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E J T Finding, C Lawson, J Elliott, P A Harris, N J Menzies-Gow
Microvesicles are small (up to 1 μm) vesicles found in plasma and other bodily fluids. They are recognised as part of the normal system of inter-cellular communication but altered numbers are also used as biomarkers of disease. Microvesicles have not been studied in detail in the horse but may be relevant to diseases such as laminitis. Identification of equine cell specific microvesicles was performed by developing a panel of cross reactive antibodies to use in flow cytometry to detect microvesicles of platelet, leucocyte and endothelial origin in plasma from healthy ponies and those predisposed to laminitis...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Michelle C Coleman, Jim K Belknap, Susan C Eades, Hannah L Galantino-Homer, Robert J Hunt, Ray J Geor, Molly E McCue, C Wayne McIlwraith, Rustin M Moore, John F Peroni, Hugh G Townsend, Nathaniel A White, Kevin J Cummings, Renata Ivanek-Miojevic, Noah D Cohen
OBJECTIVE To investigate risk factors for the development of pasture- and endocrinopathy-associated laminitis (PEAL) in horses and ponies in North America. DESIGN Case-control study. ANIMALS 199 horses with incident cases of PEAL and 351 horses from 2 control populations (healthy horses [n = 198] and horses with lameness not caused by laminitis [153]) that were evaluated in North America between January 2012 and December 2015 by veterinarian members of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. PROCEDURES North American members of the American Association of Equine Practitioners were contacted to participate in the study, and participating veterinarians provided historical data on incident cases of PEAL, each matched with a healthy control and a lameness control...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Nguyen Van Ha, Omar M Amin, Ha Duy Ngo, Richard A Heckmann
Males of Cathayacanthus spinitruncatus Amin, Heckmann & Ha, 2014 (Rhadinorhynchinae Lühe, 1912) are described for the first time from Leiognathus equulus in Hai Phong and Nha Trang and from pony fish Nuchequula flavaxilla in Quang Ninh in the Pacific waters of Vietnam. The male allotype status is designated. Males of C. spinitruncatus are smaller and have fewer and smaller proboscis hooks and trunk spines than females. The male reproductive structures are in the posterior fifth of the trunk and with 6 club-shaped cement glands gradually merging into 6 independent cement gland ducts...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Linda Önnby, Elisabeth Salhi, Garrett McKay, Fernando L Rosario-Ortiz, Urs von Gunten
Oxidation processes are impacted by the type, concentration and reactivity of the dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this study, the reactions between various types of DOM (Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA), Nordic Reservoir NOM (NNOM) and Pony Lake fulvic acid (PLFA)) and two oxidants (ozone and chlorine) were studied in the pH range 2-9 by using a combination of optical measurements and electron donating capacities. The relationships between residual electron donating capacity (EDC) and residual absorbance showed a strong pH dependence for the ozone-DOM reactions with phenolic functional groups being the main reacting moieties...
June 27, 2018: Water Research
Romain Paillot, Dion Garrett, Maria R Lopez-Alvarez, Ihlan Birand, Fernando Montesso, Linda Horspool
Vaccination is one of the most effective tools for limiting the impact of equine influenza (EI). The humoral immunity established following a primary vaccination course can decrease significantly between the second (V2) and third immunisations (V3), leaving some horses insufficiently protected for several weeks. This so-called "immunity gap" poses a challenge to all EI vaccines. During this period, the EI infection of vaccinated animals may be followed by marked clinical signs and virus shedding. However, several EI vaccines have been shown to stimulate equine influenza virus (EIV)-specific cell-mediated immunity, which is likely to play a role in protection against EIV infection and/or mitigate the clinical and virological signs of EI...
July 2, 2018: Vaccines
Zheng-Qian Liu, Amisha D Shah, Elisabeth Salhi, Jakov Bolotin, Urs von Gunten
Oxidation experiments (chlorine, ozone and bromine) were carried out with synthetic saline waters containing natural organic matter (NOM) extracts and model compounds to evaluate the potential of these surrogates to mimic the formation of brominated trihalomethanes (Br-THMs) in natural saline waters. Synthetic saline water with Pony Lake fulvic acid (PLFA) showed comparable results to natural brackish and sea water for Br-THMs formation during chlorination and ozonation for typical ballast water treatment conditions ([Cl2 ]0  ≥ 5 mg/L or [O3 ]0  ≥ 3 mg/L)...
June 18, 2018: Water Research
Xi-Zhi Niu, Mourad Harir, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Jean-Philippe Croué
This study investigated the chemodiversity and unique signatures for dissolved organic matter (DOM) from different types of water using high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Eight freshwater hydrophobic DOM (HPO) share 10-17% formulas that were mainly lignin-like compounds. Unique signatures were synthesized: unique to the high-humic HPO (Suwannee River and Blavet River) were condensed aromatic and some aliphatic compounds with H/C > 1.5 and O/C < 0...
July 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Melody Anne de Laat, Murad Hasan Kheder, Christopher Charles Pollitt, Martin Nicholas Sillence
Hyperinsulinemia is a major risk factor for equine laminitis, a debilitating and painful foot condition. Sweet taste receptor (T1R2/3) inhibitors have been used to reduce the insulin and glucose responses to oral carbohydrates in other species. However, their effect in horses has not been investigated. It would be useful to be able to attenuate the large post-prandial insulin response that typically occurs when a carbohydrate-rich meal is fed to insulin-dysregulated horses. Here we have determined the efficacy of two T1R2/3 inhibitors, lactisole and Gymnema sylvestre, for reducing glucose uptake by the equine small intestine in vitro; and post-prandial insulin secretion in ponies in vivo, following a carbohydrate-based meal...
2018: PloS One
Kate Farmer, Konstanze Krüger, Richard W Byrne, Isabell Marr
Many studies have been carried out into both motor and sensory laterality of horses in agonistic and stressful situations. Here we examine sensory laterality in affiliative interactions within four groups of domestic horses and ponies (N = 31), living in stable social groups, housed at a single complex close to Vienna, Austria, and demonstrate for the first time a significant population preference for the left side in affiliative approaches and interactions. No effects were observed for gender, rank, sociability, phenotype, group, or age...
June 9, 2018: Animal Cognition
Kuo-Su Chen, Lynn Monrouxe, Yi-Hsuan Lu, Chang-Chyi Jenq, Yeu-Jhy Chang, Yu-Che Chang, Pony Yee-Chee Chai
CONTEXT: The flipped classroom (FC), reversing lecture and homework elements of a course, is popular in medical education. The FC uses technology-enhanced pre-class learning to transmit knowledge, incorporating in-class interaction to enhance higher cognitive learning. However, the FC model is expensive and research on its effectiveness remains inconclusive. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the FC model over traditional lecture-based (LB) learning by meta-analysis...
June 25, 2018: Medical Education
Julia Metzger, Janina Rau, Fanny Naccache, Laura Bas Conn, Gabriella Lindgren, Ottmar Distl
BACKGROUND: Miniature size in horses represents an extreme reduction of withers height that originated after domestication. In some breeds, it is a highly desired trait representing a breed- or subtype-specific feature. The genomic changes that emerged due to strong-targeted selection towards this distinct type remain unclear. RESULTS: Comparisons of whole-genome sequencing data from two Miniature Shetland ponies and one standard-sized Shetland pony, performed to elucidate genetic determinants for miniature size, revealed four synergistic variants, limiting withers height to 34...
June 25, 2018: BMC Genomics
Stefanie Neuhauser, Patricia Gösele, Johannes Handler
OBJECTIVE: During the peripartal period, interpretation of basic clinical signs may be challenging. In the present study, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and body temperature (BT) were evaluated in healthy mares of different breed types and compared to reference values for adult horses from the literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During daily physical exams of periparturient mares, the HR, RR and BT were evaluated. Differences according to the horse's size were investigated and in large breeds, the influence of dystocia or retained placenta was analysed...
June 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Kim Jäderkvist Fegraeus, Brandon D Velie, Jeanette Axelsson, Rachel Ang, Natasha A Hamilton, Leif Andersson, Jennifer R S Meadows, Gabriella Lindgren
The Swedish-Norwegian Coldblooded trotter and the heavier North-Swedish draught horse both descend from the North-Swedish horse, but the Coldblooded trotters have been selected for racing performance while the North-Swedish draught horse is mainly used for agricultural and forestry work. By comparing the genomes of Coldblooded trotters, North-Swedish draught horses and Standardbreds for a large number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the aim of the study was to identify genetic regions that may be under selection for racing performance...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
B Elisabeth Rink, Juliane Kuhl, Cristina L Esteves, Hilari M French, Elaine Watson, Christine Aurich, F Xavier Donadeu
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) play key roles in tissue homeostasis. In the cyclic equine endometrium, this may be regulated by changes in serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones. This study was designed to investigate the changes in endometrial expression of MSC markers during reproductive cycles in mares and the influence of sex steroid hormones on endometrial MSC proliferation in vitro. Endometrial biopsies were collected from pony mares at different reproductive stages (estrus; day 5 and 13 after ovulation; seasonal anestrus; 20 h and 7days post-partum; n = 5 per stage) and were analyzed by RT-qPCR...
August 2018: Theriogenology
Luca Lacitignola, Pasquale De Luca, Rossella Santovito, Maria Severa Di Comite, Antonio Crovace
Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (NSH) is uncommon in horses. Aim of this report is evaluate an alternative therapeutic approach and provide more information on the diagnostic procedures, through detailed microscopic findings of the bone lesions pony with NSH. Administration of tiludronate along with a balanced diet can be used in a treatment protocol for ponies with NSH. This case report suggests that tiludronate can be used to ameliorate the clinical signs of NSH.
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
E M Tadros, J G Fowlie, K R Refsal, J Marteniuk, H C Schott
BACKGROUND: Hyperinsulinaemia is the suspected component of insulin dysregulation having the strongest association with laminitis and occurs variably in equids with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that magnitude of hyperinsulinaemia correlates with laminitis severity in PPID-affected equids. Furthermore, we hypothesised that owners can be unaware of chronic endocrinopathic laminitis. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
May 14, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Hajrija Maksić, Suada Heljić, Fahrija Skokić, Darinka Šumanović-Glamuzina, Veroslava Milošević, Almir Zlatanović, Notario Gerard
Prematurity is a risk factor for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), due to immature humoral and cell-mediated immune system in preterm newborns, as well as their incomplete lung development. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the F glycoprotein of RSV, is licensed for the prevention of severe RSV LRTI in children at high risk for the disease. This study is a part of a larger observational, retrospective-prospective epidemiological study (PONI) conducted at 72 sites across 23 countries in the northern temperate zone...
April 27, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Emma Hübers, Natali Bauer, Kerstin Fey, Andreas Moritz, Katja Roscher
OBJECTIVE: The retrospective study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of true thrombocytopenia and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-induced pseudothrombocytopenia in horses and ponies and to assess the diagnostic and prognostic utility of true thrombocytopenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 3592 patients (2008-2015) hematological data (ADVIA® 2120, Siemens) were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were platelet counts < 90 x 109/l (EDTA-blood) and/or < 84 x 109/l (citrate blood)...
April 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Lidia Pitti, Maarten Oosterlinck, Maria L Díaz-Bertrana, José M Carrillo, Mónica Rubio, Joaquin Sopena, Angelo Santana, José M Vilar
BACKGROUND: Static posturography and pedobarography are based on the detection of postural imbalance and, consequently, the pressure redistribution between limbs in lame subjects. These techniques have proven to be useful for the detection of lameness in humans and dogs. The main objective of this study was to test the suitability of static posturography and pedobarography in diagnosing lameness in ponies. A pressure platform was used to obtain postural data (statokinesiograms, mean X and Y, length, LFS ratio, and mean velocity) from 10 sound ponies and 7 ponies with unilateral forelimb lameness...
May 2, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
H B Carslake, C McG Argo, G L Pinchbeck, A H A Dugdale, C M McGowan
Reduction of the hyperinsulinaemic response to feeding is central to the management of insulin dysregulation (ID). The aim of this study was to compare insulinaemic and glycaemic responses to soaked hay, dry hay and haylage in ponies. Twelve ponies of mixed breeds were maintained under identical management conditions. A randomised four-way crossover trial was conducted, in which fasted animals were fed a meal of 0.25% body weight as dry matter intake soaked hay, dry hay or haylage, or administered an oral glucose test (OGT)...
May 2018: Veterinary Journal
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