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I Aumann, K Rozanski, K Damm, J-M Graf von der Schulenburg
Aim of the Study: Through the promotion of smoking cessation premature mortality can be prevented. Therefore it is necessary to provide effective and cost-effective smoking cessation interventions. In Germany the cost of pharmacological smoking cessation measures are not yet reimbursed by the statutory health insurance. The aim of this study is to present the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of already approved pharmacological smoking cessation therapies and to evaluate their quality. Method: A systematic literature research was conducted in the databases by DIMDI (Medline, Embase, etc...
October 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
J B Hinrichs, T Werncke, T Kaireit, M M Hoeper, K M Olsson, J C Kamp, F K Wacker, F Bengel, C von Falck, I Schatka, B C Meyer
Purpose: To determine if C-Arm computed tomography (CACT) has added diagnostic value in patients suffering from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) with a positive mismatch pattern in ventilation/perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT). Materials and Methods: 28 patients (23 men, 5 women, 62 ± 18 years) with CTEPH who had undergone SPECT, followed by CACT and right heart catheterization (RHC) were included. Two independent readers reviewed SPECT and CACT. Findings indicating CTEPH and their location (segmental or sub-segmental) were identified (V/Q mismatch in SPECT and vascular pathologies in CACT)...
October 26, 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Anders Fytagoridis, Mattias Åström, Jennifer Samuelsson, Patric Blomstedt
BACKGROUND: The caudal zona incerta (cZi) and posterior subthalamic area (PSA) are an emerging deep brain stimulation (DBS) target for essential tremor (ET). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of tremor control in relation to the anatomical locations of stimulation fields in 50 patients with ET and DBS of the cZi. METHODS: A total of 240 contacts were evaluated separately with monopolar stimulation, and amplitudes were optimized for improvement of tremor and hand function...
October 27, 2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Peter Sandner, Peter Berger, Christoph Zenzmaier
Fibrotic diseases cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and their incidence increases with age. Despite intense research and development efforts, effective and well-tolerated antifibrotic treatments are scarce. Transforming growth factor-β signaling, which is widely considered the most important profibrotic factor, causes a pro-oxidant shift in redox homeostasis and a concomitant decrease in nitric oxide (NO) signaling. The NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling cascade plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell and organ function in whole-body hemostasis...
October 27, 2016: Gerontology
Wei Tang, Zhijun Liao, Quan Zou
MicroRNAs(miRNAs) often exert their oncogenic and tumor suppressor functions by suppressing protein-coding genes expressions in cancers and thus have a strong association with cancers' generation, development and metastasis. Through comprehensively understanding differentially expressed miRNAs (oncomiRNA) in tumor tissues, we can elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms in tumorigenesis and develop novel strategies for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The differential expression of miRNAs can now be analyzed through numerous statistical significance tests based on different principles, which are also available in various R packages...
October 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Shalini Singh Yadav, Jinyi Li, Jennifer A Stockert, James O'Connor, Bryan Herzog, Cordelia Elaiho, Matthew D Galsky, Ashutosh Kumar Tewari, Kamlesh Kumar Yadav
Several promising targeted-therapeutics for prostate cancer (PCa), primarily affecting the androgen receptor (AR) and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR-pathway, are in various phases of development. However, despite promise, single-agent inhibitors targeting the two pathways have not shown long-term benefits, perhaps due to a complex compensatory cross talk that exists between the two pathways. Combination therapy has thus been proposed to maximize benefit. We have carried out a systematic study of two-drug combination effect of MDV3100 (AR antagonist), BKM120 (PI3K inhibitor), TKI258 (pan RTK inhibitor) and RAD001 (mTOR inhibitor) using various PCa cell lines...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Wankun Chen, Yajun Xu, Jing Zhong, Huihui Wang, Meilin Weng, Qian Cheng, Qichao Wu, Zhirong Sun, Hui Jiang, Minmin Zhu, Yu Ren, Pingbo Xu, Jiawei Chen, Changhong Miao
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma amplified sequence 1 (MFHAS1) is a predicted oncoprotein that demonstrates tumorigenic activity in vivo; however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Macrophages are divided into the pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory/protumoral M2 subtypes. Tumor cells can induce M2 polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to promote metastasis; but the underlying pathways require to be elucidated. In this study, we detected a positive association between MFHAS1 expression in TAMs and human colorectal cancer (CRC) TNM stage...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Shuiqing Zhou, Changchuan Guo, Feng Shi, Wei Jiang, Lei Wang
In this work, the ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) was applied to the rapid screening, identification and quantification of the illegal adulterated glucocorticoids in herbal medicines. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion mode and Full MS/dd-MS(2) (data-dependent MS(2)) mode, where selected ions were subjected to a dd-MS(2) scan with given fragmentation energy following a Full MS scan. The application of 70 000 FWHM mass resolution and narrow mass windows (5ppm) effectively improve the selectivity of the method, and a single injection was sufficient to perform the simultaneous screening and identification/quantification of 14 glucocorticoids in 15min...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
A Di Gilio, G Ventrella, P Giungato, M Tutino, R Giua, G Assennato, G de Gennaro
This study provided a useful approach for assessing the impact of industrial sources on surrounding, especially in a sensitive industrial area as Taranto (South of Italy). Taranto is one of the most industrialized Italian towns, where several emission sources operate simultaneously in proximity to the urban settlement. An intensive monitoring campaign of PAHs was carried out from January 28th to July 30th, 2011, in seven sites located in residential settlement around the industrial area and in the city center...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Judd F Hultquist, Kathrin Schumann, Jonathan M Woo, Lara Manganaro, Michael J McGregor, Jennifer Doudna, Viviana Simon, Nevan J Krogan, Alexander Marson
New genetic tools are needed to understand the functional interactions between HIV and human host factors in primary cells. We recently developed a method to edit the genome of primary CD4(+) T cells by electroporation of CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). Here, we adapted this methodology to a high-throughput platform for the efficient, arrayed editing of candidate host factors. CXCR4 or CCR5 knockout cells generated with this method are resistant to HIV infection in a tropism-dependent manner, whereas knockout of LEDGF or TNPO3 results in a tropism-independent reduction in infection...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Pauline Mendola, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Germaine M Buck Louis, Liping Sun, Maeve E Wallace, Melissa M Smarr, Seth Sherman, Yeyi Zhu, Qi Ying, Danping Liu
We aimed to study the potential impact of proximity to major roadways on time-to-pregnancy and infertility in couples attempting pregnancy in the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and Environment (LIFE) study (2005-2009), a population-based, prospective cohort study. Couples attempting pregnancy (n=500) were enrolled and followed prospectively until pregnancy or 12months of trying and 393 couples (78%) had complete data and full follow-up. Time-to-pregnancy was based on a standard protocol using fertility monitors, tracking estrone-3-glucuonide and luteinizing hormone, and pregnancy test kits to detect human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Andrea Fagagnini, Riccardo Montioli, Andra Caloiu, Marc Ribó, Douglas V Laurents, Giovanni Gotte
Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) is the monomeric prototype of the so-called secretory 'pancreatic-type' RNase super-family. Like the naturally domain-swapped dimeric bovine seminal variant, BS-RNase, and its glycosylated RNase B isoform, RNase A forms N- and C-terminal 3D domain-swapped oligomers after lyophilization from acid solutions, or if subjected to thermal denaturation at high protein concentration. All mentioned RNases can undergo deamidation at Asn67, forming Asp or isoAsp derivatives that modify the protein net charge and consequently its enzymatic activity...
October 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mary Claire Heffron, Diane Reynolds, Bronwyn Talbot
This article proposes how group reflective supervision, informed by the theory of reflective functioning, may provide a powerful method for developing reflective capacity of staff serving families, infants, and young children in multidisciplinary settings. An explanation of reflective functioning, related research, and its relevance to relational treatment and preventive intervention are discussed. Other approaches to reflective practice are referenced. We describe the necessary tension and encounters with distressing affect that mark reflective supervision groups using this focus...
October 26, 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
Alexander P Decilveo, Bartlomiej W Szczech, Jacob Topfer, James C Wittig
Expandable endoprostheses have become an acceptable modality to address the issue of limb-length inequality in limb-sparing procedures for skeletally immature patients afflicted with lower extremity bone sarcomas. This study retrospectively analyzed postoperative outcomes and complications for 7 patients (8 limbs) who underwent minimally invasive or noninvasive reconstruction during a 12-year period. Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scores and complication rates were reported. Mean functional outcome (MSTS scores) at final follow-up was 93...
October 25, 2016: Orthopedics
L P Zanaga, N Miotto, L C Mendes, R S B Stucchi, A G Vigani
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 is responsible for 30.1% of chronic hepatitis C infection cases worldwide. In the era of direct-acting antivirals, these patients have become one of the most challenging to treat, due to fewer effective drug options, higher risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and lower sustained virological response (SVR) rates. Currently there are 4 recommended drugs for the treatment of HCV genotype 3: pegylated interferon (PegIFN), sofosbuvir (SOF), daclatasvir (DCV) and ribavirin (RBV)...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Denise Espíndola Antunes, Karolline Alves Viana, Paulo Sucasas Costa, Luciane Rezende Costa
There is little evidence on the long-term effects of pharmacological management in children undergoing dental treatment. This study aimed to assess children's behavior in consecutive dental sessions following oral rehabilitation using different pharmacological regimens for behavioral control. Participants were preschoolers who were previously treated for caries under one of the following: no sedative, oral sedation with midazolam, oral sedation with midazolam/ketamine, or general anesthesia. The children's behavior in the follow-up sessions was assessed using the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS); higher scores represented less cooperative behavior (range 5-20)...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
Maria Manuela Ferreira Pereira da Silva Martins, Maria Narcisa da Costa Gonçalves, Olga Maria Pimenta Lopes Ribeiro, Daisy Maria Rizatto Tronchin
Objectives: to describe the development and validation process of a scale to measure the nurses' perception of the activities that contribute to nursing care quality. Method: methodological study based on a literature review, the opinion of experts and the experience of study investigators. An instrument was designed containing six dimensions and 25 items, applied as a questionnaire to 775 nurses from a hospital in northern Portugal, from May to July 2014. The instrument validation used an exploratory factor analysis and an internal consistency assessment of each factor/dimension...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Ariane Cristina Barboza Zanetti, Carmen Silvia Gabriel, Andrea Bernardes, Leonardo Régis Leira Pereira
Objective: To describe the translation into Portuguese and cultural adaptation of a Questionnaire addressing High-Alert Medications to the Brazilian context. Methods: Methodological study comprising the translation from Chinese to Brazilian Portuguese, synthesis of translations, back translation, panel of experts, and pretest to obtain the final version of the questionnaire. Results: <inor lexical variations were resolved after obtaining consensus between the translators...
October 24, 2016: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Chenhui Wang
In this paper, control of uncertain fractional-order financial chaotic system with input saturation and external disturbance is investigated. The unknown part of the input saturation as well as the system's unknown nonlinear function is approximated by a fuzzy logic system. To handle the fuzzy approximation error and the estimation error of the unknown upper bound of the external disturbance, fractional-order adaptation laws are constructed. Based on fractional Lyapunov stability theorem, an adaptive fuzzy controller is designed, and the asymptotical stability can be guaranteed...
2016: PloS One
Susanne Falkner, Sofia Grade, Leda Dimou, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Magdalena Götz, Mark Hübener
The ability of the adult mammalian brain to compensate for neuronal loss caused by injury or disease is very limited. Transplantation aims to replace lost neurons, but the extent to which new neurons can integrate into existing circuits is unknown. Here, using chronic in vivo two-photon imaging, we show that embryonic neurons transplanted into the visual cortex of adult mice mature into bona fide pyramidal cells with selective pruning of basal dendrites, achieving adult-like densities of dendritic spines and axonal boutons within 4-8 weeks...
October 26, 2016: Nature
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