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Discrete choice

Alex R Cook, Xiahong Zhao, Mark I C Chen, Eric A Finkelstein
OBJECTIVE: When faced with an emergent epidemic with high mortality and morbidity potential, policy makers must decide what public health interventions to deploy at different stages of the outbreak. However, almost nothing is known about how the public view these interventions or how they trade off risks (of disease) with inconvenience (of interventions). In this paper, we aim to understand public perceptions on pandemic interventions, as well as to identify if there are any distinct respondent preference classes...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Amy R Lewis, Richard P Young, James M Gibbons, Julia P G Jones
There is a major gap in funding required for conservation, especially in low income countries. Given the significant contribution of taxpayers in industrialized countries to funding conservation overseas, and donations from membership organisation, understanding the preferences of ordinary people in a high income country for different attributes of conservation projects is valuable for future marketing of conservation. We conducted a discrete choice experiment with visitors to a UK zoo, while simultaneously conducting a revealed preference study through a real donation campaign on the same sample...
2018: PloS One
Willings Botha, Natasha Donnolley, Marian Shanahan, Georgina M Chambers
INTRODUCTION: In Australia, societal and individual preferences for funding fertility treatment remain largely unknown. This has resulted in a lack of evidence about willingness to pay (WTP) for fertility treatment by either the general population (the funders) or infertile individuals (who directly benefit). Using a stated preference discrete choice experiment (SPDCE) approach has been suggested as a more appropriate method to inform economic evaluations of fertility treatment. We outline the protocol for an ongoing study which aims to assess fertility treatment preferences of both the general population and infertile individuals, and indirectly estimate their WTP for fertility treatment...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
James F Thrasher, Noel T Brewer, Jeff Niederdeppe, Ellen Peters, Andrew A Strasser, Rachel Grana, Annette R Kaufman
Background: The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends prominent pictorial health warnings on tobacco products. To advance research methods, theory and understanding of how tobacco product warning labels (TPWLs) work, the US National Cancer Institute convened a grantee meeting. Our article describes the key insights that emerged from the meeting, situated within the context of the scientific literature. Results & Recommendations: First, presentations confirmed that large, pictorial TPWLs motivate people to try to quit and encourage smoking cessation...
February 10, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Maartje J van der Aa, Aggie T G Paulus, Mickaël J C Hiligsmann, Johannes A M Maarse, Silvia M A A Evers
In Europe, health insurance arrangements are under reform. These arrangements redistribute collectively financed resources to ensure access to health care for all. Allocation of health services is historically based on medical needs, but use of other criteria, such as lifestyle, is debated upon. Does the general public also have preferences for conditional allocation? This depends on their opinions regarding deservingness. The aim of this study was to gain insight in those opinions, specifically by examining the perceived weight of different criteria in allocation decisions...
January 2018: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
Alan B Ettinger, John A Carter, Krithika Rajagopalan
OBJECTIVE: This assessment was conducted to quantify and compare patient and neurologist preferences regarding antiepileptic drug (AED) attributes for treating epilepsy. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy (≥18years, treated with AEDs) and neurologists were recruited from nationally representative US panels to complete an online survey that included a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Participants chose between two hypothetical AEDs, characterized by six attributes in the DCE, which included 1) level of seizure control/reduction; 2) dosing frequency, 3) diminished coordination and balance, 4) psychiatric issues, 5) diminished energy level, and 6) dietary restrictions...
February 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Esther W de Bekker-Grob, Jorien Veldwijk, Marcel Jonker, Bas Donkers, Jan Huisman, Sylvia Buis, Joffre Swait, Emily Lancsar, Cilia L M Witteman, Gouke Bonsel, Patrick Bindels
OBJECTIVES: To improve information for patients and to facilitate a vaccination coverage that is in line with the EU and World Health Organization goals, we aimed to quantify how vaccination and patient characteristics impact on influenza vaccination uptake of elderly people. METHODS: An online discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted among 1261 representatives of the Dutch general population aged 60 years or older. In the DCE, we used influenza vaccination scenarios based on five vaccination characteristics: effectiveness, risk of severe side effects, risk of mild side effects, protection duration, and absorption time...
February 6, 2018: Vaccine
Nadia A Seeteram, Victor Engel, Pallab Mozumder
The Everglades of south Florida, although degraded, imparts vital ecosystem benefits, including contributions to high quality drinking water supplies and habitat for a number of threatened and endangered species. Restoration of the Everglades can improve the provision of these benefits but also may impose tradeoffs with competing societal demands. This study focuses on understanding public preferences for Everglades restoration and estimating the willingness to pay (WTP) values for restored ecosystem services (ES) through the implementation of a discrete choice experiment (DCE)...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Deborah A Marshall, Ken Deal, Barbara Conner-Spady, Eric Bohm, Gillian Hawker, Lynda Loucks, Karen V MacDonald, Tom Noseworthy
OBJECTIVE: Patients face significant waiting times for hip and knee total joint replacement (TJR) in publicly funded healthcare systems. We aimed to assess how surgeon selection and reputation affect patients' willingness to wait for TJR. DESIGN: We assessed patient preferences using a discrete choice experiment questionnaire with 12 choice scenarios administered to patients referred for TJR. Based on qualitative research, pre- and pilot-testing, we characterized each scenario by five attributes: surgeon reputation, surgeon selection, waiting time to surgeon visit (initial consultation), waiting time to surgery, and travel time to hospital...
February 6, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
James F Thrasher, Farahnaz Islam, Rachel E Davis, Lucy Popova, Victoria Lambert, Yoo Jin Cho, Ramzi G Salloum, Jordan Louviere, David Hammond
This study assessed smokers' responses to different smoking cessation topics and imagery for cigarette package inserts. Adult smokers from Canada (n = 1000) participated in three discrete choice experiments (DCEs): DCE 1 assessed five cessation benefit topics and five imagery types; DCE 2 assessed five messages with tips to improve cessation success and five imagery types; DCE 3 assessed four reproductive health benefits of cessation topics and four imagery types. In each DCE, participants evaluated four or five sets of four inserts, selecting the most and least motivating (DCEs 1 & 3) or helpful (DCE 2) for quitting...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Karen A Grépin, Crossley B Pinkstaff, Arne Risa Hole, Klara Henderson, Ole Frithjof Norheim, John-Arne Røttingen, Trygve Ottersen
Most donors of external financing for health use allocation policies to determine which countries are eligible to receive financial support and how much support each should receive. Currently, most of these policies place a great deal of weight on income per capita as a determinant of aid allocation but there is increasing interest in putting more weight on other country characteristics in the design of such policies. It is unclear, however, how much weight should be placed on other country characteristics...
February 1, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Sashaina E Fanibunda, Lynette A Desouza, Richa Kapoor, Rama A Vaidya, Vidita A Vaidya
Thyroid hormone is classically known to play a crucial role in neurodevelopment. The potent effects that thyroid hormone exerts on the adult mammalian brain have been uncovered relatively recently, including an important role in the modulation of progenitor development in adult neurogenic niches. This chapter extensively reviews the current understanding of the influence of thyroid hormone on distinct stages of adult progenitor development in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ) that lines the lateral ventricles...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Axel C Mühlbacher, Andrew Sadler, Franz-Werner Dippel, Christin Juhnke
BACKGROUND: Severe hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor of death in patients with coronary heart disease. New adjunctive drug therapies (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 [PCSK9] inhibitors) have gained approval in Europe and the USA. OBJECTIVE: In this empirical study, we documented preferences regarding adjuvant drug therapy in apheresis-treated patients with severe familial hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search to identify patient-relevant outcomes in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia currently undergoing apheresis...
January 31, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
G Forsander, S Stallknecht, U Samuelsson, C Marcus, M Bøgelund
AIM: To test the possibility of using a discrete choice experiment model, on a national level in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes, in order to obtain a better understanding of drivers of and barriers to diabetes self-care. METHODS: A survey instrument was constructed and tested on a small group of the target population: adolescents aged 15 to <18 years with Type 1 diabetes. All individuals in Sweden belonging to this target group (N=2112) were then identified via the Swedish paediatric diabetes quality registry SWEDIABKIDS, and were sent an invitation to answer an online questionnaire...
January 30, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Matthew Quaife, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Gian Luca Di Tanna, Peter Vickerman
Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are economic tools that elicit the stated preferences of respondents. Because of their increasing importance in informing the design of health products and services, it is critical to understand the extent to which DCEs give reliable predictions outside of the experimental context. We systematically reviewed the literature of published DCE studies comparing predictions to choices made in reality; we extracted individual-level data to estimate a bivariate mixed-effects model of pooled sensitivity and specificity...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
Umberto Benedetto, Douglas G Altman, Stephen Gerry, Alastair Gray, Belinda Lees, Marcus Flather, David P Taggart
BACKGROUND: The long-term effects of off-pump coronary artery bypass continue to be controversial because some studies have reported increased adverse event rates with off-pump coronary artery bypass when compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass. The Arterial Revascularization Trial compared survival after bilateral versus single internal thoracic artery grafting. The choice of off-pump coronary artery bypass versus on-pump coronary artery bypass was based on the surgeon's discretion...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
G Gallego, A Dew, M Lincoln, A Bundy, K Bulkeley, J Brentnall, C Veitch
BACKGROUND: The implementation of the Australian National Disability Insurance Scheme is expected to generate a responsive, person-centred system that will empower people with disability to choose the services and support they receive. However, little attention has been paid to examine how users of the National Disability Insurance Scheme will choose and spend their individual budgets. This study aimed to determine quantitatively the relative importance that carers of people with a disability living in rural Australia place on different therapy service delivery characteristics...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Tracy A Comans, Kim-Huong Nguyen, Brendan Mulhern, Megan Corlis, Li Li, Alyssa Welch, Susan E Kurrle, Donna Rowen, Wendy Moyle, Sanjeewa Kularatna, Julie Ratcliffe
INTRODUCTION: Generic instruments for assessing health-related quality of life may lack the sensitivity to detect changes in health specific to certain conditions, such as dementia. The Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease (QOL-AD) is a widely used and well-validated condition-specific instrument for assessing health-related quality of life for people living with dementia, but it does not enable the calculation of quality-adjusted life years, the basis of cost utility analysis. This study will generate a preference-based scoring algorithm for a health state classification system -the Alzheimer's Disease Five Dimensions (AD-5D) derived from the QOL-AD...
January 21, 2018: BMJ Open
Timothy Bolt, Jörg Mahlich, Yusuke Nakamura, Masahiko Nakayama
PURPOSE: With the progress being made in the treatment of multiple myeloma and other complex cancers, a variety of clinical research and treatment options are being pursued. This study uses a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to estimate treatment characteristic preferences of hematologists in Japan. METHODS: A 2-stage process was applied within this study. The first stage is an attribute-rating exercise in which each of the full list of 21 attributes is rated on its importance by the clinicians when selecting a first-line therapy...
January 20, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Yu-Hang Tang, Dongkun Zhang, George Em Karniadakis
Molecular fingerprints, i.e., feature vectors describing atomistic neighborhood configurations, is an important abstraction and a key ingredient for data-driven modeling of potential energy surface and interatomic force. In this paper, we present the density-encoded canonically aligned fingerprint algorithm, which is robust and efficient, for fitting per-atom scalar and vector quantities. The fingerprint is essentially a continuous density field formed through the superimposition of smoothing kernels centered on the atoms...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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