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Discrete choice

Benjamin M Craig, Kim Rand
BACKGROUND: The 5-level version of the EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) was introduced as an improvement on the original 3-level version (EQ-5D-3L). To date, 6 country-specific value sets have been published for EQ-5D-5L and 9 US value sets have been published for other instruments. Our aims were to (1) produce EQ-5D-5L values on a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) scale from the perspective of US adults and (2) compare them with US EQ-5D-3L values and the other country-specific EQ-5D-5L values. METHODS: In 2016, 8222 US respondents from all 50 states and Washington, DC completed an online survey including a discrete choice experiment with 20 paired comparisons...
April 17, 2018: Medical Care
Daniel Magee, Jesse E Taylor, Matthew Scotch
The use of generalized linear models in Bayesian phylogeography has enabled researchers to simultaneously reconstruct the spatiotemporal history of a virus and quantify the contribution of predictor variables to that process. However, little is known about the sensitivity of this method to the choice of the discrete state partition. Here we investigate this question by analyzing a data set containing 299 sequences of the West Nile virus envelope gene sampled in the United States and fifteen predictors aggregated at four spatial levels...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Frauke Becker, Nana Anokye, Esther W de Bekker-Grob, Ailish Higgins, Clare Relton, Mark Strong, Julia Fox-Rushby
BACKGROUND: Increasing breastfeeding rates have been associated with reductions in disease in babies and mothers as well as in related costs. 'Nourishing Start for Health (NoSH)', a financial incentive scheme has been proposed as a potentially effective way to increase both the number of mothers breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding. AIMS: To establish women's relative preferences for different aspects of a financial incentive scheme for breastfeeding and to identify importance of scheme characteristics on probability on participation in an incentive scheme...
2018: PloS One
Bram Roudijk, A Rogier T Donders, Peep F M Stalmeier
INTRODUCTION: Scaling severe states can be a difficult task. First, the method of measurement affects whether a health state is considered better or worse than dead. Second, in discrete choice experiments, different models to anchor health states on 0 (dead) and 1 (perfect health) produce varying amounts of health states worse than dead. RESEARCH QUESTION: Within the context of the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) model, this article provides insight into the value assigned to dead and its consequences for decision making...
April 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Alec Miners, Carrie Llewellyn, Carina King, Alex Pollard, Anupama Roy, Richard Gilson, Alison Rodger, Fiona Burns, Maryam Shahmanesh
To understand whether people attending sexual health (SH) clinics are willing to participate in a brief behavioural change intervention (BBCI) to reduce the likelihood of future sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and to understand their preferences for different service designs, we conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE) with young heterosexual adults (aged 16-25 years), and men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 16 or above, attending SH clinics in England. Data from 368 participants showed that people particularly valued BBCIs that involved talking (OR 1...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Miranda R Blake, Emily Lancsar, Anna Peeters, Kathryn Backholer
There is a paucity of evidence regarding the impact of sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) price increases on beverage consumption, using individual-level data, for the population overall and for different socioeconomic groups. This study aimed to predict the impact of altered beverage prices and educational messages on consumer purchasing behavior. 2020 adults representative of the Australian population by age, gender and income completed a discrete choice experiment online in 2016. Each subject completed 20 choice scenarios in a hypothetical convenience store setting where subjects chose between seven SSB and non-SSB beverage options or a no beverage option...
April 5, 2018: Appetite
Chelsea A Harris, Melissa J Shauver, Frank Yuan, Jacob Nasser, Kevin C Chung
PURPOSE: We sought to compare preferences for arthroplasty versus arthrodesis among patients with proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint osteoarthritis (OA) by quantifying the patient-assigned utility of each operation's attributes. METHODS: We undertook a multistep process to identify relevant surgical attributes, including a literature review, surgeon survey, and pretest patient pilot test to build a set of discrete choice experiments. Patients with PIP joint osteoarthritis were identified using a single university electronic medical record and were recruited via electronic message or postcard...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
T Lehnert, O H Günther, A Hajek, S G Riedel-Heller, H H König
BACKGROUND: Most people prefer to "age in place" and to remain in their homes for as long as possible even in case they require long-term care. While informal care is projected to decrease in Germany, the use of home- and community-based services (HCBS) can be expected to increase in the future. Preference-based data on aspects of HCBS is needed to optimize person-centered care. OBJECTIVE: To investigate preferences for home- and community-based long-term care services packages...
April 6, 2018: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
Paul R Brocklehurst, Gerald McKenna, Martin Schimmel, Anastassia Kossioni, Katarina Jerković-Ćosić, Martina Hayes, Cristiane da Mata, Frauke Müller
BACKGROUND: Across the European Union costs for the treatment of oral disease is expected to rise to €93 Billion by 2020 and be higher than those for stroke and dementia combined. A significant proportion of these costs will relate to the provision of care for older people. Dental caries severity and experience is now a major public health issue in older people and periodontal disease disproportionately affects older adults. Poor oral health impacts on older people's quality of life, their self-esteem, general health and diet...
April 6, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Anna Selivanova, Erik Buskens, Paul F M Krabbe
BACKGROUND: The EQ-5D is a widely used preference-based instrument to measure health-related quality of life. Some methodological drawbacks of its three-level version (EQ-5D-3L) prompted development of a new format (EQ-5D-5L). There is no clear evidence that the new format outperforms the standard version. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to make a head-to-head comparison of the EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L in a discrete choice model setting giving special attention to the consistency and logical ordering of coefficients for the attribute levels and to the differences in health-state values...
April 6, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Erin C Powell, Lisa A Taylor
Individual foraging specialization describes the phenomenon where conspecifics within a population of generalists exhibit differences in foraging behavior, each specializing on different prey types. Individual specialization is widespread in animals, yet is understudied in invertebrates, despite potential impacts to food web and population dynamics . Sceliphron caementarium (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) is an excellent system to examine individual specialization. Females of these mud dauber wasps capture and paralyze spiders which they store in mud nests to provision their offspring...
May 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Glen S Hazlewood
There is increasing recognition of the importance of patient preferences and methodologies to measure them. In this article, methods to quantify patient preferences are reviewed, with a focus on discrete choice experiments. In a discrete choice experiment, patients are asked to choose between 2 or more treatments. The results can be used to quantify the relative importance of treatment outcomes and/or other considerations relevant to medical decision making. Conducting and interpreting a discrete choice experiment requires multiple steps and an understanding of the potential biases that can arise, which we review in this article with examples in rheumatic diseases...
May 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
Jennifer Rickard, Christian Ngarambe, Leonard Ndayizeye, Blair Smart, Robert Riviello, Jean Paul Majyambere, Rahel G Ghebre
BACKGROUND: There is growing recognition of the worsening problem of antibiotic resistance and the need for antibiotic stewardship in low-resource settings. The aim of this study was to describe antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in patients undergoing surgery for peritonitis at a Rwandan referral hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All surgical patients with peritonitis at a Rwandan referral hospital were enrolled. Prospective data were collected on epidemiology, clinical features, interventions, and outcomes...
April 5, 2018: Surgical Infections
Irene Bighelli, Mariasole Castellazzi, Andrea Cipriani, Francesca Girlanda, Giuseppe Guaiana, Markus Koesters, Giulia Turrini, Toshi A Furukawa, Corrado Barbui
BACKGROUND: Panic disorder is characterised by repeated, unexpected panic attacks, which represent a discrete period of fear or anxiety that has a rapid onset, reaches a peak within 10 minutes, and in which at least four of 13 characteristic symptoms are experienced, including racing heart, chest pain, sweating, shaking, dizziness, flushing, stomach churning, faintness and breathlessness. It is common in the general population with a lifetime prevalence of 1% to 4%. The treatment of panic disorder includes psychological and pharmacological interventions...
April 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nancy K Beam, Gezehegn Bekele Dadi, Sally H Rankin, Sandra Weiss, Bruce Cooper, Lisa M Thompson
OBJECTIVES: Despite global efforts to increase facility-based delivery (FBD), 90% of women in rural Ethiopia deliver at home without a skilled birth attendant. Men have an important role in increasing FBD due to their decision-making power, but this is largely unexplored. This study aimed to determine the FBD care attributes preferred by women and men, and whether poverty or household decision-making are associated with choice to deliver in a facility. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a cross-sectional discrete choice experiment in 109 randomly selected households in rural Ethiopia in September-October 2015...
April 3, 2018: BMJ Open
Marco Boeri, Alan J McMichael, Joseph P M Kane, Francis A O'Neill, Frank Kee
BACKGROUND: In discrete-choice experiments (DCEs), respondents are presented with a series of scenarios and asked to select their preferred choice. In clinical decision making, DCEs allow one to calculate the maximum acceptable risk (MAR) that a respondent is willing to accept for a one-unit increase in treatment efficacy. Most published studies report the average MAR for the whole sample, without conveying any information about heterogeneity. For a sample of psychiatrists prescribing drugs for a series of hypothetical patients with schizophrenia, this article demonstrates how heterogeneity accounted for in the DCE modeling can be incorporated in the derivation of the MAR...
April 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Amy Bestman, Samantha L Thomas, Melanie Randle, Hannah Pitt, Mike Daube
BACKGROUND: Harmful gambling has been identified as an important public health issue that affects individuals, families and the broader community. One gambling product, electronic gambling machines (EGMs), has been associated with significant gambling harm in Australia. There has been limited research that has explored community perceptions of EGMs and attitudes towards reform. This study, conducted in NSW, Australia, aimed to explore community use of EGM venues (clubs and hotels containing EGMs), attitudes towards EGMs and whether the use of these venues influenced attitudes towards EGM reform...
April 2, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Anthony P Morrison, Heather Law, Lucy Carter, Rachel Sellers, Richard Emsley, Melissa Pyle, Paul French, David Shiers, Alison R Yung, Elizabeth K Murphy, Natasha Holden, Ann Steele, Samantha E Bowe, Jasper Palmier-Claus, Victoria Brooks, Rory Byrne, Linda Davies, Peter M Haddad
BACKGROUND: Little evidence is available for head-to-head comparisons of psychosocial interventions and pharmacological interventions in psychosis. We aimed to establish whether a randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) versus antipsychotic drugs versus a combination of both would be feasible in people with psychosis. METHODS: We did a single-site, single-blind pilot randomised controlled trial in people with psychosis who used services in National Health Service trusts across Greater Manchester, UK...
March 28, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
S K Pearson, C M Bull, M G Gardner
The highly polymorphic genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are involved in disease resistance, mate choice, and kin recognition. Therefore, they are widely used markers for investigating adaptive variation. Although selection is the key driver, gene flow and genetic drift also influence adaptive genetic variation, sometimes in opposing ways and with consequences for adaptive potential. To further understand the processes that generate MHC variation, it is helpful to compare variation at the MHC with that at neutral genetic loci...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Eduardo Victor Peris, Susana Ibáñez
We describe a new di-gold metallo-tweezer whose complex supramolecular landscape is controlled by adding a series of metal cations. This metallo-tweezer has a strong tendency to form interesting supramolecular structures upon addition of Tl+, Ag+ and Cu+. The choice of the cation is used to directing the formation of the designated molecular architecture. The addition of thallium facilitates the formation of a self-aggregated duplex structure, with the cation occupying the cavity of the dimer. The same type of structure is formed when Cu+ is added, and the resulting duplex inclusion complex displays interesting vapochromism properties...
March 30, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
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