newborns with a diagnosis of birth defect die within the first 28 days of life...
May 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
James Woodcock, Ali Abbas, Alvaro Ullrich, Marko Tainio, Robin Lovelace, Thiago H Sá, Kate Westgate, Anna Goodman
BACKGROUND: A modal shift to cycling has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide health co-benefits. Methods, models, and tools are needed to estimate the potential for cycling uptake and communicate to policy makers the range of impacts this would have. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Impacts of Cycling Tool (ICT) is an open source model with a web interface for visualising travel patterns and comparing the impacts of different scenarios of cycling uptake...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Qilong Cao, Guoqiang Rui, Ying Liang
BACKGROUND: PM2.5 has become a major component of air pollution in China and has led to a series of health problems. The mortality rate caused by lung cancer has reached the point where it cannot be ignored in China. Air pollution is becoming more and more serious in China, which is increasingly affecting people's lives and health. METHODS: Considering the variations in the geographical environment in China, this paper studied the relationship between PM2.5 concentration and lung cancer mortality based on the geographical weighted regression model in 31 provinces in 2004 and 2008, autonomous regions and municipalities of China...
July 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
Wenjing Shi, Yang Ou, Steven J Smith, Catherine M Ledna, Christopher G Nolte, Daniel H Loughlin
Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) characterize the interactions among human and earth systems. IAMs typically have been applied to investigate future energy, land use, and emission pathways at global to continental scales. Recent directions in IAM development include enhanced technological detail, greater spatial and temporal resolution, and the inclusion of air pollutant emissions. These developments expand the potential applications of IAMs to include support for air quality management and for coordinated environmental, climate, and energy planning...
December 15, 2017: Applied Energy
Quanfeng Jin, Xiangqing Ma, Guangyu Wang, Xiajie Yang, Futao Guo
Based on satellite image data and China's Statistical Yearbooks (2000 to 2014), we estimated the total mass of crop residue burned, and the proportion of residue burned in the field vs. indoors as domestic fuel. The total emissions of various pollutants from the burning of crop residue were estimated for 2000-2014 using the emission factor method. The results indicate that the total amount of crop residue and average burned mass were 8690.9Tg and 4914.6Tg, respectively. The total amount of emitted pollutants including CO2 , CO, NOx, VOCs, PM2...
August 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
David Keiser, Gabriel Lade, Ivan Rudik
Hundreds of millions of visitors travel to U.S. national parks every year to visit America's iconic landscapes. Concerns about air quality in these areas have led to strict, yet controversial pollution control policies. We document pollution trends in U.S. national parks and estimate the relationship between pollution and park visitation. From 1990 to 2014, average ozone concentrations in national parks were statistically indistinguishable from the 20 largest U.S. metropolitan areas. Further, relative to U...
July 2018: Science Advances
A Kofi Amegah
Addressing the worsening urban air quality situation in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is proving increasingly difficult owing to paucity of data on air pollution levels and also, lack of local evidence on the magnitude of the associated health effects. There is therefore the urgent need to expand air quality monitoring (AQM) networks in SSA to enable the conduct of high quality epidemiologic studies to help inform policies aimed at addressing air pollution and the associated health effects. In this commentary, I explore the prospects that the proliferation of low-cost sensors in recent times holds for air pollution epidemiologic research in SSA...
October 2018: Environmental Pollution
Amanda Rzotkiewicz, Amber L Pearson, Benjamin V Dougherty, Ashton Shortridge, Nick Wilson
We systematically reviewed the current use of Google Street View (GSV) in health research and characterized major themes, strengths and weaknesses in order to highlight possibilities for future research. Of 54 qualifying studies, we found that most used GSV to assess the neighborhood built environment, followed by health policy compliance, study site selection, and disaster preparedness. Most studies were conducted in urban areas of North America, Europe, or New Zealand, with few studies from South America or Asia and none from Africa or rural areas...
July 2018: Health & Place
Sandra N Ofori, Julius N Fobil, Osaretin J Odia
BACKGROUND: Rising prevalence of cardiovascular disease requires in-depth understanding of predisposing factors. Studies show an association between air pollution and CVD but this association is not well documented in southern Nigeria where the use of biomass fuels (BMF) for domestic purposes is prevalent. PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the association between household BMF use and blood pressure (BP) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) among rural-dwelling women...
July 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Wenling Liu, Ziping Xu, Tianan Yang
Background Rapid economic and social development in China has resulted in severe air pollution and consequent adverse impacts on society. The health effects of air pollution have been widely studied. Methods Using information from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) database, we established a hierarchical linear model combining pollution and socioeconomic and psychosocial variables to examine the effects of air pollution on public health in China. Local air pollution was characterized in multiple dimensions...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Vijay S Limaye, Kim Knowlton, Sayantan Sarkar, Partha Sarthi Ganguly, Shyam Pingle, Priya Dutta, Sathish L M, Abhiyant Tiwari, Bhavin Solanki, Chirag Shah, Gopal Raval, Khyati Kakkad, Gufran Beig, Neha Parkhi, Anjali Jaiswal, Dileep Mavalankar
Indian cities struggle with some of the highest ambient air pollution levels in the world. While national efforts are building momentum towards concerted action to reduce air pollution, individual cities are taking action on this challenge to protect communities from the many health problems caused by this harmful environmental exposure. In 2017, the city of Ahmedabad launched a regional air pollution monitoring and risk communication project, the Air Information and Response (AIR) Plan. The centerpiece of the plan is an air quality index developed by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology&rsquo;s System for Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research program that summarizes information from 10 new continuous air pollution monitoring stations in the region, each reporting data that can help people avoid harmful exposures and inform policy strategies to achieve cleaner air...
July 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Apolline Saucy, Martin Röösli, Nino Künzli, Ming-Yi Tsai, Chloé Sieber, Toyib Olaniyan, Roslynn Baatjies, Mohamed Jeebhay, Mark Davey, Benjamin Flückiger, Rajen N Naidoo, Mohammed Aqiel Dalvie, Mahnaz Badpa, Kees de Hoogh
Air pollution can cause many adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Land use regression (LUR) models are frequently used to describe small-scale spatial variation in air pollution levels based on measurements and geographical predictors. They are particularly suitable in resource limited settings and can help to inform communities, industries, and policy makers. Weekly measurements of NO₂ and PM2.5 were performed in three informal areas of the Western Cape in the warm and cold seasons 2015⁻2016...
July 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Huan Liu, Xinxin Jin, Luolin Wu, Xuemei Wang, Mingliang Fu, Zhaofeng Lv, Lidia Morawska, Feifan Huang, Kebin He
Marine trade has significantly expanded over the past decades aiding to the economic development of the maritime countries, yet, this has been associated with a considerable increase in pollution emission from shipping operation. This study aims at considering both sides of the spectrum at the same time, which is including both public and shipping business. Of the key significance would be to optimize the operation of the shipping industry, such that its impact on air pollution is minimized, without, however, significant escalation of its cost, and therefore to protect the whole seaborne trade...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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