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RSI Intubation

Kevin M Overmann, Stephanie D Boyd, Yin Zhang, Benjamin T Kerrey
BACKGROUND: Apneic oxygenation is the delivery of oxygen to the nasopharynx during intubation. It may mitigate the risk of oxyhemoglobin desaturation but has not been well-studied in children. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of patients undergoing rapid sequence intubation (RSI) in a pediatric emergency department. We compared patients who received apneic oxygenation, delivered via simple nasal cannula at age-specific flow rates, to patients who did not receive apneic oxygenation...
October 18, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Aurélie Birenbaum, David Hajage, Sabine Roche, Alexandre Ntouba, Mathilde Eurin, Philippe Cuvillon, Aurélien Rohn, Vincent Compere, Dan Benhamou, Matthieu Biais, Remi Menut, Sabiha Benachi, François Lenfant, Bruno Riou
Importance: The use of cricoid pressure (Sellick maneuver) during rapid sequence induction (RSI) of anesthesia remains controversial in the absence of a large randomized trial. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the incidence of pulmonary aspiration is not increased when cricoid pressure is not performed. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial conducted in 10 academic centers. Patients undergoing anesthesia with RSI were enrolled from February 2014 until February 2017 and followed up for 28 days or until hospital discharge (last follow-up, February 8, 2017)...
October 17, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Scott K Dietrich, Mark A Mixon, Ryan J Rogoszewski, Stephanie D Delgado, Vanessa E Knapp, Michael Floren, Julie A Dunn
Present guidelines for emergency intubation in traumatically injured patients recommend rapid sequence intubation (RSI) as the preferred method of airway management but specific pharmacologic agents for RSI remain controversial. To evaluate hemodynamic differences between propofol and other induction agents when used for RSI in trauma patients. Single-center, retrospective review of trauma patients intubated in the emergency department. Patients were divided in two groups based on induction agent, propofol or nonpropofol...
September 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Nesrin Ahu Aslan, Çağıl Vural, Ali Abbas Yılmaz, Zekeriyya Alanoğlu
Objective: We investigated the effects of four different anaesthesia induction protocols on the haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation during rapid-sequence induction (RSI) in systolic hypertensive patients. Methods: One hundred and twenty hypertensive adult patients (systolic pressure >140 mmHg and diastolic pressure <90 mmHg), classified according to the American Association of Anesthesiologists as Class II and III were randomized into four groups...
September 2018: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Walker Pride, Alexander Smith, Ryan Joseph
Thyroid storm is a rare complication with an estimated incidence ranging from 0.61 to 0.76 cases per 100,000 people. Common causes include intrinsic hyperthyroidism, such as in Grave's disease, infection, surgery, severe emotional stress, and acute trauma to the thyroid gland. Without immediate treatment, mortality is seen in up to 30% of cases. Here, we report a case of a 46-year-old male who presented with a possible food impaction for the past 48 h. The patient developed extreme hypertension, tachycardia, and diaphoresis immediately following rapid sequence intubation (RSI), which, after further work-up, was due to thyroid storm...
September 3, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jochen Hinkelbein, Peter Kranke
A Rapid Sequence Induction and Intubation (RSI oder RSII) is a standard technique for emergency airway management and anaesthesia. The aim of an RSI is to prevent aspiration by fast endotracheal intubation without the use of facemask ventilation.Today, only few European countries have specific guidelines for RSI. During daily practice, head-up positioning is standard and provides some advantages as compared to other positions. A gastric tube should be left in place; it is not necessary to remove it. If no gastric tube is in place, it can be positioned after intubation...
September 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
F F Girrbach, F Hilbig, M Michael, M Bernhard
BACKGROUND: A myriad of publications have contributed to an evidence-based approach to airway management in emergency services and admissions in recent years; however, it remains unclear which international registries on airway management in emergency medicine currently exist and how they are characterized concerning inclusion criteria, patient characteristics and definition of complications. METHODS: A systematic literature research was carried out in PubMed with respect to publications from 2007-2017...
September 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Tony L Smith, Jessica Van Meter
Within emergency care settings, rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is frequently used to secure a definitive airway (i.e., endotracheal tube) to provide optimal oxygenation and ventilation in critically ill patients of all ages. For providers in these settings, a deeper understanding of the indications, associated medications, and adjunctive techniques may maximize success with this common procedure. Identification of difficult airways, using mnemonics and standardized criteria prior to the procedure allows, the clinician additional time for assimilation of additional resources and tools to increase the likelihood of first-pass success with intubation...
July 2018: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
Athanasios Chalkias, Fotios Pavlopoulos, Effie Papageorgiou, Christos Tountas, Artemis Anania, Maria Panteli, Apostolos Beloukas, Theodoros Xanthos
BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock is a life-threatening condition and patients might require rapid sequence induction (RSI) and mechanical ventilation. In this study, we evaluated a new RSI/mechanical ventilation protocol in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. METHODS: We included consecutive adult patients who were transferred to the emergency department. The RSI protocol included 5 phases: preoxygenation, pretreatment, induction/paralysis, intubation, and mechanical ventilation (PPIIM)...
August 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Tony Zitek, Ross P Berkeley, Ryan Hodnick, Ken Davis, Noam Dadon, David E Slattery
Although advances have been made in the approach to airway management, intubating critically ill patients in the Emergency Department (ED) can still be perilous. In some cases, poor peripheral perfusion may preclude obtaining a consistent or reliable pulse oximetry waveform, and the intubator will not accurately know when the patient begins to desaturate. We describe a case of a patient requiring intubation in whom we were unable to obtain a consistent pulse oximetry waveform. We utilized a novel technique in which a Biphasic Cuirass Ventilation (BCV) device was applied to maintain oxygenation and ventilation during the performance of rapid sequence intubation (RSI)...
July 18, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jeffrey L Jarvis, Dustin Barton, Henry Wang
BACKGROUND: We sought to characterize the number of attempts required to achieve advanced airway management (AAM) success. METHODS: Using 4 years of data from a national EMS electronic health record system, we examined the following subsets of attempted AAM: 1) cardiac arrest intubation (CA-ETI), 2) non-arrest medical intubation (MED-ETI), 3) non-arrest trauma intubation (TRA-ETI), 4) rapid-sequence intubation (RSI), 5) sedation-assisted ETI (SAI), and 6) supraglottic airway (SGA)...
September 2018: Resuscitation
C Eichelsbacher, H Ilper, R Noppens, J Hinkelbein, T Loop
BACKGROUND: Induction of general anesthesia in patients with risk for aspiration needs special considerations to avoid the incidence and severity of complications. Since no evidence-based guidelines support the challenge for anesthesiologists various practical recommendations exist in clinical practice for rapid sequence induction and intubation (RSI). The aim of this systematic review is, to summarize the evidence and recommend a decision making process. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multilevel RAND-delphi-method (RAND: Research and Development) combined with systematic literature research, individual assessment and evaluation, consensus conferences and final common sequence...
August 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Josefine S Baekgaard, Trine G Eskesen, Martin Sillesen, Lars S Rasmussen, Jacob Steinmetz
The choice of drug used to facilitate endotracheal intubation in trauma patients during rapid sequence induction (RSI) may have an impact on survival. Ketamine is commonly used in the hemodynamically unstable trauma patient although it has been associated with side effects. This review sought to investigate whether ketamine should be preferred over other induction agents for RSI in trauma patients. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched on September 19, 2016 for studies reporting RSI of adult trauma patients with ketamine compared with another induction agent (etomidate, propofol, thiopental, or midazolam)...
June 25, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Prakash Ranjan Mishra, Sanjeev Bhoi, Tej Prakash Sinha
Introduction: Airway and breathing management play critical role in trauma resuscitation. Early identification of esophageal intubation and detection of fatal events is critical. Authors studied the utility of integration of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) during different phases of rapid sequence intubation (RSI) in trauma resuscitation. Methods: It was prospective, randomized single-centered study conducted at the Emergency Department of a level one trauma center...
April 2018: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Cino Bendinelli, Dominic Ku, Shane Nebauer, Kate L King, Teresa Howard, Russel Gruen, Tiffany Evans, Mark Fitzgerald, Zsolt J Balogh
BACKGROUND: The role of prehospital endotracheal intubation (PETI) for traumatic brain injury is unclear. In Victoria, paramedics use rapid sequence induction (RSI) drugs to facilitate PETI, while in New South Wales (NSW) they do not have access to paralysing agents. We hypothesized that RSI would both increase PETI rates and improve mortality. METHODS: Retrospective comparison of adult primary admissions (Glasgow Coma Scale <9 and abbreviated injury scale head and neck >2) to either Victorian or NSW trauma centre, which were compared with univariate and logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratio for mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay...
May 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Joshua M Gleason, Bill R Christian, Erik D Barton
Patients requiring emergency airway management may be at greater risk of acute hypoxemic events because of underlying lung pathology, high metabolic demands, insufficient respiratory drive, obesity, or the inability to protect their airway against aspiration. Emergency tracheal intubation is often required before complete information needed to assess the risk of procedural hypoxia is acquired (i.e., arterial blood gas level, hemoglobin value, or chest radiograph). During pre-oxygenation, administering high-flow nasal oxygen in addition to a non-rebreather face mask can significantly boost the effective inspired oxygen...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
T Mencke, A Zitzmann, D A Reuter
Rapid sequence induction (RSI) is a specific technique for anesthesia induction, which is performed in patients with an increased risk for pulmonary aspiration (e.g. intestinal obstruction, severe injuries and cesarean section). The incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is very low but 10-30% of anesthesia-related deaths are caused by the consequences of ARDS. The classical RSI with its main components (i.e. head-up position, avoidance of positive pressure ventilation and administration of succinylcholine) was published nearly 50 years ago and has remained almost unchanged...
April 2018: Der Anaesthesist
David J Olvera, David F E Stuhlmiller, Allen Wolfe, Charles F Swearingen, Troy Pennington, Daniel P Davis
INTRODUCTION: Airway management is a critical skill for air medical providers, including the use of rapid sequence intubation (RSI) medications. Mediocre success rates and a high incidence of complications has challenged air medical providers to improve training and performance improvement efforts to improve clinical performance. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to describe the experience with a novel, integrated advanced airway management program across a large air medical company and explore the impact of the program on improvement in RSI success...
September 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Stefan Heschl, Ben Meadley, Emily Andrew, Warwick Butt, Stephen Bernard, Karen Smith
INTRODUCTION: Prehospital airway management of the paediatric patient with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is controversial. Endotracheal intubation of children in the field requires specific skills and has potential benefits but also carries potentially serious complications. We aimed to compare mortality and functional outcomes after six months between children with TBI who either underwent prehospital rapid sequence intubation (RSI) by trained Intensive Care paramedics (ICP) or received no intubation...
May 2018: Injury
Christine M Groth, Nicole M Acquisto, Tina Khadem
PURPOSE: Characterize medication practices during and immediately after rapid sequence intubation (RSI) by provider/location and evaluate adverse drug events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study of adult and pediatric intensive care unit and emergency department patients over a 24-h period surrounding first intubation. RESULTS: A total of 404 patients from 34 geographically diverse institutions were included (mean age 58 ± 22 years, males 59%, pediatric 8%)...
June 2018: Journal of Critical Care
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