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Irene Cincera, Tommaso Frioni, Virginia Ughini, Stefano Poni, Daniela Farinelli, Sergio Tombesi
Stomatal conductance is regulated by many factors such as air vapour pressure deficit (D), which can be the pivotal one affecting leaf gas exchange in species particularly sensitive to D such as C. avellana. The aim of this work was to evaluate stomatal sensibility to D and to determine correlations with hydraulics characteristics of leaves in three genotypes of C. avellana selected over centuries under different climatic conditions in the Italian peninsula. Among the three varieties Tonda Gentile delle Langhe (TGL), which was the one coming from northern Italy suffered the largest stomatal limitation at increasing levels of D in comparison with the other two cultivars [Tonda Romana (TR) and Tonda di Giffoni (TG), selected in central and southern Italy, respectively]...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
C J Joonè, M L Schulman, G T Fosgate, T A Plagis, J E Crafford, S K Gupta, H J Bertschinger
Few studies have investigated the cell mediated immune response during zona pellucida-based immunocontraception, despite hypothesized cytotoxic T-cell involvement in ovarian dysfunction associated with these vaccines. This study aimed to investigate antigen-specific anamnestic responses of helper (CD4+ ) and cytotoxic (CD8+ ) T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from pony mares before and after their treatment with native porcine zona pellucida (pZP), recombinant pZP3 and pZP4 antigens (reZP) or adjuvanted saline...
December 5, 2018: Theriogenology
Eva Zahradnik, Bente Janssen-Weets, Ingrid Sander, Benjamin Kendzia, Wolfgang Mitlehner, Caroline May, Monika Raulf
BACKGROUND: Exposure to horses can cause severe allergic reactions in sensitized individuals. The breed, American Bashkir Curly Horse is categorized as hypoallergenic, primarily due to reports of allergic patients experiencing fewer symptoms while handling this special breed. The possible reasons for this phenomenon could be lower allergen production and/or reduced allergen release into the air because of increased sebum content in their skin and hair compared to other breeds. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to compare different horse breeds in relation to allergen content in hair and airborne dust samples...
2018: PloS One
Falk Melzer, Astrid Raßbach, Astrid Köenig-Mozes, Mandy Carolina Elschner, Herbert Tomaso, Anne Busch
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Taylorella equigenitalis strain 210217RC10635, a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the genus Taylorella and the order Burkholderiales. Taylorella equigenitalis is the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM). The strain reported here was isolated in 2017 from a German stallion.
September 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
V Jagannathan, V Gerber, S Rieder, J Tetens, G Thaller, C Drögemüller, T Leeb
Whole-genome sequencing studies are vital to gain a thorough understanding of genomic variation. Here, we summarize the results of a whole-genome sequencing study comprising 88 horses and ponies from diverse breeds at 19.1× average coverage. The paired-end reads were mapped to the current EquCab3.0 horse reference genome assembly, and we identified approximately 23.5 million single nucleotide variants and 2.3 million short indel variants. Our dataset included at least 7 million variants that were not previously reported...
December 7, 2018: Animal Genetics
D Pollard, C E Wylie, J R Newton, K L P Verheyen
BACKGROUND: Previous robust epidemiological studies of equine laminitis have utilised only veterinary-diagnosed episodes of disease, potentially underestimating true disease frequency. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of, and describe clinical signs associated with, owner-reported active laminitis in horses/ponies, using both veterinary-diagnosed and non-veterinary-diagnosed episodes. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. METHODS: Data were collected from horse/pony owners in Great Britain between August 2014 and December 2016 using a web-based application...
December 5, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Gijsbert Wieringa
The 20th century digital revolution has already seen the introduction of faster, more diverse, easier to use technologies with extended capacity and capability that has enhanced productivity in Laboratory Medicine and allowed more effective use of human resource. With increasing demands for better health and best care the challenge to future healthcare systems is to deploy technology, facilities and human resources more effectively. For the 21st century the digital age heralds opportunities for information-led technology providers to become healthcare providers when algorithm driven care can support patients' needs at the point of care close to or in their homes...
December 4, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Danielle M Fitzgerald, Donald M Walsh, Martin N Sillence, Christopher C Pollitt, Melody A de Laat
BACKGROUND: Supraphysiological insulin and incretin responses to a cereal-based diet have been described in horses and ponies with insulin dysregulation (ID). However, the hormonal responses to grazing have not yet been described. OBJECTIVES: To determine if there is a difference in the insulin and incretin responses to grazing pasture between insulin-dysregulated and healthy ponies. ANIMALS: A cohort of 16 ponies comprising 5 with normal insulin regulation (NIR), 6 with moderate ID (MID), and 5 with severe ID (SID)...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Laurent Hébert, Edouard Guitton, Anthony Madeline, Tristan Géraud, Stéphan Zientara, Claire Laugier, Aymeric Hans, Philippe Büscher, Julien Cauchard, Sandrine Petry
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of melarsomine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan® ) to cure horses suffering from a nervous form of dourine, a sexually-transmitted disease caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum. The recently described experimental model for assessing drug efficacy against horse trypanosomosis allowed us to obtain eight horses (Welsh pony mares) infected by T. equiperdum with parasites in their cerebrospinal fluid. The Cymelarsan® treatment evaluated consisted of the daily administration of 0...
December 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
E M Norton, N E Schultz, A K Rendahl, R J Geor, J R Mickelson, M E McCue
BACKGROUND: Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is a complex clinical disorder with both environmental and genetic factors contributing to EMS phenotypes. Estimates of heritability determine the proportion of variation in a trait that is attributable to genetics. OBJECTIVES: To provide heritability estimates for nine metabolic traits associated with EMS in two high-risk breeds. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data was used to estimate the heritability (h2 SNP ) of nine metabolic traits relevant to EMS in a cohort of 264 Welsh ponies and 286 Morgan horses...
November 25, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Rachael E Antwis, Jessica M D Lea, Bryony Unwin, Susanne Shultz
BACKGROUND: Microbiome composition is linked to host functional traits including metabolism and immune function. Drivers of microbiome composition are increasingly well-characterised; however, evidence of group-level microbiome convergence is limited and may represent a multi-level trait (i.e. across individuals and groups), whereby heritable phenotypes are influenced by social interactions. Here, we investigate the influence of spatial structuring and social interactions on the gut microbiome composition of Welsh mountain ponies...
November 22, 2018: Microbiome
Doreen Scharner, Claudia Gittel, Karsten Winter, Dominique Blaue, Carola Schedlbauer, Ingrid Vervuert, Walter Brehm
Background: Development of incisional complications following ventral median celiotomy might depend on suture pattern for skin closure. Methods: In this prospective study, 21 healthy male horses underwent celiotomy. Skin closure was either performed via a continuous percutaneous pattern (CO group; 5 warmbloods/5 ponies) or an intradermal pattern (ID group; 5 warmbloods/6 ponies). Follow-up examination of the incisional site included daily monitoring for edema, dehiscence, and drainage...
2018: PeerJ
Alessia Cappelli, Aida Capone, Matteo Valzano, Jovana Bozic, Silvia Preziuso, Priscilla Mensah, Ilaria Varotto Boccazzi, Laura Rinaldi, Guido Favia, Irene Ricci
Tick-borne diseases are an increasing problem for the community. Ticks harbor a complex microbial population acquired while feeding on a variety of animals. Profiling the bacterial population by 16S rDNA amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis enables detection of the broad spectrum of bacteria that settles in the ticks. This study identified known and unknown tick-infecting bacteria in samples from Italy. Seven adult ticks from different hosts and origins were analyzed: two Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from dogs (Lombardia), two Rhipicephalus bursa ticks from bovines (Lazio), and three Ixodes ricinus ticks from humans (Marche)...
November 10, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
R Horn, N J Bamford, T Afonso, M Sutherland, J Buckerfield, R H H Tan, C J Secombe, A J Stewart, F R Bertin
BACKGROUND: Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is a commonly described endocrine disorder in higher latitudes of the Northern hemisphere but the description of the disease at lower latitudes and in the Southern hemisphere is limited. OBJECTIVES: Document the clinical features of PPID at different Australian latitudes and climates, and investigate factors associated with survival, laminitis and insulin dysregulation (ID). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of 274 equids from 8 institutions across Australia...
November 12, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Julien Racine, Beatriz Vidondo, Alessandra Ramseyer, Christoph Koch
OBJECTIVE: To describe a closed castration technique in standing equids, report associated complications, and identify potential risk factors. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of 300 standing equids that were castrated with the Henderson Equine Castrating Instrument. METHODS: Thirteen participating veterinarians recorded intraoperative difficulties and postoperative complications. Descriptive statistics, univariate analyses with Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regressions were used to evaluate intraoperative difficulties and postoperative complications and to assess risk factors for postoperative complications...
October 27, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Junqi Zhu, Michel Génard, Stefano Poni, Gregory A Gambetta, Philippe Vivin, Gilles Vercambre, Michael C T Trought, Nathalie Ollat, Serge Delrot, Zhanwu Dai
The growth of fleshy fruits is still poorly understood resulting from the complex integration of water and solute fluxes, cell structural properties, and the regulation of whole plant source-sink relationships. To unravel the contribution of these processes on berry growth, a biophysical grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry growth module was developed and integrated with a whole-plant functional-structural model, and was calibrated on two varieties, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese. The model well captured the variations in growth and sugar accumulation caused by environmental conditions, changes in leaf-to-fruit ratio, plant water status, and varietal differences with obvious future application in predicting yield and maturity under a variety of production contexts and regional climates...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ziyad Al-Kass, J Spergser, Christine Aurich, Juliane Kuhl, Kathrin Schmidt, J M Morrell
Bacteria contaminate semen during collection and handling. The objective of this study was to identify the bacteria in pony stallion semen, the effects of antibiotics included in commercial semen extenders (Lincomycin and Spectinomycin), and the effect of modified single layer centrifugation (MSLC), on bacterial load. Ejaculates from six pony stallions, 3 ejaculates per animal, were extended in EquiPlus extender either with or without antibiotics. Aliquots were processed by MSLC to form four treatment groups: control and MSLC with antibiotics (CA and SA, respectively); and control and MSLC without antibiotics (CW and SW, respectively)...
October 23, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Efraim A Serna-Galvis, Jean A Troyon, Stefanos Giannakis, Ricardo A Torres-Palma, Claudio Minero, Davide Vione, Cesar Pulgarin
This work uncovers the implications of the estimation of exogenous inactivation rates for E. coli after the initial lag phase, and presents a strategy for the determination of the second-order inactivation rate constants (k2nd ) of these bacteria with relevant transient species promoted by solar light in natural waters. For this purpose, specific precursors were considered (nitrate ion, rose bengal, anthraquinone-2-sulfonate) as well as the respective photo-generated transient species (i.e., hydroxyl radical (•OH), singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) and triplet excited states)...
October 6, 2018: Water Research
A Bonometto, A Feola, F Rampazzo, C Gion, D Berto, E Ponis, R Boscolo Brusà
Coastal salt marshes are among the Earth's most productive ecosystems and provide a number of ecosystem services. Water quality regulation by storing, transforming and releasing nutrients, organic matter and suspended sediment is recognized as one of the most important functions of salt marshes. The self-purification capacity of intertidal ecosystems contributes to mitigating nutrient inputs, acting as a buffer zone between watersheds and coastal waters, especially in relation to climate change and the increasing frequency of impulsive extreme events...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Alejandro Corrales-Hernández, Daniel Mota-Rojas, Isabel Guerrero-Legarreta, Patricia Roldan-Santiago, Selene Rodríguez-Salinas, Ariadna Yáñez-Pizaña, Luis de la Cruz, Miguel González-Lozano, Patricia Mora-Medina
The horse welfare at markets includes fatigue, fear, fasting, dehydration and injuries. However, the scientific literature contains no readily-available information on the physiology responses of equids sold in livestock markets. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of holding in livestock markets on gas exchange, the acid-base balance, energy metabolism, and the mineral and water balance in 4 types of horses ( Equus caballus ), donkeys ( Equus asinus ) and mules (( Equus asinus  ×  Equus caballus )...
June 2018: International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine
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