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Discrete choice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728867/finite-element-analysis-of-tavi-impact-of-native-aortic-root-computational-modeling-strategies-on-simulation-outcomes
#1
Alice Finotello, Simone Morganti, Ferdinando Auricchio
In the last few years, several studies, each with different aim and modeling detail, have been proposed to investigate transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with finite elements. The present work focuses on the patient-specific finite element modeling of the aortic valve complex. In particular, we aim at investigating how different modeling strategies in terms of material models/properties and discretization procedures can impact analysis results. Four different choices both for the mesh size (from  20 k elements to  200 k elements) and for the material model (from rigid to hyperelastic anisotropic) are considered...
July 17, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718453/analysis-of-tcspc-data-a-comparative-evaluation-of-deterministic-and-probabilistic-approaches
#2
Darren Andrew Smith, Grant McKenzie, Anita C Jones, Trevor Smith
We review various methods for analysing time-resolved fluorescence data acquired using the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) method in an attempt to evaluate their benefits and limitations. We have applied these methods to both experimental and simulated data. The relative merits of using deterministic approaches, such as the commonly used iterative reconvolution method, and probabilistic approaches, such as the smoothed exponential series method (SESM), the maximum entropy method (MEM) and recently proposed basis pursuit denoising (BPDN, compressed sensing) method are outlined...
July 18, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712627/testing-the-external-validity-of-a-discrete-choice-experiment-method-an-application-to-latent-tuberculosis-infection-treatment
#3
Tima Mohammadi, Nick Bansback, Fawziah Marra, Amir Khakban, Jonathon R Campbell, J Mark FitzGerald, Larry D Lynd, Carlo A Marra
OBJECTIVES: To explore the external validity and predictive power of stated preferences obtained from a discrete choice experiment (DCE) by comparing the predicted behavior of respondents to their actual choices at an individual level. METHODS: A DCE was performed in patients before being offered treatment for latent tuberculosis infection. A mixed logit model was estimated using hierarchical Bayes. The individual-specific preference coefficients were used to calculate the expected probability of choosing the treatment by each patient...
July 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712625/impact-of-survey-administration-mode-on-the-results-of-a-health-related-discrete-choice-experiment-online-and-paper-comparison
#4
Domino Determann, Mattijs S Lambooij, Ewout W Steyerberg, Esther W de Bekker-Grob, G Ardine de Wit
BACKGROUND: Electronic data collection is increasingly being used for discrete choice experiments (DCEs). OBJECTIVES: To study whether paper or electronic administration results in measurement effects. METHODS: Respondents were drawn from the same sample frame (an Internet panel) and completed a nearly identical DCE survey either online or on paper during the same period. A DCE on preferences for basic health insurance served as a case study...
July 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711241/analysis-of-farmers-willingness-to-participate-in-pasture-grazing-programs-results-from-a-discrete-choice-experiment-with-german-dairy-farmers
#5
M Danne, O Musshoff
Over the last decades, the usage of pasture for grazing of dairy cows has decreased considerably. Pasture grazing programs initiated by dairy companies try to counteract this trend. The present paper investigates farmers' willingness to participate in such grazing programs. A special aim was to quantify the price premiums farmers require for program participation and to identify determinants influencing the premium level. The empirical analysis is based on a discrete choice experiment with 293 German dairy farmers...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709337/nested-polyhedra-model-of-turbulence
#6
Ö D Gürcan
A discretization of the wave-number space is proposed, using nested polyhedra, in the form of alternating dodecahedra and icosahedra that are self-similarly scaled. This particular choice allows the possibility of forming triangles using only discretized wave vectors when the scaling between two consecutive dodecahedra is equal to the golden ratio and the icosahedron between the two dodecahedra is the dual of the inner dodecahedron. Alternatively, the same discretization can be described as a logarithmically spaced (with a scaling equal to the golden ratio), nested dodecahedron-icosahedron compounds...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705893/evaluation-of-strategies-to-communicate-harmful-and-potentially-harmful-constituent-hphc-information-through-cigarette-package-inserts-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#7
Ramzi G Salloum, Jordan J Louviere, Kayla R Getz, Farahnaz Islam, Dien Anshari, Yoojin Cho, Richard J O'Connor, David Hammond, James F Thrasher
BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulatory authority to use inserts to communicate with consumers about harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products; however, little is known about the most effective manner for presenting HPHC information. METHODS: In a discrete choice experiment, participants evaluated eight choice sets, each of which showed two cigarette packages from four different brands and tar levels (high vs low), accompanied by an insert that included between-subject manipulations (ie, listing of HPHCs vs grouping by disease outcome and numeric values ascribed to HPHCs vs no numbers) and within-subject manipulations (ie, 1 of 4 warning topics; statement linking an HPHC with disease vs statement with no HPHC link)...
July 13, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705730/emotions-as-discrete-patterns-of-systemic-activity
#8
REVIEW
Lauri Nummenmaa, Heini Saarimäki
Emotions organize human and animal behaviour by automatically adjusting their actions at multiple physiological and behavioural scales. Recently, pattern recognition techniques have emerged as an important tool for quantifying the neural, physiological, and phenomenological organization of emotions in humans. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the human emotion system from the viewpoint of pattern recognition studies, focussing on neuroimaging experiments. These studies suggest, in general, clear and consistent categorical structure of emotions across multiple levels of analysis spanning expressive behaviour, subjective experiences, physiological activity, and neural activation patterns...
July 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705241/demand-and-willingness-to-pay-for-bed-nets-in-tanzania-results-from-a-choice-experiment
#9
Chris D Gingrich, Emily Ricotta, Amos Kahwa, Catherine Kahabuka, Hannah Koenker
BACKGROUND: Universal coverage campaigns for long-lasting insecticide-treated nets do not always reach the goal of one net for every two household members, and even when ownership of at least one net per household is high, many households may not own enough nets. The retail market provides these households options for replacing or increasing the number of nets they own with products that best fit their needs since a variety of net shapes, sizes, and colours are available. Hence, it is important to understand the factors affecting private net demand...
July 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697796/patients-preferences-for-primary-health-care-a-systematic-literature-review-of-discrete-choice-experiments
#10
Kim-Sarah Kleij, Ulla Tangermann, Volker E Amelung, Christian Krauth
BACKGROUND: Primary care is a key element of health care systems and addresses the main health problems of the population. Due to the demographic change, primary care even gains in importance. The knowledge of the patients' preferences can help policy makers as well as physicians to set priorities in their effort to make health care delivery more responsive to patients' needs. Our objective was to describe which aspects of primary care were included in preference studies and which of them were the most preferred aspects...
July 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696023/mcda-swing-weighting-and-discrete-choice-experiments-for-elicitation-of-patient-benefit-risk-preferences-a-critical-assessment
#11
Tommi Tervonen, Heather Gelhorn, Sumitra Sri Bhashyam, Jiat-Ling Poon, Katharine S Gries, Anne Rentz, Kevin Marsh
PURPOSE: Multiple criteria decision analysis swing weighting (SW) and discrete choice experiments (DCE) are appropriate methods for capturing patient preferences on treatment benefit-risk trade-offs. This paper presents a qualitative comparison of the 2 methods. METHODS: We review and critically assess similarities and differences of SW and DCE based on 6 aspects: comprehension by study participants, cognitive biases, sample representativeness, ability to capture heterogeneity in preferences, reliability and validity, and robustness of the results...
July 11, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695543/the-indonesian-eq-5d-5l-value-set
#12
Fredrick Dermawan Purba, Joke A M Hunfeld, Aulia Iskandarsyah, Titi Sahidah Fitriana, Sawitri Supardi Sadarjoen, Juan Manuel Ramos-Goñi, Jan Passchier, Jan J V Busschbach
BACKGROUND: The EQ-5D is one of the most used generic health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) instruments worldwide. To make the EQ-5D suitable for use in economic evaluations, a societal-based value set is needed. Indonesia does not have such a value set. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to derive an EQ-5D-5L value set from the Indonesian general population. METHODS: A representative sample aged 17 years and over was recruited from the Indonesian general population...
July 10, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683805/patient-preferences-for-dry-powder-inhaler-attributes-in-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-france-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#13
Natalia Hawken, Saku Torvinen, Mohamed-Elmoctar Neine, Ikbel Amri, Mondher Toumi, Samuel Aballéa, Adam Plich, Nicolas Roche
BACKGROUND: Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are often used in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) therapies. Using the discrete choice experiment (DCE) methodology, this study conducted in France was designed to assess patients' preferences for different attributes of DPIs. METHODS: Attributes of DPIs were defined based on a literature review, patient focus group discussions and interviews with healthcare professionals (qualitative phase of the study)...
July 6, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682261/towards-on-demand-deep-brain-stimulation-using-online-parkinson-s-disease-prediction-driven-by-dynamic-detection
#14
Ameer Mohammed, Majid Zamani, Richard Bayford, Andreas Demosthenous
In Parkinson's disease (PD), on-demand deep brain stimulation (DBS) is required so that stimulation is regulated to reduce side effects resulting from continuous stimulation and PD exacerbation due to untimely stimulation. Also, the progressive nature of PD necessitates the use of dynamic detection schemes that can track the nonlinearities in PD. This paper proposes the use of dynamic feature extraction feature extraction and dynamic pattern classification to achieve dynamic PD detection taking into account the demand for high accuracy, low computation and real-time detection...
July 3, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682256/volumetric-image-registration-from-invariant-keypoints
#15
Blaine Rister, Mark A Horowitz, Daniel L Rubin
We present a method for image registration based on 3D scale- and rotation-invariant keypoints. The method extends the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) to arbitrary dimensions by making key modifications to orientation assignment and gradient histograms. Rotation invariance is proven mathematically. Additional modifications are made to extrema detection and keypoint matching based on the demands of image registration. Our experiments suggest that the choice of neighborhood in discrete extrema detection has a strong impact on image registration accuracy...
July 3, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681169/influence-of-proximity-to-kin-on-residential-mobility-and-destination-choice-examining-local-movers-in-metropolitan-areas
#16
Amy Spring, Elizabeth Ackert, Kyle Crowder, Scott J South
A growing body of research has examined how family dynamics shape residential mobility, highlighting the social-as opposed to economic-drivers of mobility. However, few studies have examined kin ties as both push and pull factors in mobility processes or revealed how the influence of kin ties on mobility varies across sociodemographic groups. Using data on local residential moves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) from 1980 to 2013, we find that location of noncoresident kin influences the likelihood of moving out of the current neighborhood and the selection of a new destination neighborhood...
July 5, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678168/the-influences-of-landscape-features-on-visitation-of-hospital-green-spaces-a-choice-experiment-approach
#17
Kaowen Grace Chang, Hungju Chien
Studies have suggested that visiting and viewing landscaping at hospitals accelerates patient's recovery from surgery and help staff's recovery from mental fatigue. To plan and construct such landscapes, we need to unravel landscape features desirable to different groups so that the space can benefit a wide range of hospital users. Using discrete choice modeling, we developed experimental choice sets to investigate how landscape features influence the visitations of different users in a large regional hospital in Taiwan...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676776/consumer-behavior-in-the-choice-of-mode-of-transport-a-case-study-in-the-toledo-madrid-corridor
#18
Ana I Muro-Rodríguez, Israel R Perez-Jiménez, Santiago Gutiérrez-Broncano
Within the context of the consumption of goods or services the decisions made by individuals involve the choice between a set of discrete alternatives, such as the choice of mode of transport. The methodology for analyzing the consumer behavior are the models of discrete choice based on the Theory of Random Utility. These models are based on the definition of preferences through a utility function that is maximized. These models also denominated of disaggregated demand derived from the decision of a set of individuals, who are formalized by the application of probabilistic models...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675959/adding-events-to-a-markov-model-using-dice-simulation
#19
J Jaime Caro, Jörgen Möller
BACKGROUND: Health care decisions are often made under uncertainty and modeling is used to inform the choices and possible consequences. State-transition ("Markov") models are commonly used but they represent the problem solely in terms of states; events are not explicitly considered. METHODS: Discretely integrated condition event (DICE) simulation provides for both aspects that persist over time ("conditions") and for those happening at a point in time ("events")...
July 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675119/what-do-patients-want-from-otolaryngologists-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#20
Matthew R Naunheim, Vinay K Rathi, Margaret L Naunheim, Blake C Alkire, Allen C Lam, Phillip C Song, Mark G Shrime
Objectives Patient preferences are crucial for the delivery of patient-centered care. Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are an emerging quantitative methodology used for understanding these preferences. In this study, we employed DCE techniques to understand the preferences of patients presenting for an ear, nose, and throat clinic visit. Study Design DCE. Setting Decision science laboratory. Methods A DCE survey of 5 attributes-wait time, physician experience, physician personality, utilization of visit time, and cost/copayment-was constructed with structured qualitative interviews with patients...
June 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
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