Read by QxMD icon Read

Discrete choice

Feng Xie, Eleanor Pullenayegum, A Simon Pickard, Juan Manuel Ramos Goñi, Min-Woo Jo, Ataru Igarashi
Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are a promising alternative to more resource-intensive preference elicitation methods such as time trade-off (TTO), as pairwise comparisons are more amenable to online completion, which can save time and money. However, modeling DCE data produces latent utilities which are on an unknown scale. Therefore, latent utilities need to be transformed to a full health-dead scale before they can be used in quality-adjusted life year calculations. We aimed to explore transformation functions from DCE-derived latent utilities to TTO-derived health utilities...
October 16, 2016: Health Economics
Renxin Wang, Wei Wang, Zhihong Li
Silicon microneedle arrays (MNAs) have been widely studied due to their potential in various transdermal applications. However, discrete MNAs, as a preferred choice to fabricate flexible penetrating devices that could adapt curved and elastic tissue, are rarely reported. Furthermore, the reported discrete MNAs have disadvantages lying in uniformity and height-pitch ratio. Therefore, an improved technique is developed to manufacture discrete MNA with tunable height-pitch ratio, which involves KOH-dicing-KOH process...
October 9, 2016: Sensors
Margot Lehman, Peter Gorayski, Susanne Watson, Desiree Edeling, James Jackson, Jennifer Whitty
INTRODUCTION: In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT), prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is not standard practice. This study determined patient preferences for PCI with respect to survival benefit, reduction in brain metastases (BM) and acceptable toxicity. METHODS: A Discrete Choice Experiment was completed pre- and post-treatment. Patients made 15 hypothetical choices between two alternative PCI treatments described by four attributes: amount of life gained, chance of BM, ability to care for oneself, and loss of memory...
October 4, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Wang Jin, Catherine J Penington, Scott W McCue, Matthew J Simpson
Two-dimensional collective cell migration assays are used to study cancer and tissue repair. These assays involve combined cell migration and cell proliferation processes, both of which are modulated by cell-to-cell crowding. Previous discrete models of collective cell migration assays involve a nearest-neighbour proliferation mechanism where crowding effects are incorporated by aborting potential proliferation events if the randomly chosen target site is occupied. There are two limitations of this traditional approach: (i) it seems unreasonable to abort a potential proliferation event based on the occupancy of a single, randomly chosen target site; and, (ii) the continuum limit description of this mechanism leads to the standard logistic growth function, but some experimental evidence suggests that cells do not always proliferate logistically...
October 7, 2016: Physical Biology
Kate L Mandeville, Godwin Ulaya, Mylène Lagarde, Adamson S Muula, Titha Dzowela, Kara Hanson
Emigration has contributed to a shortage of doctors in many sub-Saharan African countries. Specialty training is highly valued by doctors and a potential tool for retention. Yet not all types of training may be valued equally. In the first study to examine preferences for postgraduate training in depth, we carried out a discrete choice experiment as part of a cross-sectional survey of all Malawian doctors within seven years of graduation and not yet in specialty training. Over August 2012 to March 2013, 148 doctors took part out of 153 eligible in Malawi...
September 24, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Zachary S Brown, Randall A Kramer, David Ocan, Christine Oryema
BACKGROUND: Insecticide-based tools remain critical for controlling vector-borne diseases in Uganda. Securing public support from targeted populations for such tools is an important component in sustaining their long-run effectiveness. Yet little quantitative evidence is available on the perceived benefits and costs of vector control programmes among targeted households. METHODS: A survey was administered to a clustered random sample of 612 households in Gulu and Oyam districts of northern Uganda during a period of very high malaria transmission and following a pilot indoor residual spray (IRS) programme...
October 6, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
José Manuel Garcia-Dominguez, Delicias Muñoz, Marta Comellas, Irmina Gonzalbo, Luis Lizán, Carlos Polanco Sánchez
OBJECTIVES: To assess disease-modifying therapy (DMT) preferences in a population of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to estimate the association between sociodemographic and clinical factors and these preferences. METHODS: Preferences for DMTs attributes were measured using a discrete choice experiment. Analysis of preferences was assessed using mixed-logit hierarchical Bayes regression. A multilinear regression was used to evaluate the association between the preferences for each attribute and patients' demographic and clinical characteristics...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Eric Finkelstein, Chetna Malhotra, Junxing Chay, Semra Ozdemir, Akhil Chopra, Ravindran Kanesvaran
OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent to which financial assistance, in the form of subsidies for life-extending treatments (LETs) or cash payouts, distorts the demand for end-of-life treatments. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was administered to 290 patients with cancer in Singapore to elicit preferences for LETs and only palliative care (PC). Responses were fitted to a latent class conditional logistic regression model. We also quantified patients' willingness to pay to avoid and willingness to accept a less effective LET or PC-only...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Axel Mühlbacher, Susanne Bethge
BACKGROUND: There has been tremendous progress regarding treatment options for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Several interferon-free regimens are awaiting regulatory approval. These innovations promise substantial reductions in the burden of disease and side effects as well as a decrease in treatment duration. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this quantitaitive study was to elicit patient preferences for attributes of innovative antiviral therapies for hepatitis C. METHODS: A systematic literature search and 14 semi-structured interviews were performed, resulting in eight patient-relevant characteristics...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Di Dong, Semra Ozdemir, Yong Mong Bee, Sue-Anne Toh, Marcel Bilger, Eric Finkelstein
OBJECTIVES: To investigate patient preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for a genetic test that can reduce the risk of life-threatening adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We hypothesize that test features (risk of developing the adverse reaction with and without testing, test cost, and treatment cost) and the choice context (physician recommendation and the most common choice made by peer patients) will influence choices. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was conducted in which 189 patients at high risk for gout were asked to choose between treatment options that varied along key attributes...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
F Reed Johnson, Mo Zhou
Demands for greater transparency in US regulatory assessments of benefits and risks, together with growing interest in engaging patients in Food and Drug Administration regulatory decision making, have resulted in several recent regulatory developments. Although Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) have established patient-engagement initiatives, CDRH has proposed guidelines for considering quantitative data on patients' benefit-risk perspectives, while CDER has focused on a more qualitative approach...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Jarrod Blinch, Guilherme de Cellio Martins, Romeo Chua
The ability to coordinate the simultaneous movements of our arms is limited by a coalition of constraints. Some of these constraints can be overcome when the task conceptualisation is improved. The present study investigated how the movement preparation of bimanual reaching movements was affected by integrated visual feedback of the responses. Previous research has shown that the preparation of bimanual asymmetric movements takes longer than bimanual symmetric movements. The goal of the present study was to determine whether integrated, Lissajous feedback could eliminate this bimanual asymmetric cost...
October 1, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Timea Mariann Helter, Christian Ernst Heinrich Boehler
Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) become increasingly popular to value outcomes for health economic studies and gradually gain acceptance as an input into policy decisions. Developing attributes is a key aspect for the design of DCEs, as their results may misguide decision-makers if they are based on an inappropriate set of attributes. However, the area lacks guidance, and current health-related DCE studies vary considerably in their methods of attribute development, with the consequent danger of providing an unreliable input for policy decisions...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Substance Use
Keith M Marzilli Ericson, Amanda Starc
This paper examines the effect of choice architecture on Massachusetts' Health Insurance Exchange. A policy change standardized cost-sharing parameters of plans across insurers and altered information presentation. Post-change, consumers chose more generous plans and different brands, but were not more price-sensitive. We use a discrete choice model that allows the policy to affect how attributes are valued to decompose the policy's effects into a valuation effect and a product availability effect. The brand shifts are largely explained by the availability effect and the generosity shift by the valuation effect...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Health Economics
Oriel FeldmanHall, Paul Glimcher, Augustus L Baker, Elizabeth A Phelps
Uncertainty, which is ubiquitous in decision-making, can be fractionated into known probabilities (risk) and unknown probabilities (ambiguity). Although research has illustrated that individuals more often avoid decisions associated with ambiguity compared to risk, it remains unclear why ambiguity is perceived as more aversive. Here we examine the role of arousal in shaping the representation of value and subsequent choice under risky and ambiguous decisions. To investigate the relationship between arousal and decisions of uncertainty, we measure skin conductance response-a quantifiable measure reflecting sympathetic nervous system arousal-during choices to gamble under risk and ambiguity...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Nir Halevy
Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Brendan Mulhern, Nick Bansback, Arne Risa Hole, Aki Tsuchiya
BACKGROUND: Discrete choice experiments incorporating duration can be used to derive health state values for EQ-5D-5L. Yet, methodological issues relating to the duration attribute and the optimal way to select health states remain. The aims of this study were to: test increasing the number of duration levels and choice sets where duration varies (aim 1); compare designs with zero and non-zero prior values (aim 2); and investigate a novel, two-stage design to incorporate prior values (aim 3)...
September 28, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Teresa J Lorenz, Martin G Raphael, Thomas D Bloxton
The marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a declining seabird that is well-known for nesting in coastal old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest. Most studies of habitat selection have focused on modeling terrestrial nesting habitat even though marine habitat is believed to be a major contributor to population declines in some regions. To address this information gap, we conducted a 5-year study of marine resource selection by murrelets in Washington, which contains a population experiencing the steepest documented declines and where marine habitat is believed to be compromised...
2016: PloS One
Bo-Hyun Park, YuKyung Ko
BACKGROUND: DCE was applied to investigate nursing students' preferred hospital choice criteria and to investigate the trends in the trade-offs by calculating the marginal rate of substitution between these criteria. This study identified the properties of the hospitals primarily selected by nursing students, and aims to estimate the monetary value of each attribute. METHODS: Based on discussions and in-depth interviews with nursing students' focus groups and a literature review, we created a discrete choice experiment (DCE) that assessed how students' stated preference for a certain hospital choice was influenced by various job attributes: higher salary, location, hospital type, salary per year, provision of a dormitory, etc...
September 29, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Cynthia L Gong, Joel W Hay, Daniella Meeker, Jason N Doctor
OBJECTIVE: To elicit prescribers' preferences for behavioural economics interventions designed to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, and compare these to actual behaviour. DESIGN: Discrete choice experiment (DCE). SETTING: 47 primary care centres in Boston and Los Angeles. PARTICIPANTS: 234 primary care providers, with an average 20 years of practice. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Results of a behavioural economic intervention trial were compared to prescribers' stated preferences for the same interventions relative to monetary and time rewards for improved prescribing outcomes...
2016: BMJ Open
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"