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Discrete choice

Tommy C Blanchard, Steve Piantadosi, Benjamin Y Hayden
Classification of neurons into clusters based on their response properties is an important tool for gaining insight into neural computations. However, it remains unclear to what extent neurons fall naturally into discrete functional categories. We developed a Bayesian method that models the tuning properties of neural populations as a mixture of multiple types of task-relevant response patterns. We applied this method to data from several cortical and striatal regions in economic choice tasks. In all cases, neurons fell into only two clusters: one multiple selectivity cluster containing all cells driven by task variables of interest and another of no selectivity for those variables...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Benjamin Gardner, Stephen Dewitt, Lee Smith, John P Buckley, Stuart J H Biddle, Louise Mansfield
Background: Desk-based workers engage in long periods of uninterrupted sitting time, which has been associated with morbidity and premature mortality. Previous workplace intervention trials have demonstrated the potential of providing sit-stand workstations, and of administering motivational behaviour change techniques, for reducing sitting time. Yet, few studies have combined these approaches or explored the acceptability of discrete sitting-reduction behaviour change strategies. This paper describes the rationale for a sitting-reduction intervention that combines sit-stand workstations with motivational techniques, and procedures for a pilot study to explore the acceptability of core intervention components among university office workers...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Angus Jm Watson, Jonathan Cook, Jemma Hudson, Mary Kilonzo, Jessica Wood, Hanne Bruhn, Steven Brown, Brian Buckley, Finlay Curran, David Jayne, Malcolm Loudon, Ramesh Rajagopal, Alison McDonald, John Norrie
BACKGROUND: Haemorrhoids are a benign anorectal condition and are highly prevalent in the UK population. Treatments involve clinic-based procedures and surgery. The surgical procedures available include stapled haemorrhoidopexy (SH) and traditional haemorrhoidectomy (TH), and over 25,000 operations are performed for haemorrhoids annually in the UK. The disease is therefore important both to patients and to health service commissioners. Debate remains as to which of these surgical procedures is the most clinically effective and cost-effective...
November 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
François Caron, Emily B Fox
Statistical network modelling has focused on representing the graph as a discrete structure, namely the adjacency matrix. When assuming exchangeability of this array-which can aid in modelling, computations and theoretical analysis-the Aldous-Hoover theorem informs us that the graph is necessarily either dense or empty. We instead consider representing the graph as an exchangeable random measure and appeal to the Kallenberg representation theorem for this object. We explore using completely random measures (CRMs) to define the exchangeable random measure, and we show how our CRM construction enables us to achieve sparse graphs while maintaining the attractive properties of exchangeability...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B, Statistical Methodology
Matteo Amabili, Simone Meloni, Alberto Giacomello, Carlo Massimo Casciola
A liquid in contact with a textured surface can be found in two states, Wenzel and Cassie. In the Wenzel state the liquid completely wets the corrugations while in the Cassie state the liquid is suspended over the corrugations with air or vapor trapped below. The superhydrophobic properties of the Cassie state are exploited for self-cleaning, drag reduction, drug delivery etc., while in the Wenzel state most of these properties are lost; it is therefore of great fundamental and technological interest to investigate the kinetics and mechanism of the Cassie-Wenzel transition...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
David J Armstrong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: Rheumatology
Mickaël Hiligsmann, Benedict G Dellaert, Verity Watson, Annelies Boonen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: Rheumatology
Andrew D George, Grant M Connette, Frank R Thompson, John Faaborg
Predicting the effects of global climate change on species interactions has remained difficult because there is a spatiotemporal mismatch between regional climate models and microclimates experienced by organisms. We evaluated resource selection in a predominant ectothermic predator using a modeling approach that permitted us to assess the importance of habitat structure and local real-time air temperatures within the same modeling framework. We radio-tracked 53 western ratsnakes (Pantherophis obsoletus) from 2010 to 2013 in central Missouri, USA, at study sites where this species has previously been linked to prey population demographics...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Angel Sanchis-Cano, Julián Romero, Erwin J Sacoto-Cabrera, Luis Guijarro
We analyze the feasibility of providing Wireless Sensor Network-data-based services in an Internet of Things scenario from an economical point of view. The scenario has two competing service providers with their own private sensor networks, a network operator and final users. The scenario is analyzed as two games using game theory. In the first game, sensors decide to subscribe or not to the network operator to upload the collected sensing-data, based on a utility function related to the mean service time and the price charged by the operator...
November 25, 2017: Sensors
John M Allen, Sherif Elbasiouny
OBJECTIVE: Computational models often require tradeoffs, such as balancing detail with efficiency; yet optimal balance should incorporate sound design features that do not bias the results of the specific scientific question under investigation. The present study examines how model design choices impact simulation results. APPROACH: We developed a rigorously-validated high-fidelity computational model of the spinal motoneuron pool to study three long-standing model design practices which have yet to be examined for their impact on motoneuron recruitment, firing rate, and force simulations...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Jennifer A Whitty, Ana Sofia Oliveira Gonçalves
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the acceptability, validity and concordance of discrete choice experiment (DCE) and best-worst scaling (BWS) stated preference approaches in health. METHODS: A systematic search of EMBASE, Medline, AMED, PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and EconLit databases was undertaken in October to December 2016 without date restriction. Studies were included if they were published in English, presented empirical data related to the administration or findings of traditional format DCE and object-, profile- or multiprofile-case BWS, and were related to health...
November 25, 2017: Patient
Ramzi G Salloum, Elizabeth A Shenkman, Jordan J Louviere, David A Chambers
BACKGROUND: One of the key strategies to successful implementation of effective health-related interventions is targeting improvements in stakeholder engagement. The discrete choice experiment (DCE) is a stated preference technique for eliciting individual preferences over hypothetical alternative scenarios that is increasingly being used in health-related applications. DCEs are a dynamic approach to systematically measure health preferences which can be applied in enhancing stakeholder engagement...
November 23, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
Mekala Sundaram, Nathanael I Lichti, Nicole J Olynk Widmar, Robert K Swihart
Seeds of many hardwood trees are dispersed by scatter-hoarding rodents, and this process is often mediated by the traits of seeds. Although numerous studies have linked seed traits to seed preference by rodents, little is known about how rodents forage for seeds when multiple desirable and undesirable seed traits are available simultaneously. Here, we adopt a novel method of designing choice experiments to study how eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) select for 6 traits (caloric value, protein content, tannin concentration, kernel mass, dormancy period and toughness of shell) among seeds...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Jingjing Gong, Yan Zhang, Hongyan Gao, Wei Wei, Jing Lv, Hongyun Liu, Yonghua Huang
Although thrombolysis is the most effective medical treatment for acute ischemic stroke, many stroke patients eligible for thrombolysis miss this treatment as a result of delay or refusal by the patients and/or their proxies. To explore the influences of prognostic information for different intervals from stroke onset to the start of thrombolytic treatment (OTT) and other factors on the preferences of patients/proxies regarding thrombolytic therapy, a cross-sectional, discrete-choice experiment was performed between August 2013 and September 2014...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Xin Yi Wong, Kok Joon Chong, Janine A van Til, Hwee Lin Wee
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the top cancer by incidence and mortality in Singaporean women. Mammography is by far its best screening tool, but current recommended age and interval may not yield the most benefit. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to improve discriminatory accuracy of breast cancer risk assessment models. This study was conducted to understand Singaporean women's views towards breast cancer screening and SNPs gene testing to guide personalised screening strategies...
November 21, 2017: BMC Cancer
Matthew R Naunheim, Margaret L Naunheim, Vinay K Rathi, Ramon A Franco, Mark G Shrime, Phillip C Song
Objectives Subglottic stenosis can be addressed with several different surgical techniques, but patient preferences for these treatment modalities are poorly understood. Economic methods are increasingly being used to understand how patients make decisions. The objective of this pilot study was to assess preferences in subglottic stenosis treatment using patient-centric stated preference techniques. Study Design Discrete choice experiment (DCE). Setting Academic research facility. Subjects and Methods A computer-based DCE was administered in a monitored setting to volunteers from the general population...
November 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Jay V Deng, Caitlin A Orsini, Kristy G Shimp, Barry Setlow
Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal decision making involving risk of punishment, but the underlying molecular basis remains poorly understood. Methyl CpG-binding Protein 2 (MeCP2) is an epigenetic factor that regulates transcription by directly binding to methylated DNA. Here, we evaluated MeCP2 expression in the context of risk-taking behaviors using the Risky Decision-making Task (RDT), in which rats make discrete choices between a small "safe" food reward and a large "risky" food reward accompanied by varying probabilities of punishment...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience
Daniel J Goldstein, Mandeep R Mehra, Yoshifumi Naka, Christopher Salerno, Nir Uriel, David Dean, Akinobu Itoh, Francis D Pagani, Eric R Skipper, Geetha Bhat, Nirav Raval, Brian A Bruckner, Jerry D Estep, Rebecca Cogswell, Carmelo Milano, Lahn Fendelander, John B O'Connell, Joseph Cleveland
BACKGROUND: Primary outcomes analysis of the Multicenter Study of MagLev Technology in Patients Undergoing MCS Therapy With HeartMate 3 (MOMENTUM 3) trial short-term cohort demonstrated a higher survival rate free of debilitating stroke and reoperation to replace/remove the device (primary end-point) in patients receiving the HeartMate 3 (HM3) compared with the HeartMate (HMII). In this study we sought to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of pre-specified patient subgroups (age, sex, race, therapeutic intent [bridge to transplant/bridge to candidacy/destination therapy] and severity of illness) on primary end-point outcomes in MOMENTUM 3 patients implanted with HM3 and HMII devices...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Carlo De Pietro, Igor Francetic
Within the framework of a broader e-health strategy launched a decade ago, in 2015 Switzerland passed a new federal law on patients' electronic health records (EHR). The reform requires hospitals to adopt interoperable EHRs to facilitate data sharing and cooperation among healthcare providers, ultimately contributing to improvements in quality of care and efficiency in the health system. Adoption is voluntary for ambulatories and private practices, that may however be pushed towards EHRs by patients. The latter have complete discretion in the choice of the health information to share...
November 10, 2017: Health Policy
Raju Vaishya, Abdulrazaq Esin Issa, Amit Kumar Agarwal, Vipul Vijay
Mucoid degeneration and ganglion cyst are two distinct non-traumatic lesions of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) that most commonly occur discretely but occasionally coexist. They are relatively uncommon, and their exact aetiopathogenesis is still not clear. ACL ganglion cyst occurs more frequently among relatively younger patients compared to mucoid degeneration. They could be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally while evaluating the knee for other pathologies. Symptomatic cases of the two conditions present with nonspecific chronic pain, painful limitation of terminal flexion and extension, and mechanical block (among other symptoms), similar to that of other internal derangement pathologies of the knee...
September 13, 2017: Curēus
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