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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098952/solving-the-puzzle-of-one-carbon-loss-in-ripostatin-biosynthesis
#1
Chengzhang Fu, David Auerbach, Yanyan Li, Ullrich Scheid, Eva Luxenburger, Ronald Garcia, Herbert Irschik, Rolf Müller
Ripostatin is a promising antibiotic that inhibits RNA polymerase by binding to a novel binding site. In this study, the characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster of ripostatin, which is a peculiar polyketide synthase (PKS) hybrid cluster encoding cis- and trans-acyltransferase PKS genes, is reported. Moreover, an unprecedented mechanism for phenyl acetic acid formation and loading as a starter unit was discovered. This phenyl-C2 unit is derived from phenylpyruvate (phenyl-C3) and the mechanism described herein explains the mysterious loss of one carbon atom in ripostatin biosynthesis from the phenyl-C3 precursor...
January 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098912/microrna-9-limits-hepatic-fibrosis-by-suppressing-the-activation-and-proliferation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-by-directly-targeting-mrp1-abcc1
#2
Jie Sun, Huanying Zhang, Liying Li, Lianfeng Yu, Lifang Fu
Liver fibrosis is a chronic liver disease characterized by the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). Research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) are a new type of regulator of liver fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of microRNA-9 (miR-9) in the process of liver fibrosis, as well as the underlying mechanism of action. Downregulated levels of miR-9 were found in fibrotic liver tissues and activated HSCs as detected by qRT-PCR; whereas, expression of multidrug resistance‑associated protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) was upregulated in the fibrotic liver tissues and activated HSCs...
January 17, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098857/anticancer-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg3-review
#3
Mengyao Sun, Ying Ye, Ling Xiao, Xinya Duan, Yongming Zhang, Hong Zhang
Cancer is a life-threatening disease with an alarmingly increased annual mortality rate globally. Although various therapies are employed for cancer, the final effect is not satisfactory. Chemotherapy is currently the most commonly used treatment option. However, the unsatisfactory efficacy, severe side-effects and drug resistance hinder the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. There is increasing evidence indicating that ginsenoside Rg3, a naturally occurring phytochemical, plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of cancer...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098829/rapid-transfer-alignment-of-mems-sins-based-on-adaptive-incremental-kalman-filter
#4
Hairong Chu, Tingting Sun, Baiqiang Zhang, Hongwei Zhang, Yang Chen
In airborne MEMS SINS transfer alignment, the error of MEMS IMU is highly environment-dependent and the parameters of the system model are also uncertain, which may lead to large error and bad convergence of the Kalman filter. In order to solve this problem, an improved adaptive incremental Kalman filter (AIKF) algorithm is proposed. First, the model of SINS transfer alignment is defined based on the "Velocity and Attitude" matching method. Then the detailed algorithm progress of AIKF and its recurrence formulas are presented...
January 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098828/development-of-a-topical-resveratrol-formulation-for-commercial-applications-using-dendrimer-nanotechnology
#5
Tyler Pentek, Eric Newenhouse, Brennin O'Brien, Abhay Singh Chauhan
Resveratrol (RSV) is well known for its anti-oxidant and anti-aging properties. However, resveratrol is insoluble in water and has stability issues. Recently, efforts were placed to prepare a resveratrol-based advanced anti-aging topical product but it contains harsh organic solvents and oils that could be harmful to the human body and the environment. Hence, we propose the use of a multifunctional dendrimer to solve the solubility and stability issues of resveratrol. A dendrimer-resveratrol complex was prepared, optimized and tested for solubility enhancement, stability in solution and cream dosage forms...
January 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098816/estrogen-enhances-the-expression-of-the-multidrug-transporter-gene-abcg2-increasing-drug-resistance-of-breast-cancer-cells-through-estrogen-receptors
#6
Fung-Wei Chang, Hueng-Chuen Fan, Jui-Ming Liu, Tai-Ping Fan, Jin Jing, Chia-Ling Yang, Ren-Jun Hsu
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistance is a major obstacle in the successful therapy of breast cancer. Studies have proved that this kind of drug resistance happens in both human cancers and cultured cancer cell lines. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance is important for the reasonable design and use of new treatment strategies to effectively confront cancers. RESULTS: In our study, ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase and cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc (COX6C) were over-expressed more in the MCF-7/MX cell line than in the normal MCF7 cell line...
January 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098802/penduliflaworosin-a-diterpenoid-from-croton-crassifolius-exerts-anti-angiogenic-effect-via-vegf-receptor-2-signaling-pathway
#7
Yeyin Liang, Yubo Zhang, Guocai Wang, Yaolan Li, Weihuan Huang
Anti-angiogenesis targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) has been considered as an important strategy for cancer therapy. Penduliflaworosin is a diterpenoid isolated from the plant Croton crassifolius. Our previous study showed that this diterpenoid possesses strong anti-angiogenic activity by inhibiting vessel formation in zebrafish. This study was conducted to further investigate the anti-angiogenic activity and mechanism of penduliflaworosin. Results revealed that penduliflaworosin significantly inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis processes including proliferation, invasion, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
January 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098801/a-novel-antihypertensive-derived-from-adlay-coix-larchryma-jobi-l-var-ma-yuen-stapf-glutelin
#8
Bin Li, Liansheng Qiao, Lingling Li, Yanling Zhang, Kai Li, Lingzhi Wang, Yanjiang Qiao
Our previous studies have shown that Coix glutelin pepsin hydrolysate can effectively inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in vitro. The main purpose of this study was to obtain potent anti-hypertensive peptides from Coix glutelin. The Coix glutelin hydrolysates (CGH) were prepared by pepsin catalysis and further separated by an ultrafitration (UF) system, gel filtration chromatography (GFC) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). As a result, the sub-fraction F5-3 had the highest ACE-inhibitory activity...
January 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098794/ftr82-is-critical-for-vascular-patterning-during-zebrafish-development
#9
Hsueh-Wei Chang, Wen-Der Wang, Chien-Chih Chiu, Chiou-Hua Chen, Yi-Shan Wang, Zih-Ying Chen, Wangta Liu, Ming-Hong Tai, Zhi-Hong Wen, Chang-Yi Wu
Cellular components and signaling pathways are required for the proper growth of blood vessels. Here, we report for the first time that a teleost-specific gene ftr82 (finTRIM family, member 82) plays a critical role in vasculature during zebrafish development. To date, there has been no description of tripartite motif proteins (TRIM) in vascular development, and the role of ftr82 is unknown. In this study, we found that ftr82 mRNA is expressed during the development of vessels, and loss of ftr82 by morpholino (MO) knockdown impairs the growth of intersegmental vessels (ISV) and caudal vein plexus (CVP), suggesting that ftr82 plays a critical role in promoting ISV and CVP growth...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098789/implications-of-changing-temperatures-on-the-growth-fecundity-and-survival-of-intermediate-host-snails-of-schistosomiasis-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Chester Kalinda, Moses Chimbari, Samson Mukaratirwa
Climate change has been predicted to increase the global mean temperature and to alter the ecological interactions among organisms. These changes may play critical roles in influencing the life history traits of the intermediate hosts (IHs). This review focused on studies and disease models that evaluate the potential effect of temperature rise on the ecology of IH snails and the development of parasites within them. The main focus was on IH snails of schistosome parasites that cause schistosomiasis in humans...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098776/distinguishing-benign-from-malignant-pancreatic-and-periampullary-lesions-using-combined-use-of-%C3%A2-h-nmr-spectroscopy-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#11
Yarrow J McConnell, Farshad Farshidfar, Aalim M Weljie, Karen A Kopciuk, Elijah Dixon, Chad G Ball, Francis R Sutherland, Hans J Vogel, Oliver F Bathe
Previous work demonstrated that serum metabolomics can distinguish pancreatic cancer from benign disease. However, in the clinic, non-pancreatic periampullary cancers are difficult to distinguish from pancreatic cancer. Therefore, to test the clinical utility of this technology, we determined whether any pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma could be distinguished from benign masses and biliary strictures. Sera from 157 patients with malignant and benign pancreatic and periampullary lesions were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
January 13, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098774/learning-to-diagnose-cirrhosis-with-liver-capsule-guided-ultrasound-image-classification
#12
Xiang Liu, Jia Lin Song, Shuo Hong Wang, Jing Wen Zhao, Yan Qiu Chen
This paper proposes a computer-aided cirrhosis diagnosis system to diagnose cirrhosis based on ultrasound images. We first propose a method to extract a liver capsule on an ultrasound image, then, based on the extracted liver capsule, we fine-tune a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to extract features from the image patches cropped around the liver capsules. Finally, a trained support vector machine (SVM) classifier is applied to classify the sample into normal or abnormal cases. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively extract the liver capsules and accurately classify the ultrasound images...
January 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098767/cheese-consumption-and-risk-of-all-cause-mortality-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#13
Xing Tong, Guo-Chong Chen, Zheng Zhang, Yu-Lu Wei, Jia-Ying Xu, Li-Qiang Qin
The association between cheese consumption and risk for major health endpoints has been investigated in many epidemiologic studies, but findings are inconsistent. As all-cause mortality can be viewed as the final net health effect of dietary intakes, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine the long-term association of cheese consumption with all-cause mortality. Relevant studies were identified by a search of the PubMed database through May 2016. Reference lists from retrieved articles were also reviewed. Summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model...
January 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098725/how-vitreomacular-interface-modifies-the-efficacy-of-anti-vegf-therapy-for-myopic-choroidal-neovascularization
#14
Pierluigi Iacono, Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Lorenzo Iuliano, Francesco Bandello
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab in the treatment of myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) complicated by vitreoretinal interface alterations. METHODS: Thirty-two patients affected by mCNV and concurrent vitreoretinal interface disorders, including macular epiretinal membrane (18 patients), lamellar macular hole (4 patients), full-thickness macular hole (1 patient), broad/focal vitreomacular traction (3 patients), broad/focal vitreomacular adhesion (4 patients), and myopic foveoschisis (2 patients), were enrolled in a prospective study...
January 16, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098630/collapse-of-the-microbiome-emergence-of-the-pathobiome-and-the-immunopathology-of-sepsis
#15
John C Alverdy, Monika A Krezalek
The definition of sepsis has been recently modified to accommodate emerging knowledge in the field, while at the same time being recognized as challenging, if not impossible, to define. Here, we seek to clarify the current understanding of sepsis as one that has been typically framed as a disorder of inflammation to one in which the competing interests of the microbiota, pathobiota, and host immune cells lead to loss of resilience and nonresolving organ dysfunction. Here, we challenge the existence of the idea of noninfectious sepsis given that critically ill humans never exist in a germ-free state...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098590/analgesia-and-sedation-requirements-in-mechanically-ventilated-trauma-patients-with-acute-preinjury-use-of-cocaine-and-or-amphetamines
#16
Bridgette Kram, Shawn J Kram, Michelle L Sharpe, Michael L James, Maragatha Kuchibhatla, Mark L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanically ventilated trauma patients with a positive urine drug screen (UDS) for cocaine and/or amphetamines have different opioid analgesic and sedative requirements compared with similar patients with a negative drug screen for these stimulants. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center cohort study at a tertiary care, academic medical and level 1 trauma center in the United States included patients ≥16 years of age who were admitted to an adult intensive care unit with a diagnosis of trauma between 2009 and 2013 with a UDS documented within 24 hours of admission, and were mechanically ventilated for >24 hours...
January 16, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098576/grafting-and-dental-implantation-in-patients-with-jawbone-cavitation-case-series-and-3-year-follow-up
#17
Ya-Wei Chen, Miguel Simancas-Pallares, Mauro Marincola, Sung-Kiang Chuang
PURPOSE: Jawbone cavitation (BC) is not uncommon and is considered to be related to some cases of unexpected implant displacement into deep jawbone space. Here, a series of cases with BC is described, in which the lesions were accidentally found and successfully treated by bone grafting and dental implantation. METHODS: Thirty-four partially edentulous patients who were found to have BC during dental implant surgeries were included in this study. Alloplast bone substitute (β-tricalcium phosphate) grafting with immediate or staged locking-taper implant placement was performed...
January 16, 2017: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098519/who-knows-knowledge-activation-belief-in-certainty-of-knowledge-maximization-tendencies-and-need-for-cognition-in-answerability-judgments
#18
Sandra Buratti, Carl Martin Allwood, Bodil Karlsson
In this study, investigating answerability judgments, 123 participants judged whether each of 46 general knowledge questions could currently be answered by themselves, by someone else, or by no one. There were 26 consensus questions (high expected consensus about their answerability) and 20 non-consensus questions. Before each question, half of the participants rated the extent of their knowledge related to the question. Results showed that answering consensus questions compared with non-consensus led to a lower proportion of "No one knows" answers...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098513/attrition-and-retention-in-upper-limb-prosthetics-research-experience-of-the-va-home-study-of-the-deka-arm
#19
Linda Resnik, Shana Klinger
PURPOSE: (1) Describe study attrition; (2) identify reasons for attrition, and (3) discuss implications for prosthetic prescription and design of future device studies. Design and methodological procedures used: Completion phase (during in-laboratory training, after training, or home use) was identified for 42 participants. Qualitative data were analyzed to identify attrition reasons. Reasons were classified as related to the DEKA arm, or not. RESULTS: Study attrition was 57%, with 43% completing the full study...
January 18, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098500/exploring-black-college-females-perceptions-regarding-hiv-prevention-message-content
#20
Rasheeta Chandler-Coley, Henry Ross, Oluwatobi Ozoya, Celia Lescano, Timothy Flannigan
Media messages can facilitate the delivery of accurate information related to HIV and sexually transmitted infection. This study's purpose was to examine preexisting media campaigns from the iMPPACS study to assess age-, gender-, and culturally appropriate components identified by African American females who attend historically Black colleges/universities. In 3 separate focus group sessions, 31 Black female college students (M age = 20) viewed 4 vignettes and heard 3 audio-only clips, then ranked and commented on them based on perceived satisfaction with HIV prevention content and appropriateness of delivery...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
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