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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644893/high-speed-rail-and-coastal-tourism-identifying-passenger-profiles-and-travel-behaviour
#1
Aaron Gutiérrez, Armando Ortuño
In this paper, we characterise tourists most likely to visit a coastal destination by high-speed rail (HSR). Our data came from a survey conducted among HSR passengers during 2014's high season (July and August) at Spain's Camp de Tarragona and Alicante Stations, each of which is near a mass tourism destination on the Mediterranean coast: the Costa Daurada and the Costa Blanca, respectively. We used responses to the survey, which presented binary discrete-choice situations, to construct a database necessary for a logistic regression model that allowed us to examine how passenger profile, trip characteristics, and stay conditions influenced the use of HSR services on visits to each coastal destination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641861/permanent-his-bundle-pacing-in-intra-hisian-conduction-block-mechanistic-insights
#2
Bengt Herweg, Paul Z Gerczuk, Aamir Sofi, Pugazhendhi Vijayaraman, S Serge Barold
We are reporting a patient with discrete intra-His conduction block and describe a refined technique of permanent His bundle pacing assuring reliable ventricular capture. Meticulous mapping of the site of block with lead placement distal to the site of block and non-selective His bundle pacing with local myocardial capture as an additional safety back up appears to be the technique of choice.
June 9, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628931/-the-probabilistic-efficiency-frontier-a-value-assessment-of-treatment-options-in-hepatitis-c
#3
Axel C Mühlbacher, Andrew Sadler
Background The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) recommends the concept of the efficiency frontier to assess health care interventions. The efficiency frontier supports regulatory decisions on reimbursement prices for the appropriate allocation of health care resources. Until today this cost-benefit assessment framework has only been applied on the basis of individual patient-relevant endpoints. This contradicts the reality of a multi-dimensional patient benefit. Objective The objective of this study was to illustrate the operationalization of multi-dimensional benefit considering the uncertainty in clinical effects and preference data in order to calculate the efficiency of different treatment options for hepatitis C (HCV)...
June 19, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627110/patient-preferences-for-healthcare-delivery-through-community-pharmacy-settings-in-the-usa-a-discrete-choice-study
#4
M Feehan, M Walsh, J Godin, D Sundwall, M A Munger
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: In order to improve public health, it is necessary to facilitate patients' easy access to affordable high-quality primary health care, and one enhanced approach to do so may be to provide primary healthcare services in the community pharmacy setting. Discrete choice experiments to evaluate patient demand for services in pharmacy are relatively limited and have been hampered by a focus on only a few service alternatives, most focusing on changes in more traditional pharmacy services...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625870/pax3-and-pax7-mediated-dbx1-regulation-orchestrates-the-patterning-of-intermediate-spinal-interneurons
#5
Chris Gard, Gloria Gonzalez Curto, Youcef El-Mokhtar Frarma, Elodie Chollet, Nathalie Duval, Valentine Auzié, Frédéric Auradé, Lisa Vigier, Frédéric Relaix, Alessandra Pierani, Frédéric Causeret, Vanessa Ribes
Transcription factors are key orchestrators of the emergence of neuronal diversity within the developing spinal cord. As such, the two paralogous proteins Pax3 and Pax7 regulate the specification of progenitor cells within the intermediate neural tube, by defining a neat segregation between those fated to form motor circuits and those involved in the integration of sensory inputs. To attain insights into the molecular means by which they control this process, we have performed detailed phenotypic analyses of the intermediate spinal interneurons (IN), namely the dI6, V0D, V0VCG and V1 populations in compound null mutants for Pax3 and Pax7...
June 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624978/preferences-for-breast-cancer-risk-reduction-among-brca1-brca2-mutation-carriers-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#6
Alexander Liede, Carol A Mansfield, Kelly A Metcalfe, Melanie A Price, Carrie Snyder, Henry T Lynch, Sue Friedman, Justyna Amelio, Joshua Posner, Steven A Narod, Geoffrey J Lindeman, D Gareth Evans
PURPOSE: Unaffected women who carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations face difficult choices about reducing their breast cancer risk. Understanding their treatment preferences could help us improve patient counseling and inform drug trials. The objective was to explore preferences for various risk-reducing options among women with germline BRCA1/2 mutations using a discrete-choice experiment survey and to compare expressed preferences with actual behaviors. METHODS: A discrete-choice experiment survey was designed wherein women choose between hypothetical treatments to reduce breast cancer risk...
June 17, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623526/benefit-risk-trade-offs-for-treatment-decisions-in-moderate-to-severe-rheumatoid-arthritis-focus-on-the-patient-perspective
#7
M Elaine Husni, Keith A Betts, Jenny Griffith, Yan Song, Arijit Ganguli
Given the increasing number of available treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with varying efficacy and safety profiles, it is critical to understand the level of trade-offs that patients are willing to make between benefits and risks. Adult patients with moderate to severe RA were invited to participate in a discrete choice experiment that solicited their preferences for hypothetical RA treatments. Each participant was presented with 14 choice cards asking about their preference between two hypothetical RA treatments with varying levels of efficacy, adverse events, and process-related attributes...
June 16, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621991/new-approaches-to-coding-information-using-inverse-scattering-transform
#8
L L Frumin, A A Gelash, S K Turitsyn
Remarkable mathematical properties of the integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) can offer advanced solutions for the mitigation of nonlinear signal distortions in optical fiber links. Fundamental optical soliton, continuous, and discrete eigenvalues of the nonlinear spectrum have already been considered for the transmission of information in fiber-optic channels. Here, we propose to apply signal modulation to the kernel of the Gelfand-Levitan-Marchenko equations that offers the advantage of a relatively simple decoder design...
June 2, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620975/decision-heuristic-or-preference-attribute-non-attendance-in-discrete-choice-problems
#9
Sebastian Heidenreich, Verity Watson, Mandy Ryan, Euan Phimister
This paper investigates if respondents' choice to not consider all characteristics of a multiattribute health service may represent preferences. Over the last decade, an increasing number of studies account for attribute non-attendance (ANA) when using discrete choice experiments to elicit individuals' preferences. Most studies assume such behaviour is a heuristic and therefore uninformative. This assumption may result in misleading welfare estimates if ANA reflects preferences. This is the first paper to assess if ANA is a heuristic or genuine preference without relying on respondents' self-stated motivation and the first study to explore this question within a health context...
June 16, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617807/treatment-with-macrolides-and-glucocorticosteroids-in-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-post-hoc-exploratory-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Adrian Ceccato, Catia Cilloniz, Otavio T Ranzani, Rosario Menendez, Carles Agusti, Albert Gabarrus, Miquel Ferrer, Oriol Sibila, Michael S Niederman, Antoni Torres
BACKGROUND: Systemic corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory effects, whereas macrolides also have immunomodulatory activity in addition to their primary antimicrobial actions. We aimed to evaluate the potential interaction effect between corticosteroids and macrolides on the systemic inflammatory response in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia to determine if combining these two immunomodulating agents was harmful, or possibly beneficial. METHODS: We performed a post-hoc exploratory analysis of a randomized clinical trial conducted in three tertiary hospitals in Spain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614414/species-specific-variation-in-nesting-and-postfledging-resource-selection-for-two-forest-breeding-migrant-songbirds
#11
Julianna M A Jenkins, Frank R Thompson, John Faaborg
Habitat selection is a fundamental component of community ecology, population ecology, and evolutionary biology and can be especially important to species with complex annual habitat requirements, such as migratory birds. Resource preferences on the breeding grounds may change during the postfledging period for migrant songbirds, however, the degree to which selection changes, timing of change, and whether all or only a few species alter their resource use is unclear. We compared resource selection for nest sites and resource selection by postfledging juvenile ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and Acadian flycatchers (Empidonax virescens) followed with radio telemetry in Missouri mature forest fragments from 2012-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606751/risk-stratification-in-compartmental-epidemic-models-where-to-draw-the-line
#12
Sze-Chuan Suen, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Margaret L Brandeau
Economic evaluations of infectious disease control interventions frequently use dynamic compartmental epidemic models. Such models capture heterogeneity in risk of infection by stratifying the population into discrete risk groups, thus approximating what is typically continuous variation in risk. An important open question is whether and how different risk stratification choices influence model predictions of intervention effects. We develop equivalent Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) dynamic transmission models: an unstratified model, a model stratified into a high-risk and low-risk group, and a model with an arbitrary number of risk groups...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602691/temporal-and-rate-coding-for-discrete-event-sequences-in-the-hippocampus
#13
Satoshi Terada, Yoshio Sakurai, Hiroyuki Nakahara, Shigeyoshi Fujisawa
Although the hippocampus is critical to episodic memory, neuronal representations supporting this role, especially relating to nonspatial information, remain elusive. Here, we investigated rate and temporal coding of hippocampal CA1 neurons in rats performing a cue-combination task that requires the integration of sequentially provided sound and odor cues. The majority of CA1 neurons displayed sensory cue-, combination-, or choice-specific (simply, "event"-specific) elevated discharge activities, which were sustained throughout the event period...
June 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597379/valuing-health-risk-in-agriculture-a-choice-experiment-approach-to-pesticide-use-in-china
#14
Jianjun Jin, Wenyu Wang, Rui He, Haozhou Gong
This paper presents a choice experiment approach to investigate farmers' valuations for health risk changes associated with pesticide use in Anqiu County, China. An empirical comparison on the disparity between farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a health risk reduction and willingness to accept (WTA) for the same risk increase is also conducted. Respondents were randomly assigned into the WTP group or the WTA group. Four attributes (health consequence, baseline risk, risk change size, and price) were identified and included...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580593/refining-the-pediatric-evaluation-of-disability-inventory-patient-reported-outcome-pedi-pro-item-candidates-interpretation-of-a-self-reported-outcome-measure-of-functional-performance-by-young-people-with-neurodevelopmental-disabilities
#15
Jessica M Kramer, Ariel Schwartz
AIM: This study examined the item interpretability and rating scale use of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Patient-Reported Outcome (PEDI-PRO) by young people with developmental disabilities. The PEDI-PRO assesses the functional performance of discrete functional tasks in the context of everyday life situations. METHOD: A two-phase cognitive interview design was implemented with a convenience sample of 37 young people (mean age 19y, SD 2y 5mo; 13 males and 24 females; 68% with intellectual disability) with developmental disabilities...
June 5, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580388/association-of-gastrointestinal-events-with-osteoporosis-treatment-initiation-and-treatment-compliance-in-germany-an-observational-study
#16
Ankita Modi, Chun-Po Steve Fan, Jackson Tang, Jessica Papadopoulos Weaver, Shiva Sajjan
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) events are common in postmenopausal women treated for osteoporosis. The influence of GI events on treatment initiation and treatment compliance is the subject of ongoing research. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the association of GI events with receipt of treatment in patients newly diagnosed with osteoporosis, and (ii) among treated patients, to determine the association of GI events with treatment compliance...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575402/factors-influencing-women-s-preferences-for-subsequent-management-in-the-event-of-incomplete-evacuation-of-the-uterus-after-misoprostol-treatment-for-miscarriage
#17
Judith E K R Hentzen, Marianne A Verschoor, Marike Lemmers, Willem M Ankum, Ben Willem J Mol, Madelon van Wely
STUDY QUESTION: What affects women's treatment preferences in the management of an incomplete evacuation of the uterus after misoprostol treatment for a first-trimester miscarriage? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women's treatment preferences in the management of an incomplete evacuation of the uterus after misoprostol treatment for miscarriage are most strongly influenced by 'the risk of a reduced fertility' followed by 'the probability of success'. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Available treatment options in miscarriage are surgical, medical or expectant management...
May 31, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569351/valuing-eq-5d-5l-health-states-in-context-using-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#18
Amanda Cole, Koonal Shah, Brendan Mulhern, Yan Feng, Nancy Devlin
BACKGROUND: In health state valuation studies, health states are typically presented as a series of sentences, each describing a health dimension and severity 'level'. Differences in the severity levels can be subtle, and confusion about which is 'worse' can lead to logically inconsistent valuation data. A solution could be to mimic the way patients self-report health, where the ordinal structure of levels is clear. We develop and test the feasibility of presenting EQ-5D-5L health states in the 'context' of the entire EQ-5D-5L descriptive system...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562125/a-discrete-choice-experiment-to-determine-uk-patient-preference-for-attributes-of-disease-modifying-treatments-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Catherine Bottomley, Andrew Lloyd, Gary Bennett, Nicholas Adlard
AIMS: The recent licensing of Disease Modifying Treatments (DMTs) for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) has increased available treatment options. The aim of this study was to explore MS patients' preference for the different attributes of DMTs in the UK. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Attributes (treatment characteristics) for inclusion in the discrete choice experiment (DCE) were determined through published literature and interviews with 12 people with MS. Seven attributes were selected...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561580/free-energy-calculations-of-ionic-hydration-consistent-with-the-experimental-hydration-free-energy-of-the-proton
#20
Haiyang Zhang, Yang Jiang, Hai Yan, Chunhua Yin, Tianwei Tan, David van der Spoel
Computational free-energy correction strategies and the choice of experimental proton hydration free energy, ΔGs(*)(H(+)), are analyzed to investigate the apparent controversy in experimental thermodynamics of ionic hydration. Without corrections, the hydration free-energy (ΔGhyd) calculations match experiments with ΔGs(*)(H(+)) = -1064 kJ/mol as reference. Using the Galvani surface potential the resulting (real) ΔGhyd are consistent with ΔGs(*)(H(+)) = -1098 kJ/mol. When applying, in an ad hoc manner, the discrete solvent correction, ΔGhyd matching the "consensus" ΔGs(*)(H(+)) of -1112 kJ/mol are obtained...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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