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stem cell heterogeneity

Mari Kawamura, Tadashi Yamamoto, Keisuke Yamashiro, Shinsuke Kochi, Chiaki Yoshihara-Hirata, Hidetaka Ideguchi, Hiroaki Aoyagi, Kazuhiro Omori, Shogo Takashiba
The recruitment of tissue-resident stem cells is important for wound regeneration. Periodontal ligament cells (PDL cells) are heterogeneous cell populations with stemness features that migrate into wound sites to regenerate periodontal fibres and neighbouring hard tissues. Cell migration is regulated by the local microenvironment, co-ordinated by growth factors and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the ECM provides essential signals for migration. We have been suggested that PDL cell migration could be enhanced by selective expression of integrins...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Paola Ortiz-Montero, Win-Yan Liu-Bordes, Arturo Londoño-Vallejo, Jean-Paul Vernot
Background: Most carcinomas are composed of heterogeneous populations of tumor cells with distinct and apparently stable phenotypic characteristics. Methods: Using an in vitro model of carcinogenesis we aimed at experimentally elucidating the significance of heterogeneity in the expression of CD24, a marker frequently overexpressed in various cancers and correlated with poor prognosis. Results: We show that CD24Neg and CD24Pos cells issued from the same tumorigenic cell line display striking differences in stem-related properties, expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition/mesenchymal-epithelial transition markers, and tumorigenic capacity...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Jovylyn Gatchalian, Shivani Malik, Josephine Ho, Dong-Sung Lee, Timothy W R Kelso, Maxim N Shokhirev, Jesse R Dixon, Diana C Hargreaves
The role of individual subunits in the targeting and function of the mammalian BRG1-associated factors (BAF) complex in embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency maintenance has not yet been elucidated. Here we find that the Bromodomain containing protein 9 (BRD9) and Glioma tumor suppressor candidate region gene 1 (GLTSCR1) or its paralog GLTSCR1-like (GLTSCR1L) define a smaller, non-canonical BAF complex (GBAF complex) in mouse ESCs that is distinct from the canonical ESC BAF complex (esBAF). GBAF and esBAF complexes are targeted to different genomic features, with GBAF co-localizing with key regulators of naive pluripotency, which is consistent with its specific function in maintaining naive pluripotency gene expression...
December 3, 2018: Nature Communications
Lucas Gutierrez, Miran Jang, Tian Zhang, Mojtaba Akhtari, Houda Alachkar
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous hematological malignancy in which the only curative approach is allogeneic stem cell transplant (Allo-HSCT). The recognition and elimination of leukemic clones by donor T-cells contribute significantly to Allo-HSCT success. FLT3-ITD, a common mutation in AML, is associated with poor prognosis. Recently, midostaurin became the first FDA approved FLT3-inhibitor for pre-transplant patients with FLT3-ITD in combination with standard therapy. In addition to their multikinase activity which may affect T-cell signaling, FLT3-inhibitors induce apoptosis of malignant cells which may also enhance antigen presentation to activate T-cells...
December 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bernice Woon Li Lee, Pramila Ghode, Derrick Sek Tong Ong
The failure in effective cancer treatment is thought to be attributed to a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell-like properties. These cancer stem cells (CSCs) are intimately linked to tumor initiation, heterogeneity, maintenance, recurrence and metastasis. Increasing evidence supports the view that a tight redox regulation is crucial for CSC proliferation, tumorigenicity, therapy resistance and metastasis in many cancer types. Since the distinct metabolic and epigenetic states of CSCs may influence ROS levels, and hence their malignancy, ROS modulating agents hold promise in their utility as anti-CSC agents that may improve the durability of current cancer treatments...
November 23, 2018: Redox Biology
Tae-Su Han, Dominic Chih-Cheng Voon, Hiroko Oshima, Mizuho Nakayama, Kanae Echizen, Eri Sakai, Zachary Wei Ern Yong, Kazuhiro Murakami, Liang Yu, Toshinari Minamoto, Chan-Young Ock, Brendan J Jenkins, Seong-Jin Kim, Han-Kwang Yang, Masanobu Oshima
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastritis is associated with development of stomach cancer, but little is known about changes in microRNA expression patterns during gastric inflammation. Specific changes in gene expression in epithelial cells are difficult to monitor due to the heterogeneity of the tissue. We investigated epithelial cell-specific changes in microRNA expression during gastric inflammation and gastritis-associated carcinogenesis in mice. METHODS: We used laser microdissection to enrich epithelial cells from K19-C2mE transgenic mice, which spontaneously develop gastritis-associated hyperplasia, and Gan mice, which express activated prostaglandin E2 and Wnt in the gastric mucosa and develop gastric tumors...
November 30, 2018: Gastroenterology
Jenna N Harvestine, Hakan Orbay, Jonathan Y Chen, David E Sahar, J Kent Leach
Lipoaspirates contain a readily accessible heterogeneous cell source for use in bone regeneration collectively referred to as the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). However, the osteogenic potential of SVF is inferior to other progenitor cell populations, thereby requiring alternative strategies to potentiate its effective use in cell-based therapies of bone repair. Cell-secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) is a promising substrate to guide cell phenotype or for use in biomaterial design, yet the instructional capacity of ECMs produced by various cell types is unknown...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
Yuta Tabuchi, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Shinichi Hashimoto, Tasuku Mariya, Takuya Asano, Kazuho Ikeo, Takafumi Kuroda, Masahito Mizuuchi, Aiko Murai, Sei Uno, Noriko Kawai, Terufumi Kubo, Munehide Nakatsugawa, Takayuki Kanaseki, Tomohide Tsukahara, Tsuyoshi Saito, Toshihiko Torigoe
Uterine endometrial carcinoma is one of the common cancers in females. Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are a small subpopulation of cancer cells that are tumorigenic and are resistant to treatments, thus they are focused as treatment targets. However, the heterogeneity of CSCs/CICs is still elusive, and we therefore analyzed CSCs/CICs at the clonal level. We previously established sphere-cultured CSCs/CICs from primary human uterine endometrial carcinoma, and we isolated several clones from CSCs/CICs in this study...
November 29, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Charmaine Lang, Kieran R Campbell, Brent J Ryan, Phillippa Carling, Moustafa Attar, Jane Vowles, Olga V Perestenko, Rory Bowden, Fahd Baig, Meike Kasten, Michele T Hu, Sally A Cowley, Caleb Webber, Richard Wade-Martins
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived dopamine neurons provide an opportunity to model Parkinson's disease (PD), but neuronal cultures are confounded by asynchronous and heterogeneous appearance of disease phenotypes in vitro. Using high-resolution, single-cell transcriptomic analyses of iPSC-derived dopamine neurons carrying the GBA-N370S PD risk variant, we identified a progressive axis of gene expression variation leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Pseudotime analysis of genes differentially expressed (DE) along this axis identified the transcriptional repressor histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) as an upstream regulator of disease progression...
November 20, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
B Kipfer, T Daikeler, S Kuchen, M Hallal, N Andina, R Allam, N Bonadies
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and associated diseases, like chronic myelomonocytic leukemias (CMML), are heterogeneous, clonal disorders affecting the hematopoietic stem cells. They are characterized by dysplasia and a propensity to evolve toward acute myeloid leukemia. Systemic inflammatory and autoimmune manifestations (SIAMs) occur with a prevalence of 10% to 20% in myeloid malignancies, but the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms remain obscure. In this study, we aimed to characterize patient- and disease-based differences in MDS and CMML patients with and without SIAMs and explore the impact of SIAMs on progression and survival...
October 2018: Seminars in Hematology
Thi Nhu Trang Nguyen, Kei Sasaki, Masahiro Kino-Oka
Maintaining the homogeneity of a stem cell population is one of the challenges in bioprocessing prior to therapeutic applications of stem cells. Concerning human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) colonies cultured on feeder cells, cells at the peripheral region of the colony were found to have a higher average movement rate than cells at the central region of the colony. This spatial difference in average movement rate might lead to spatial heterogeneity of cell fate decision in the colony. We have developed a kinetic model to clarify the origin of this phenomenon which was difficult to understand by in vitro studies alone...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Jian Wang, Shao-Fen Lin, Qi-Hui Chen, Kun-Yin Qiu, Hong-Gui Xu, Ke Huang, Yang Li, Jian-Pei Fang, Zhou Dun-Hua Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features and prognosis of 28 children with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and to screen the high risk factors affecting the prognosis so as to provide the new ideas for standard of clinical diagnosis and therapy. METHODS: The clinical data of 28 children with newly diagnosed MDS treated in our hospital from March 1994 to July 2016 were analyzed retrospectively, the features of disease onset and the results of laboratory examination were summarized, all MDS children were followed up, the prognosis and the high risk factors affecting the prognosis were evaluated...
December 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
K A Fukushima, M M Marques, T K Tedesco, G L Carvalho, F Gonçalves, H Caballero-Flores, S Morimoto, M S Moreira
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the most appropriate hydrogel scaffold type (natural, synthetic or hybrid) to be applied with stem cells for dental pulp regeneration. The findings should help clinicians make an informed choice about the appropriate scaffold to be applied for this approach. DESIGN: Three electronic databases were searched (Medline, Web of Science and Scopus). The review was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA)...
November 22, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
F Marinaro, F M Sánchez-Margallo, V Álvarez, E López, R Tarazona, M V Brun, R Blázquez, J G Casado
Surgical meshes are frequently used for the treatment of abdominal hernias, pelvic organ prolapse, and stress urinary incontinence. Though these meshes are designed for tissue reinforcement, many complications have been reported. Both differentiated cell- and mesenchymal stem cell-based therapies have become attractive tools to improve their biocompatibility and tissue integration, minimizing adverse inflammatory reactions. However, current studies are highly heterogeneous, making it difficult to establish comparisons between cell types or cell coating methodologies...
November 27, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Gustav F Jirikowski
Localization and distribution of hypothalamic neurons expressing the nonapeptide oxytocin has been extensively studied. Their projections to the neurohypophyseal system release oxytocin into the systemic circulation thus controlling endocrine events associated with reproduction in males and females. Oxytocinergic neurons seem to be confined to the ventral hypothalamus in all mammals. Groups of such cells located outside the supraoptic and the paraventricular nuclei are summarized as "accessory neurons...
November 29, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Fouad Saeg, Muralidharan Anbalagan
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that accounts for 30% of all cancers diagnosed in women and over half a million deaths per year. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) make up a small subpopulation of cells within a tumor, are capable of self-renewal and, are responsible for tumor initiation, formation, and recurrence. Breast CSCs (BCSCs) have been the subject of concentrated research as potential targets for breast cancer therapies. Cell surface markers CD44+/CD24- have been established as minimum biomarkers for BCSCs and the upregulation of CD44 expression has been linked to tumor formation in numerous cancers...
2018: Stem Cell Investigation
Ali R Ahmadi, Maria Chicco, Jinny Huang, Le Qi, James Burdick, George M Williams, Andrew M Cameron, Zhaoli Sun
INTRODUCTION: Severe burns are often associated with high morbidity and unsatisfactory functional and esthetic outcomes. Over the last two decades, stem cells have generated great hopes for the treatment of numerous conditions including burns. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of stem cell therapy as a means to promote burn wound healing. METHODS: Comprehensive searches in major databases were carried out in March 2017 for articles on stem cell therapy in burn wound healing...
November 26, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Cecilia Larocca, Thomas Kupper
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are a heterogeneous collection of non-Hodgkin lymphomas that arise from skin-tropic memory T lymphocytes. Among them, mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) are the most common malignancies. Diagnosis requires the combination of clinical, pathologic, and molecular features. Significant advances have been made in understanding the genetic and epigenetic aberrations in SS and to some extent in MF. Several prognostic factors have been identified. The goal of treatment is to minimize morbidity and limit disease progression...
February 2019: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Li-Bo Zhang, Min He
BACKGROUND: Over the years, mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs) have been pre-clinically applied in the treatment of variety kinds of diseases including asthma and chronic lung diseases. Aim of the current study was to systematically review and to conduct meta-analysis on the published studies of MSC treatment in asthma animal models. METHODS: Publications on the MSC and asthma treatment was thoroughly searched in the electronic databases. Statistical analysis was then performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Version 3)...
November 26, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Nobuyuki Takakura
The roles that blood vessels play in the maintenance of organs and tissues in addition to the delivery of oxygen and nutrients are being gradually clarified. The maintenance of tissue-specific organ stem cells, such as hematopoietic and neuronal stem cells, is supported by endothelial cells (ECs), which represent an important component of the stem cell niche. The maintenance of organogenesis, for example, osteogenesis and liver generation/regeneration, is supported by molecules referred to as "angiocrine signals" secreted by EC...
November 28, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
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