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Discrete choice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315696/auditory-deficits-in-amusia-extend-beyond-poor-pitch-perception
#1
Kelly L Whiteford, Andrew J Oxenham
Congenital amusia is a music perception disorder believed to reflect a deficit in fine-grained pitch perception and/or short-term or working memory for pitch. Because most measures of pitch perception include memory and segmentation components, it has been difficult to determine the true extent of pitch processing deficits in amusia. It is also unclear whether pitch deficits persist at frequencies beyond the range of musical pitch. To address these questions, experiments were conducted with amusics and matched controls, manipulating both the stimuli and the task demands...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315192/discrete-choice-experiment-attribute-selection-using-a-multinational-interview-study-treatment-features-important-to-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Anna Rydén, Stephanie Chen, Emuella Flood, Beverly Romero, Susan Grandy
INTRODUCTION: Methods for discrete choice experiment (DCE) attribute and attribute-level selection have not yet been firmly established and are rarely reported in detail. This paper describes a qualitative study designed to inform the development of a DCE survey designed to examine preferences for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) treatments among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The study involved a literature review, interviews with clinical experts, and interviews with GLP-1RA-experienced (i...
March 17, 2017: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295461/what-do-uk-medical-students-value-most-in-their-careers-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#3
Jennifer A Cleland, Peter Johnston, Verity Watson, Nicolas Krucien, Diane Skåtun
CONTEXT: Many individual- and job-related factors are known to influence medical careers decision making. Previous research has extensively studied medical trainees' (residents') and students' views of the factors that are important. However, how trainees and students trade off these factors at times of important careers-related decision making is under-researched. Information about trade-offs is crucial to the development of effective policies to enhance the recruitment and retention of junior doctors...
March 14, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292492/quality-control-process-for-eq-5d-5l-valuation-studies
#4
Juan M Ramos-Goñi, Mark Oppe, Bernhard Slaap, Jan J V Busschbach, Elly Stolk
BACKGROUND: The values of the five-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) are elicited using composite time trade-off and discrete choice experiments. Unfortunately, data quality issues and interviewer effects were observed in the first few EQ-5D-5L valuation studies. To prevent these issues from occurring in later studies, the EuroQol Group established a cyclic quality control (QC) process. OBJECTIVES: To describe this QC process and show its impact on data quality...
March 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290107/estimating-willingness-to-pay-for-online-health-services-with-discrete-choice-experiments
#5
Jieun Chang, Scott J Savage, Donald M Waldman
BACKGROUND: Research has outlined the benefits and costs of online health services, but these studies have typically focused on a specific geographic region or disease. Very few studies have estimated consumer demand for online health services. OBJECTIVE: This study estimated household's willingness to pay (WTP) for the ability to receive remote diagnosis, treatment, monitoring and consultations online (telehealth). METHODS: WTP was estimated with a random utility model and household data from a US survey employing repeated discrete-choice experiments...
March 13, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288774/intravenous-vs-intraosseous-access-and-return-of-spontaneous-circulation-during-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#6
Brian Clemency, Kaori Tanaka, Paul May, Johanna Innes, Sara Zagroba, Jacqueline Blaszak, David Hostler, Derek Cooney, Kevin McGee, Heather Lindstrom
INTRODUCTION: Guidelines endorse intravenous (IV) and intraosseous (IO) medication administration for cardiac arrest treatment. Limited clinical evidence supports this recommendation. A multiagency, retrospective study was performed to determine the association between parenteral access type and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in out of hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS: This was a structured, retrospective chart review of emergency medical services (EMS) records from three agencies...
February 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281742/epitaxial-nixpd1-x-111-alloy-substrates-with-continuously-tunable-lattice-constants-for-2d-materials-growth
#7
Gregory S Hutchings, Jin-Hao Jhang, Chao Zhou, David Hynek, Udo D Schwarz, Eric I Altman
Epitaxial strain can be a powerful parameter for directing the growth of thin films. Unfortunately, conventional materials only offer discrete choices for setting the lattice strain. In this work, it is demonstrated that epitaxial growth of transition metal alloy solid solutions can provide thermally stable, high-quality growth substrates with continuously tunable lattice constants. Molecular beam epitaxy was used to grow NixPd1-x(111) alloy films with lattice constants between 3.61 and 3.89 Å on the hexagonal (0001) basal planes of α-Al2O3 and Cr2O3 (grown as epitaxial films on α-Al2O3 (0001))...
March 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280308/evaluation-of-psoriasis-patients-attitudes-toward-benefit-risk-and-therapeutic-trade-offs-in-their-choice-of-treatments
#8
Lina Eliasson, Anthony P Bewley, Farhan Mughal, Karissa M Johnston, Andreas Kuznik, Chloe Patel, Andrew J Lloyd
OBJECTIVE: Treatment options for psoriasis offer trade-offs in terms of efficacy, convenience, and risk of adverse events. We evaluated patients' preferences with respect to benefit-risk in the treatment of psoriasis. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was conducted in adults from the UK with moderate-to-severe psoriasis using an orthogonal design with 32 hypothetical choice sets. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two surveys with 16 choice sets. Patients' preferences were investigated with respect to the following attributes: reduction in body surface area affected by psoriasis, treatment administration (frequency and mode of delivery), short-term diarrhea or nausea risk, and 10-year risk of developing melanoma or nonmelanoma skin cancer, tuberculosis, or serious infections...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277655/making-a-right-or-left-choice-chiral-self-sorting-as-a-tool-for-the-formation-of-discrete-complex-structures
#9
Hanna Jędrzejewska, Agnieszka Szumna
This review discusses chiral self-sorting-the process of choosing an interaction partner with a given chirality from a complex mixture of many possible racemic partners. Chiral self-sorting (also known as chiral self-recognition or chiral self-discrimination) is fundamental for creating functional structures in nature and in the world of chemistry because interactions between molecules of the same or the opposite chirality are characterized by different interaction energies and intrinsically different resulting structures...
March 9, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269675/effect-of-embedding-dimension-on-complexity-measures-in-identifying-arrhythmia
#10
Radhagayathri K Udhayakumar, Chandan Karmakar, Peng Li, Marimuthu Palaniswami
Entropy measures like Approximate entropy (ApEn) and Sample entropy (SampEn) are well established tools to analyze Heart Rate Variability (HRV) data. Critical parameters involved in these computations namely embedding dimension m and tolerance r are in most cases assumed to be 2 and 0.2*signal SD (standard devaition) respectively. Such assumptions do not work fairly across data sets and thus create misleading results in many cases. Problems with r have been addressed with the advent of newer entropy measures like Permutation entropy (PE), Fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn) and Distribution entropy (DistEn) that simply eliminate, modify or replace r from calculations...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269628/development-of-an-open-source-cosimulation-method-of-the-knee
#11
Anne Schmitz, Davide Piovesan
Rigid body dynamics and soft tissue loads are solved simultaneously in a cosimulation framework to couple musculoskeletal dynamics and tissue mechanics. The goal of this work was to implement a validated, open-source cosimulation framework of the knee to determine how this coupling affects computed cartilage loads. The kinematic knee joint of a generic whole body model in the open-source software OpenSim was replaced by a previously developed discrete element knee model that consisted of a six degree of freedom (dof) tibiofemoral joint and one dof patellofemoral joint...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268925/verification-of-a-research-prototype-for-hemodynamic-analysis-of-cerebral-aneurysms
#12
Takashi Suzuki, Cosmin Ioan Nita, Saikiran Rapaka, Hiroyuki Takao, Viorel Mihalef, Soichiro Fujimura, Chihebeddine Dahmani, Puneet Sharma, Hiroya Mamori, Toshihiro Ishibashi, Thomas Redel, Makoto Yamamoto, Yuichi Murayama
Owing to its clinical importance, there has been a growing body of research on understanding the hemodynamics of cerebral aneurysms. Traditionally, this work has been performed using general-purpose, state-of-the-art commercial solvers. This has meant requiring engineering expertise for making appropriate choices on the geometric discretization, time-step selection, choice of boundary conditions etc. Recently, a CFD research prototype has been developed (Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Prototype - not for diagnostic use) for end-to-end analysis of aneurysm hemodynamics...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260797/molecular-design-and-synthesis-of-self-assembling-camptothecin-drug-amphiphiles
#13
Andrew G Cheetham, Yi-An Lin, Ran Lin, Honggang Cui
The conjugation of small molecular hydrophobic anticancer drugs onto a short peptide with overall hydrophilicity to create self-assembling drug amphiphiles offers a new prodrug strategy, producing well-defined, discrete nanostructures with a high and quantitative drug loading. Here we show the detailed synthesis procedure and how the molecular structure can influence the synthesis of the self-assembling prodrugs and the physicochemical properties of their assemblies. A series of camptothecin-based drug amphiphiles were synthesized via combined solid- and solution-phase synthetic techniques, and the physicochemical properties of their self-assembled nanostructures were probed using a number of imaging and spectroscopic techniques...
March 6, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260521/gynecomastia-in-infants-children-and-adolescents
#14
Alexander K C Leung, Alexander A C Leung
BACKGROUND: Gynecomastia may occur physiologically in the neonatal period, during puberty, and in old age. It may also develop in association with various pathologic states. The challenge for the physician is to distinguish physiological gynecomastia from those with an underlying pathology. OBJECTIVE: To review in depth the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of gynecomastia. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "gynecomastia"...
March 1, 2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258337/electronic-gaming-machine-egm-environments-market-segments-and-risk
#15
Matthew Rockloff, Neda Moskovsky, Hannah Thorne, Matthew Browne, Gabrielle Bryden
This study used a marketing-research paradigm to explore gamblers' attraction to EGMs based on different elements of the environment. A select set of environmental features was sourced from a prior study (Thorne et al. in J Gambl Issues 2016b), and a discrete choice experiment was conducted through an online survey. Using the same dataset first described by Rockloff et al. (EGM Environments that contribute to excess consumption and harm, 2015), a sample of 245 EGM gamblers were sourced from clubs in Victoria, Australia, and 7516 gamblers from an Australian national online survey-panel...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247016/satiation-level-affects-anti-predatory-decisions-in-foraging-juvenile-crayfish
#16
Abigail C Schadegg, Jens Herberholz
Moving shadows signify imminent threat to foraging juvenile crayfish, and the animals respond with one of two discrete anti-predatory behaviors: They either freeze in place or rapidly flex their tails, which quickly propels them away from the approaching danger signal. Although a freeze might be the more risky choice, it keeps the animal near the expected food reward, while a tail-flip is effective in avoiding the shadow, but puts critical distance between the animal and its next meal. We manipulated the satiation level of juvenile crayfish to determine whether their behavioral choices are affected by internal energy states...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245816/string-kernels-for-protein-sequence-comparisons-improved-fold-recognition
#17
Saghi Nojoomi, Patrice Koehl
BACKGROUND: The amino acid sequence of a protein is the blueprint from which its structure and ultimately function can be derived. Therefore, sequence comparison methods remain essential for the determination of similarity between proteins. Traditional approaches for comparing two protein sequences begin with strings of letters (amino acids) that represent the sequences, before generating textual alignments between these strings and providing scores for each alignment. When the similitude between the two protein sequences to be compared is low however, the quality of the corresponding sequence alignment is usually poor, leading to poor performance for the recognition of similarity...
February 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241884/radiotherapy-of-nasopharyngeal-cancer-using-rapidarc-dosimetric-study-of-military-teaching-hospital-mohamed-v-morocco
#18
Issam Lalya, El Amin Marnouche, Maghous Abdelhak, Noha Zaghba, Khalid Andaloussi, Mohamed Elmarjany, Laila Baddouh, Keltoum Dahmani, Khalid Hadadi, Hassan Sifat, Hamid Mansouri
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to assess efficacy and efficiency of Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique in treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer in our institution and to report toxicity related to this technique. METHODS: Between June 2013 and January 2015, thirty-two patients with non metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer were curatively treated using VMAT Rapidarc. Dose prescription was performed using two different schedules, it consisted of either simultaneous integrated boost or simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy delivering 70 Gy in 35 fractions and 69...
February 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237423/what-influences-healthcare-professionals-treatment-preferences-for-older-women-with-operable-breast-cancer-an-application-of-the-discrete-choice-experiment
#19
J L Morgan, S J Walters, K Collins, T G Robinson, K-L Cheung, R Audisio, M W Reed, L Wyld
INTRODUCTION: Primary endocrine therapy (PET) is used variably in the UK as an alternative to surgery for older women with operable breast cancer. Guidelines state that only patients with "significant comorbidity" or "reduced life expectancy" should be treated this way and age should not be a factor. METHODS: A Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was used to determine the impact of key variables (patient age, comorbidity, cognition, functional status, cancer stage, cancer biology) on healthcare professionals' (HCP) treatment preferences for operable breast cancer among older women...
February 2, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237233/application-of-discrete-choice-experiment-to-assess-farmers-willingness-to-report-swine-diseases-in-the-red-river-delta-region-vietnam
#20
Hoa T T Pham, Marisa Peyre, Tuyen Quang Trinh, Oanh Cong Nguyen, Ton Dinh Vu, Theera Rukkwamsuk, Nicolas Antoine-Moussiaux
A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is carried out to value socio-economic factors influencing the farmer's decision to report swine diseases and to assess the willingness of farmers to report swine diseases. Data were collected between March and July 2015 in two provinces in the Red River Delta, Northern Vietnam, from 196 pig producers by face-to face interview. A conditional logit model is used to measure the relative importance of the socio-economic factors and calculate the expected probability of disease reporting under changes of levels of these factors...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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