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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088797/automated-interpretation-of-pulmonary-function-tests-in-adults-with-respiratory-complaints
#1
Marko Topalovic, Stefan Laval, Jean-Marie Aerts, Thierry Troosters, Marc Decramer, Wim Janssens
BACKGROUND: The use of pulmonary function tests is primarily based on expert opinion and international guidelines. Current interpretation strategies are using predefined cutoffs for the description of a typical pattern. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the predicted disease outcome based on the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) interpreting strategy. Subsequently, we investigated whether an unbiased machine learning framework integrating lung function with clinical variables may provide alternative decision trees resulting in a more accurate diagnosis...
January 12, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076355/multiple-choice-neurodynamical-model-of-the-uncertain-option-task
#2
Andrea Insabato, Mario Pannunzi, Gustavo Deco
The uncertain option task has been recently adopted to investigate the neural systems underlying the decision confidence. Latterly single neurons activity has been recorded in lateral intraparietal cortex of monkeys performing an uncertain option task, where the subject is allowed to opt for a small but sure reward instead of making a risky perceptual decision. We propose a multiple choice model implemented in a discrete attractors network. This model is able to reproduce both behavioral and neurophysiological experimental data and therefore provides support to the numerous perspectives that interpret the uncertain option task as a sensory-motor association...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068948/women-s-preferences-for-childbirth-experiences-in-the-republic-of-ireland-a-mixed-methods-study
#3
Patricia Larkin, Cecily M Begley, Declan Devane
BACKGROUND: How women experience childbirth is acknowledged as critical to the postnatal wellbeing of mother and baby. However there is a knowledge deficit in identifying the important elements of these experiences in order to enhance care. This study elicits women's preferences for the most important elements of their childbirth experiences. METHODS: A mixed methods design was used. An initial qualitative phase (reported previously) was followed by a second quantitative one using a discrete choice experiment (DCE), which is reported on here...
January 10, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061040/the-role-of-qualitative-research-methods-in-discrete-choice-experiments
#4
Caroline Vass, Dan Rigby, Katherine Payne
BACKGROUND: The use of qualitative research (QR) methods is recommended as good practice in discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This study investigated the use and reporting of QR to inform the design and/or interpretation of healthcare-related DCEs and explored the perceived usefulness of such methods. METHODS: DCEs were identified from a systematic search of the MEDLINE database. Studies were classified by the quantity of QR reported (none, basic, or extensive)...
January 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060352/a-simple-way-to-measure-alterations-in-reward-seeking-behavior-using-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Shir Zer, Julia Ryvkin, Harel J Wilner, Hila Zak, Anat Shmueli, Galit Shohat-Ophir
We describe a protocol for measuring ethanol self-administration in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) as a proxy for changes in reward states. We demonstrate a simple way to tap into the fly reward system, modify experiences related to natural reward, and use voluntary ethanol consumption as a measure for changes in reward states. The approach serves as a relevant tool to study the neurons and genes that play a role in experience-mediated changes of internal state. The protocol is composed of two discrete parts: exposing the flies to rewarding and nonrewarding experiences, and assaying voluntary ethanol consumption as a measure of the motivation to obtain a drug reward...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050117/estimating-demand-for-perennial-pigeon-pea-in-malawi-using-choice-experiments
#6
Kurt B Waldman, David L Ortega, Robert B Richardson, Sieglinde S Snapp
Perennial crops have numerous ecological and agronomic advantages over their annual counterparts. We estimate discrete choice models to evaluate farmers' preferences for perennial attributes of pigeon pea intercropped with maize in central and southern Malawi. Pigeon pea is a nitrogen-fixing leguminous crop, which has the potential to ameliorate soil fertility problems related to continuous maize cultivation, which are common in Southern Africa. Adoption of annual pigeon pea is relatively low but perennial production of pigeon pea may be more appealing to farmers due to some of the ancillary benefits associated with perenniality...
January 2017: Ecological Economics: the Journal of the International Society for Ecological Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039617/measuring-care-related-quality-of-life-of-caregivers-for-use-in-economic-evaluations-carerqol-tariffs-for-australia-germany-sweden-uk-and-us
#7
Renske J Hoefman, Job van Exel, Werner B F Brouwer
BACKGROUND: Informal care is often not included in economic evaluations in healthcare, while the impact of caregiving can be relevant for cost-effectiveness recommendations from a societal perspective. The impact of informal care can be measured and valued with the CarerQol instrument, which measures the impact of informal care on seven important burden dimensions (CarerQol-7D) and values this in terms of general quality of life (CarerQol-VAS). The CarerQol can be included at the effect side of multi-criteria analyses of patient interventions or in cost-effectiveness or utility analysis of interventions targeted at caregivers...
December 31, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038919/characterizing-outcome-preferences-in-patients-with-psychotic-disorders-a-discrete-choice-conjoint-experiment
#8
Robert B Zipursky, Charles E Cunningham, Bailey Stewart, Heather Rimas, Emily Cole, Stephanie McDermid Vaz
The majority of individuals with schizophrenia will achieve a remission of psychotic symptoms, but few will meet criteria for recovery. Little is known about what outcomes are important to patients. We carried out a discrete choice experiment to characterize the outcome preferences of patients with psychotic disorders. Participants (N=300) were recruited from two clinics specializing in psychotic disorders. Twelve outcomes were each defined at three levels and incorporated into a computerized survey with 15 choice tasks...
December 27, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034720/qualitative-development-of-a-discrete-choice-experiment-for-physical-activity-interventions-to-improve-knee-osteoarthritis
#9
Daniel Pinto, Margaret Danilovich, Paul Hansen, Daniel J Finn, Rowland W Chang, Jane L Holl, Allen W Heinemann, Ulf Bockenholt
OBJECTIVE: To describe the qualitative process used to develop attributes and attribute levels for inclusion in a discrete choice experiments (DCE) for older adult physical activity interventions. DESIGN: Five focus groups (a total of 41 participants) were conducted, grounded in the Health Action Process Approach framework. Discussion emphasized identification and prioritization attributes for a DCE on physical activity. Semi-structured interviews (n=6) investigated attribute levels and lay-language for the DCE...
December 27, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033305/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-novel-functional-types-of-parathyroid-glands-in-thyroidectomy-in-situ-preservation-or-auto-transplantation
#10
Qiuxia Cui, Zhihua Li, Deguang Kong, Kun Wang, Gaosong Wu
The best method of preventing hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy is to keep parathyroid glands in situ. However, hypoparathyroidism still regularly occurs with the existing parathyroid classification system, and the incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism has not been reduced. We created a novel system for classifying parathyroid glands that can guide parathyroid preservation in thyroidectomy.We prospectively observed parathyroid glands using the new system in 218 neck surgeries, compared with 132 under the traditional system from January 2014 to September 2015 at a single clinic center...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031305/qualitative-assessment-of-the-application-of-a-discrete-choice-experiment-with-community-health-workers-in-uganda-aligning-incentives-with-preferences
#11
Aurélie Brunie, Mario Chen, Angela Akol
BACKGROUND: Maximizing the benefits of community health worker (CHW) programs requires strategies for improving motivation, performance, and retention. Discrete choice experiments (DCE) are increasingly used to inform policy response to health workforce shortages in rural areas, and may be of value in the context of CHW programs. Participants are presented with pairs of hypothetical jobs that are described by job attributes with varying levels and are asked what their preferred job is within each pair...
December 23, 2016: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028156/patients-preferences-and-economic-considerations-play-an-important-role-in-treatment-decisions-a-discrete-choice-experiment-among-rheumatologists
#12
Monika Hifinger, Mickael Hiligsmann, Sofia Ramiro, Johan L Severens, Bruno Fautrel, Verity Watson, Annelies Boonen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate to what extent rheumatologists consider economic aspects and patients' preferences when choosing drug treatments in patients with active RA. METHODS: In a discrete choice experiment, rheumatologists were asked to choose between two unlabelled drug treatment options for a hypothetical RA patient with moderate disease activity who failed two synthetic DMARDs. Attributes and levels of drug treatments were selected based on existing literature, rheumatologists' opinion and expert consensus...
January 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025975/incubation-of-methamphetamine-but-not-heroin-craving-after-voluntary-abstinence-in-male-and-female-rats
#13
Marco Venniro, Michelle Zhang, Yavin Shaham, Daniele Caprioli
We recently introduced an animal model of incubation of methamphetamine craving after choice-based voluntary abstinence in male rats. Here, we studied the generality of this phenomenon to (1) female rats, and (2) male and female rats with a history of heroin self-administration. We first trained rats to self-administer palatable food pellets for 6 days (6 h/day) for either methamphetamine (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) or heroin (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) for 12 days (6 h/day). We then assessed relapse to drug seeking in extinction tests after 1 and 21 abstinence days...
December 27, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025325/developing-a-decision-support-system-to-link-health-technology-assessment-hta-reports-to-the-health-system-policies-in-iran
#14
Shahram Yazdani, Mohammad-Pooyan Jadidfard
The recent increase of 'Health Technology Assessment' (HTA)-related activities in Iran has necessitated the clarification of policy-making process based on the HTA reports. This study aimed to develop a Decision Support System (DSS) in order to adopt evidence-informed policies regarding health technologies in Iran. The study can be classified as Health Policy and Systems Research. A core panel of seven experts conducted two separate reviews of relevant literature for: 1- Determining the potential technology-related policies...
December 26, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013336/hybrid-markov-chain-models-of-s-i-r-disease-dynamics
#15
Nicolas P Rebuli, N G Bean, J V Ross
Deterministic epidemic models are attractive due to their compact nature, allowing substantial complexity with computational efficiency. This partly explains their dominance in epidemic modelling. However, the small numbers of infectious individuals at early and late stages of an epidemic, in combination with the stochastic nature of transmission and recovery events, are critically important to understanding disease dynamics. This motivates the use of a stochastic model, with continuous-time Markov chains being a popular choice...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011592/personal-health-records-in-the-netherlands-potential-user-preferences-quantified-by-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#16
Domino Determann, Mattijs S Lambooij, Dorte Gyrd-Hansen, Esther W de Bekker-Grob, Ewout W Steyerberg, Marcel Heldoorn, Line Bjørnskov Pedersen, G Ardine de Wit
OBJECTIVE: To identify groups of potential users based on their preferences for characteristics of personal health records (PHRs) and to estimate potential PHR uptake. METHODS: We performed a discrete choice experiment, which consisted of 12 choice scenarios, each comprising 2 hypothetical PHR alternatives and an opt-out. The alternatives differed based on 5 characteristics. The survey was administered to Internet panel members of the Dutch Federation of Patients and Consumer Organizations...
December 23, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005915/goldilocks-and-the-raster-grid-selecting-scale-when-evaluating-conservation-programs
#17
Andre Fernandes Tomon Avelino, Kathy Baylis, Jordi Honey-Rosés
Access to high quality spatial data raises fundamental questions about how to select the appropriate scale and unit of analysis. Studies that evaluate the impact of conservation programs have used multiple scales and areal units: from 5x5 km grids; to 30m pixels; to irregular units based on land uses or political boundaries. These choices affect the estimate of program impact. The bias associated with scale and unit selection is a part of a well-known dilemma called the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005532/designing-a-text-messaging-intervention-to-improve-physical-activity-behavior-among-low-income-latino-patients-with-diabetes-a-discrete-choice-experiment-los-angeles-2014-2015
#18
Magaly Ramirez, Shinyi Wu, Elizabeth Beale
INTRODUCTION: Automated text messaging can deliver self-management education to activate self-care behaviors among people with diabetes. We demonstrated how a discrete-choice experiment was used to determine the features of a text-messaging intervention that are important to urban, low-income Latino patients with diabetes and that could support improvement in their physical activity behavior. METHODS: In a discrete-choice experiment from December 2014 through August 2015 we conducted a survey to elicit information on patient preferences for 5 features of a text-messaging intervention...
December 22, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005295/antibiotics-in-endodontics-a-review
#19
REVIEW
J J Segura-Egea, K Gould, B Hakan Şen, P Jonasson, E Cotti, A Mazzoni, H Sunay, L Tjäderhane, P M H Dummer
The overuse of antibiotics and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is a global concern. This concern is also of importance in terms of the oral microbiota and the use of antibiotics to deal with oral and dental infections. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on the indications and use of antibiotics and to make recommendations for their prescription in endodontic patients. Odontogenic infections, including endodontic infections, are polymicrobial, and in most cases, the prescription of antibiotics is empirical...
December 22, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000075/treatment-preferences-for-routine-lymphadenectomy-versus-no-lymphadenectomy-in-early-stage-endometrial-cancer
#20
Jung-Yun Lee, Kyunghoon Kim, Yun Shin Lee, Hyo Young Kim, Eun Ji Nam, Sunghoon Kim, Sang Wun Kim, Jae Weon Kim, Young Tae Kim
BACKGROUND: Debate on the value of lymphadenectomy continues in endometrial cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate patient and clinician preferences for routine lymphadenectomy versus no lymphadenectomy in the surgical management of endometrial cancer. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment and trade-off question were designed and distributed to 103 endometrial cancer patients and 90 gynecologic oncologists. Participant preferences were quantified with regression analysis using scenarios based on three attributes: 5-year progression-free survival and the rates of acute and chronic complication...
December 20, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
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