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Discrete choice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437651/population-attributable-risk-associated-with-lung-cancer-induced-by-residential-radon-in-canada-sensitivity-to-relative-risk-model-and-radon-probability-density-function-choices-in-memory-of-professor-jan-m-zielinski
#1
Mo'tassem Al-Arydah
Indoor radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. The Population Attributable Risk (PAR) estimates the proportion of lung cancer cases associated with indoor radon exposure. Different relative risk (RR) models have been used in the literature to calculate PAR. The aim of this study is to assess how sensitive PAR is to the relative risk model and radon probability distribution functions choices. METHODS: Using Canadian observed first floor radon data collected by Health Canada during the period October 2010 to March 2011, seven common PAR radon models used for North American miners and dwelling scenarios were applied...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434723/labeling-strategies-to-overcome-the-problem-of-niche-markets-for-sustainable-milk-products-the-example-of-pasture-raised-milk
#2
S Kühl, B Gassler, A Spiller
Pasture-raised milk is gaining in importance in some European countries and in the United States. The production of pasture-raised milk is linked to higher costs, as the milk is normally collected and processed separately from conventional barn milk. This could hinder the production of sustainable milk products. We discuss alternative labeling strategies that allow the mixing of pasture-raised (sustainable) and conventional milk to reduce costs and break free from the current niche market. The lower price would allow for more pasture-raised milk to be produced and enter the mainstream market...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429186/what-are-colorectal-cancer-survivors-preferences-for-dietary-advice-a-best-worst-discrete-choice-experiment
#3
Stuart J Wright, Debbie Gibson, Martin Eden, Simon Lal, Chris Todd, Andy Ness, Sorrel Burden
PURPOSE: Studies on healthy lifestyle interventions in survivors of colorectal cancer have been disappointing, demonstrating only modest changes. This study aims to quantify people's preferences for different aspects of dietary intervention. METHOD: A best-worst discrete choice experiment was designed and incorporated into a questionnaire including participants' characteristics and a self-assessment of lifestyle. RESULTS: The response rate was 68% and 179 questionnaires were analysed...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417689/a-bayesian-hierarchical-model-for-discrete-choice-data-in-health-care
#4
Anna Liza M Antonio, Robert E Weiss, Christopher S Saigal, Ely Dahan, Catherine M Crespi
In discrete choice experiments, patients are presented with sets of health states described by various attributes and asked to make choices from among them. Discrete choice experiments allow health care researchers to study the preferences of individual patients by eliciting trade-offs between different aspects of health-related quality of life. However, many discrete choice experiments yield data with incomplete ranking information and sparsity due to the limited number of choice sets presented to each patient, making it challenging to estimate patient preferences...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412075/vaccine-preferences-and-acceptance-of-older-adults
#5
R Eilers, H E de Melker, J Veldwijk, P F M Krabbe
BACKGROUND: Expanding vaccination programs for the older population might be important as older adults are becoming a larger proportion of the general population. The aim of this study is to determine the relative importance of vaccine and disease specific characteristics and acceptance for Dutch older adults, including pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster, pertussis vaccination, and influenza vaccination. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was conducted to generate choice data that was analyzed using a mixed multinomial logit statistical model...
April 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410814/the-effects-of-convenience-and-quality-on-the-demand-for-vaccination-results-from-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#6
Na Guo, Guojie Zhang, Dawei Zhu, Jian Wang, Luwen Shi
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is an effective way to prevent infectious diseases. Most studies analysed people's vaccine decisions, but few studies have analysed the effects of convenience such as immunisation schedule and distance and the quality of vaccination service on vaccination uptake. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to investigate adults' preferences for convenience and quality of vaccination service, calculate the private economic benefit from convenience (vaccination schedule and distance) and quality, and predict the uptake rate for different vaccine scenarios...
April 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410808/questioning-the-differences-between-general-public-vs-patient-based-preferences-towards-eq-5d-5l-defined-hypothetical-health-states
#7
Marko Ogorevc, Nika Murovec, Natacha Bolanos Fernandez, Valentina Prevolnik Rupel
The purpose of this article is to explore whether any differences exist between the general population and patient based preferences towards EQ-5D-5L defined hypothetical health states. The article discusses the role of adaptation and self-interest in valuing health states and it also contributes rigorous empirical evidence to the scientific debate on the differences between the patient and general population preferences towards hypothetical health states. Patient preferences were elicited in 2015 with the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire using time trade-off and discrete choice experiment design and compared to the Spanish general population preferences, which were elicited using identical methods...
March 28, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408879/comparison-of-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-mri-for-the-detection-of-structural-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy
#8
Holly E Holmes, Nick M Powell, Da Ma, Ozama Ismail, Ian F Harrison, Jack A Wells, Niall Colgan, James M O'Callaghan, Ross A Johnson, Tracey K Murray, Zeshan Ahmed, Morten Heggenes, Alice Fisher, M Jorge Cardoso, Marc Modat, Michael J O'Neill, Emily C Collins, Elizabeth M C Fisher, Sébastien Ourselin, Mark F Lythgoe
With increasingly large numbers of mouse models of human disease dedicated to MRI studies, compromises between in vivo and ex vivo MRI must be fully understood in order to inform the choice of imaging methodology. We investigate the application of high resolution in vivo and ex vivo MRI, in combination with tensor-based morphometry (TBM), to uncover morphological differences in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy. The rTg4510 mouse also offers a novel paradigm by which the overexpression of mutant tau can be regulated by the administration of doxycycline, providing us with a platform on which to investigate more subtle alterations in morphology with morphometry...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408011/determining-criteria-and-weights-for-prioritizing-health-technologies-based-on-the-preferences-of-the-general-population-a-new-zealand-pilot-study
#9
Trudy Sullivan, Paul Hansen
OBJECTIVES: The use of multicriteria decision analysis for health technology prioritization depends on decision-making criteria and weights according to their relative importance. We report on a methodology for determining criteria and weights that was developed and piloted in New Zealand and enables extensive participation by members of the general population. METHODS: Stimulated by a preliminary ranking exercise that involved prioritizing 14 diverse technologies, six focus groups discussed what matters to people when thinking about technologies that should be funded...
April 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408010/be-careful-what-you-ask-for-effects-of-benefit-descriptions-on-diabetes-patients-benefit-risk-tradeoff-preferences
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lill-Brith von Arx, F Reed Johnson, Morten Raun Mørkbak, Trine Kjær
BACKGROUND: As more studies report on patient preferences for diabetes treatment, identifying diabetes outcomes other than glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to describe effectiveness is warranted to understand patient-relevant, benefit-risk tradeoffs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate how preferences differ when effectiveness (glycemic control) is presented as long-term sequela (LTS) risk mitigation rather than an asymptomatic technical marker (HbA1c). METHODS: People with type 2 diabetes and using insulin (n = 3160) were randomly assigned to four self-administered, discrete-choice experiments that differed by their presentation of effectiveness...
April 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408008/eliciting-preferences-for-information-provision-in-newborn-bloodspot-screening-programs
#11
Stuart J Wright, Fiona Ulph, Nimarta Dharni, Katherine Payne
BACKGROUND: The national newborn bloodspot screening programs (NBSPs) are continually expanding to screen for more conditions. OBJECTIVES: To quantify parents' preferences for information and the way in which this is provided in example NBSPs. METHODS: A hybrid choice experiment, combining a conjoint analysis and a discrete choice experiment, was designed. A sample of current and future parents between the ages of 18 and 45 years was identified via an Internet panel...
April 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406042/attributes-of-nuclear-imaging-centers-impacting-physician-referrals-for-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-tests
#12
Junlong Li, Christy R Houle, James R Spalding, Hongbo Yang, Cheryl Q Xiang, Therese M Kitt, Rita M Kristy, Eric Q Wu
AIM: To evaluate nuclear imaging center attributes that cardiologists and primary care physicians (PCPs) consider when referring patients for single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) tests, and how these attributes impact physician referral decisions in the United States. METHODS: A targeted literature review and seven one-to-one interviews with physicians and imaging center directors were conducted to identify attributes that could impact physicians' referral decisions...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403115/predicted-patient-demand-for-a-new-delivery-system-for-glaucoma-medicine
#13
Semra Ozdemir, Tina T Wong, Robert Rand Allingham, Eric A Finkelstein
Sustained-release drug delivery systems that replace the need for daily glaucoma medications will improve outcomes for those who are nonadherent and reduce the inconvenience of having to take medications on a recurring basis.The objective is to estimate uptake (i.e., demand) for a new technology that delivers sustained-release glaucoma medication and to investigate how uptake varies by product attributes, physician recommendations, peer adoption (i.e., percentage of patients seen in a clinic using the new technology), and patient characteristics...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398547/patients-preferences-for-anti-osteoporosis-drug-treatment-a-cross-european-discrete-choice-experiment
#14
Mickaël Hiligsmann, Benedict G Dellaert, Carmen D Dirksen, Verity Watson, Sandrine Bours, Stefan Goemaere, Jean-Yves Reginster, Christian Roux, Bernie McGowan, Carmel Silke, Bryan Whelan, Adolfo Diez-Perez, Elisa Torres, Georgios Papadakis, Rene Rizzoli, Cyrus Cooper, Gill Pearson, Annelies Boonen
Objectives.: To estimate the preferences of osteoporotic patients for medication attributes, and analyse data from seven European countries. Methods.: A discrete choice experiment was conducted in Belgium, France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the UK. Patients were asked to choose repeatedly between two hypothetical unlabelled drug treatments (and an opt-out option) that varied with respect to four attributes: efficacy in reducing the risk of fracture, type of potential common side effects, and mode and frequency of administration...
April 6, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392808/consumer-preferences-for-food-allergen-labeling
#15
Carlo A Marra, Stephanie Harvard, Maja Grubisic, Jessica Galo, Ann Clarke, Susan Elliott, Larry D Lynd
BACKGROUND: Food allergen labeling is an important tool to reduce risk of exposure and prevent anaphylaxis for individuals with food allergies. Health Canada released a Canadian food allergen labeling regulation (2008) and subsequent update (2012) suggesting that research is needed to guide further iterations of the regulation to improve food allergen labeling and reduce risk of exposure. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to examine consumer preferences in food labeling for allergy avoidance and anaphylaxis prevention...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389716/multirate-method-for-co-simulation-of-electrical-chemical-systems-in-multiscale-modeling
#16
Ekaterina Brocke, Mikael Djurfeldt, Upinder S Bhalla, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski, Michael Hanke
Multiscale modeling by means of co-simulation is a powerful tool to address many vital questions in neuroscience. It can for example be applied in the study of the process of learning and memory formation in the brain. At the same time the co-simulation technique makes it possible to take advantage of interoperability between existing tools and multi-physics models as well as distributed computing. However, the theoretical basis for multiscale modeling is not sufficiently understood. There is, for example, a need of efficient and accurate numerical methods for time integration...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388665/dose-response-relationships-for-environmentally-mediated-infectious-disease-transmission-models
#17
Andrew F Brouwer, Mark H Weir, Marisa C Eisenberg, Rafael Meza, Joseph N S Eisenberg
Environmentally mediated infectious disease transmission models provide a mechanistic approach to examining environmental interventions for outbreaks, such as water treatment or surface decontamination. The shift from the classical SIR framework to one incorporating the environment requires codifying the relationship between exposure to environmental pathogens and infection, i.e. the dose-response relationship. Much of the work characterizing the functional forms of dose-response relationships has used statistical fit to experimental data...
April 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381053/lithographic-source-optimization-based-on-adaptive-projection-compressive-sensing
#18
Xu Ma, Dongxiang Shi, Zhiqiang Wang, Yanqiu Li, Gonzalo R Arce
This paper proposes to use the a-priori knowledge of the target layout patterns to design data-adaptive compressive sensing (CS) methods for efficient source optimization (SO) in lithography systems. A set of monitoring pixels are selected from the target layout based on blue noise random patterns. The SO is then formulated as an under-determined linear problem to improve image fidelity according to the monitoring pixels. Adaptive projections are then designed, based on the a-priori knowledge of the target layout, in order to further reduce the dimension of the optimization problem, while trying to retain the SO performance...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380316/choice-blindness-and-health-state-choices-among-adolescents-and-adults
#19
Ernest H Law, Annika L Pickard, Anika Kaczynski, A Simon Pickard
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and validity of using a discrete choice experiment format to elicit health preferences in adolescents by comparing illogical choices and choice-blindness rates between adults and adolescents; and to explore the relationship between personality traits and health-state choices. METHODS: A convenience sample of adults and adolescents (12 to 17 y old) were recruited from around Chicago, USA. A personality inventory was administered, followed by pairwise comparisons of 6 health-state scenarios which asked each candidate to select their preferred choice...
April 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377299/some-properties-of-an-adjusting-magnitude-schedule-of-reinforcement-implications-for-models-of-choice
#20
C M Bradshaw
Rats were trained under a discrete-trials adjusting-magnitude schedule in which a response on lever A delivered either a larger or a smaller reinforcer (qA1 and qA2) with equal probability, while a response on B delivered a reinforcer whose size qB was adjusted according to the rats' choices. When A was preferred in a given block of trials, qB was increased in the following block; when B was preferred, qB was reduced in the following block. The oscillating changes in qB, analysed by the Fourier transform, could be described by a power spectrum with a dominant period of about 50 trial blocks...
April 2, 2017: Behavioural Processes
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