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Efraim A Serna-Galvis, Jean A Troyon, Stefanos Giannakis, Ricardo A Torres-Palma, Claudio Minero, Davide Vione, Cesar Pulgarin
This work uncovers the implications of the estimation of exogenous inactivation rates for E. coli after the initial lag phase, and presents a strategy for the determination of the second-order inactivation rate constants (k2nd ) of these bacteria with relevant transient species promoted by solar light in natural waters. For this purpose, specific precursors were considered (nitrate ion, rose bengal, anthraquinone-2-sulfonate) as well as the respective photo-generated transient species (i.e., hydroxyl radical (•OH), singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) and triplet excited states)...
October 6, 2018: Water Research
A Bonometto, A Feola, F Rampazzo, C Gion, D Berto, E Ponis, R Boscolo Brusà
Coastal salt marshes are among the Earth's most productive ecosystems and provide a number of ecosystem services. Water quality regulation by storing, transforming and releasing nutrients, organic matter and suspended sediment is recognized as one of the most important functions of salt marshes. The self-purification capacity of intertidal ecosystems contributes to mitigating nutrient inputs, acting as a buffer zone between watersheds and coastal waters, especially in relation to climate change and the increasing frequency of impulsive extreme events...
September 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alejandro Corrales-Hernández, Daniel Mota-Rojas, Isabel Guerrero-Legarreta, Patricia Roldan-Santiago, Selene Rodríguez-Salinas, Ariadna Yáñez-Pizaña, Luis de la Cruz, Miguel González-Lozano, Patricia Mora-Medina
The horse welfare at markets includes fatigue, fear, fasting, dehydration and injuries. However, the scientific literature contains no readily-available information on the physiology responses of equids sold in livestock markets. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of holding in livestock markets on gas exchange, the acid-base balance, energy metabolism, and the mineral and water balance in 4 types of horses ( Equus caballus ), donkeys ( Equus asinus ) and mules (( Equus asinus  ×  Equus caballus )...
June 2018: International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine
Turke Shawaf, Jamal Hussen, Mohammed Al-Zoubi, Hassein Hamaash, Khalid Al-Busadah
The Shetland ponies, which originate from harshest environments in the world islands in the north of the Atlantic Ocean, are now most popular pony breed distributed in almost every corner of the world. Reference ranges of physiological, biochemical and haematological values, which are widely used in veterinary clinics, may differ according to season, age, sex, type of feeding, and environmental circumstances of the area. Reference ranges of haematological and biochemical values of Shetland ponies are rare. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the impact of season, age and sex on some haematological and biochemical values and cortisol levels in healthy ponies in Saudi Arabia...
June 2018: International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine
Ryota Funakoshi, Koji Masuda, Hidehiko Uchiyama, Mitsuaki Ohta
The study aimed to clarify the regularity of the motions of horse's back, rider's pelvis and spine associated with improvement of rider's dynamic trunk alignment. The study used a crossover design, with exercise using the horseback riding simulator (simulator hereafter) as the control condition. The experiments were conducted at Tokyo University of Agriculture Bio-therapy Center. The sample consisted of 20 healthy volunteers age 20-23 years. Participants performed 15-min sessions of horseback riding with a Hokkaido Pony and exercise using the simulator in experiments separated by ≥2 weeks...
September 2018: Heliyon
Alexandra Meier, Dania Reiche, Melody de Laat, Christopher Pollitt, Donald Walsh, Martin Sillence
There are no registered veterinary drugs for treating insulin dysregulation and preventing insulin-associated laminitis in horses. Velagliflozin is a sodium-glucose co-transport 2 inhibitor that reduces renal glucose reabsorption, promotes glucosuria, and consequently, decreases blood glucose and insulin concentrations. This study aimed to determine if velagliflozin reduced hyperinsulinemia and prevented laminitis in insulin-dysregulated ponies fed a challenge diet high in non-structural carbohydrates (NSC)...
2018: PloS One
Albert Torrent Crosa, Marc R Desjardins
OBJECTIVE To describe use of a modified open castration technique with a scrotal approach and primary closure in equids. DESIGN Prospective case series. ANIMALS 38 client-owned, sexually intact male equids. PROCEDURES With owner consent, elective castration was performed with a modified open technique on patients (1 pony, 1 miniature horse, and 36 horses of other breeds) under general anesthesia. The procedure included minimal dissection into the scrotal region for removal of testes, with cremaster muscles left intact and the parietal vaginal tunic closed in place...
October 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Nijolė Drazdienė, Rasa Tamelienė, Daiga Kviluna, Pille Saik, Ervin Saik, Jolanta Zaikauskienė
Background: By two years of age, almost all children experience at least one episode of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, the most common viral cause of hospitalisation due to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). We present data on LRTI hospitalisations (with a special focus on RSV), the course of illness, and LRTI hospitalisation risk factors in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. Materials and methods: The analysed data were part of a large multinational study conducted in 23 countries (PONI)...
2018: Acta Medica Lituanica
Jaakko K Sarin, Nikae C R Te Moller, Irina A D Mancini, Harold Brommer, Jetze Visser, Jos Malda, P René van Weeren, Isaac O Afara, Juha Töyräs
Arthroscopic assessment of articular tissues is highly subjective and poorly reproducible. To ensure optimal patient care, quantitative techniques (e.g., near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)) could substantially enhance arthroscopic diagnosis of initial signs of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, the potential of arthroscopic NIRS to simultaneously monitor progressive degeneration of cartilage and subchondral bone in vivo in Shetland ponies undergoing different experimental cartilage repair procedures...
September 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ilze Skujina, Clare L Winton, Matthew J Hegarty, Robert McMahon, Deborah M Nash, Mina C G Davies Morel, Neil R McEwan
Height is an important characteristic in the equine industry although little is known about its genetic control in native British breeds of ponies. This study aimed to map QTL data with the withers height in four pony breeds native to the British Isles, including two different sections within Welsh Cobs. In this study, a genome-wide analysis approach using the Illumina EquineSNP50 Infinium BeadChip was applied to 105 ponies and cobs. Analysis identified 222 highly significant height-associated SNPs (P ≤ 10-5 ), among which three SNPs on ECA9 have also been previously reported elsewhere...
September 5, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
F J W C Schaafstra, D A van Doorn, J T Schonewille, R van den Boom, M Verschuur, M C Blok, W H Hendriks
In equines, Cr2O3 is widely accepted as an indigestible marker, but there are health concerns regarding the carcinogenic properties of Cr2O3. Recently, TiO2 has been suggested to be an alternative digestibility marker in equines. However, a comparison between Cr2O3 and TiO2 has not been made in equines. Six Welsh pony geldings (initial BW: 254±3 kg; 7 years of age) fed chopped alfalfa hay were used to evaluate the use of TiO2 (Ti) and Cr2O3 (Cr) as markers for calculating apparent digestibility and to investigate the effect of frequency of marker administration on the measurement of digestibility values...
September 3, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Lauren Spinner, Lindsey Cameron, Rachel Calogero
Extensive evidence has documented the gender stereotypic content of children's media, and media is recognized as an important socializing agent for young children. Yet, the precise impact of children's media on the endorsement of gender-typed attitudes and behaviors has received less scholarly attention. We investigated the impact of stereotypic and counter-stereotypic peers pictured in children's magazines on children's gender flexibility around toy play and preferences, playmate choice, and social exclusion behavior ( n  = 82, age 4-7 years-old)...
2018: Sex Roles
Ellen Kienzle, Theresa Bockhorni
OBJECTIVE AND AIM: The nutritional status of 36 patients with equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) under pergolide treatment was investigated. ANIMALS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: The body condi tion score (BCS) and feeding were determined at the beginning of the study and after 60 and 120 days. Sampled blood for control of pergolid therapy were used for insulin and glucose measurement. A standardized questionnaire regarding the symptoms of the disease, including hypertrichosis and weight change, was completed by the owners...
August 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Tommaso Frioni, Dana Acimovic, Sergio Tombesi, Paolo Sivilotti, Alberto Palliotti, Stefano Poni, Paolo Sabbatini
Early leaf removal significantly alters the source-sink balance within grapevine shoots, leading to a reduction in fruit set. However, no research has previously examined the conditions controlling this process in terms of carbon allocation among major sink organs following defoliation. In this study, the impact of defoliation at bloom on the distribution dynamics of leaf assimilates among clusters and growing shoot apices was investigated on Vitis vinifera , cv. Pinot noir, grown in Michigan, a cool climate viticultural region...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Laura Barrachina, Ana Rosa Remacha, Antonio Romero, Arantza Vitoria, Jorge Albareda, Marta Prades, Mercedes Roca, Pilar Zaragoza, Francisco José Vázquez, Clementina Rodellar
BACKGROUND: This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness and safety of repeated administrations of allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) primed with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon-γ in an equine model of chemically-induced osteoarthritis. Arthritis was induced in both radio-carpal (RC)-joints by amphotericin-B in 18 ponies, divided into three groups depending on the treatment injected: MSC-naïve (n = 7), MSC-primed (n = 7) and control (n = 4)...
August 17, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
E J T Finding, C Lawson, J Elliott, P A Harris, N J Menzies-Gow
Microvesicles are small (up to 1 μm) vesicles found in plasma and other bodily fluids. They are recognised as part of the normal system of inter-cellular communication but altered numbers are also used as biomarkers of disease. Microvesicles have not been studied in detail in the horse but may be relevant to diseases such as laminitis. Identification of equine cell specific microvesicles was performed by developing a panel of cross reactive antibodies to use in flow cytometry to detect microvesicles of platelet, leucocyte and endothelial origin in plasma from healthy ponies and those predisposed to laminitis...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Michelle C Coleman, Jim K Belknap, Susan C Eades, Hannah L Galantino-Homer, Robert J Hunt, Ray J Geor, Molly E McCue, C Wayne McIlwraith, Rustin M Moore, John F Peroni, Hugh G Townsend, Nathaniel A White, Kevin J Cummings, Renata Ivanek-Miojevic, Noah D Cohen
OBJECTIVE To investigate risk factors for the development of pasture- and endocrinopathy-associated laminitis (PEAL) in horses and ponies in North America. DESIGN Case-control study. ANIMALS 199 horses with incident cases of PEAL and 351 horses from 2 control populations (healthy horses [n = 198] and horses with lameness not caused by laminitis [153]) that were evaluated in North America between January 2012 and December 2015 by veterinarian members of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. PROCEDURES North American members of the American Association of Equine Practitioners were contacted to participate in the study, and participating veterinarians provided historical data on incident cases of PEAL, each matched with a healthy control and a lameness control...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Nguyen Van Ha, Omar M Amin, Ha Duy Ngo, Richard A Heckmann
Males of Cathayacanthus spinitruncatus Amin, Heckmann & Ha, 2014 (Rhadinorhynchinae Lühe, 1912) are described for the first time from Leiognathus equulus in Hai Phong and Nha Trang and from pony fish Nuchequula flavaxilla in Quang Ninh in the Pacific waters of Vietnam. The male allotype status is designated. Males of C. spinitruncatus are smaller and have fewer and smaller proboscis hooks and trunk spines than females. The male reproductive structures are in the posterior fifth of the trunk and with 6 club-shaped cement glands gradually merging into 6 independent cement gland ducts...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Linda Önnby, Elisabeth Salhi, Garrett McKay, Fernando L Rosario-Ortiz, Urs von Gunten
Oxidation processes are impacted by the type, concentration and reactivity of the dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this study, the reactions between various types of DOM (Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA), Nordic Reservoir NOM (NNOM) and Pony Lake fulvic acid (PLFA)) and two oxidants (ozone and chlorine) were studied in the pH range 2-9 by using a combination of optical measurements and electron donating capacities. The relationships between residual electron donating capacity (EDC) and residual absorbance showed a strong pH dependence for the ozone-DOM reactions with phenolic functional groups being the main reacting moieties...
June 27, 2018: Water Research
Romain Paillot, Dion Garrett, Maria R Lopez-Alvarez, Ihlan Birand, Fernando Montesso, Linda Horspool
Vaccination is one of the most effective tools for limiting the impact of equine influenza (EI). The humoral immunity established following a primary vaccination course can decrease significantly between the second (V2) and third immunisations (V3), leaving some horses insufficiently protected for several weeks. This so-called "immunity gap" poses a challenge to all EI vaccines. During this period, the EI infection of vaccinated animals may be followed by marked clinical signs and virus shedding. However, several EI vaccines have been shown to stimulate equine influenza virus (EIV)-specific cell-mediated immunity, which is likely to play a role in protection against EIV infection and/or mitigate the clinical and virological signs of EI...
July 2, 2018: Vaccines
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