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Aliai Lanci, Carolina Castagnetti, Saverio Ranciati, Chiara Sergio, Jole Mariella
In the mare, foaling is a critical unpredictable event due to a wide range of gestational length and the absence of clear signs of impending parturition. To predict foaling, pH, inversion sodium potassium and increase of calcium concentration in mammary secretions are used. The aim of this study was to find how many days are left until parturition knowing mare's age (A) and parity (P) combined with ultrasonographic measurements of the fetal orbit in Standardbred mares with normal pregnancy. Eighty healthy Standardbred mares with normal pregnancy were hospitalized for attended delivery...
December 10, 2018: Theriogenology
M J DiVincenzo, J D Bonagura, L Rings, T A Burns, R E Cianciolo, R Kohnken
An 8-month-old Hanoverian gelding was presented with a history of cardiac murmurs that were not apparent as a foal nor reported at the time of castration. Major echocardiographic findings included mitral valvular thickening, functional stenosis, and mitral regurgitation of sufficient severity to cause diastolic and systolic cardiac murmurs, left-sided volume overload, and pulmonary hypertension. Due to the hemodynamic severity of the lesion and poor prognosis for future performance and longevity, euthanasia was elected...
December 2018: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Eli H S Hendrickson, Sigrid Lykkjen, Nils I Dolvik, Kristin Olstad
BACKGROUND: Young Standardbred horses frequently develop fragments in joints. Some fragments represent osteochondrosis; others are considered developmental, but it is uncertain whether they result from preceding osteochondrosis. Osteochondrosis occurs as a consequence of failure of the cartilage canal blood supply and ischaemic chondronecrosis. In heritably predisposed foals, failure was associated with incorporation of vessels into bone. However, bacterial vascular failure was also recently documented in foals suffering spontaneous infections, proving that bacteria can cause osteochondral lesions in foals up to 150 days old...
December 10, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Asha Recino, Shu Uin Gan, Kian Chuan Sia, Yvonne Sawyer, Jenny Trendell, Richard Kay, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann, Rob Foale, Maria Notaridou, Nick Holmes, Andrew Lever, Kok Onn Lee, Amit Nathwani, Anne Cooke, Roy Calne, Maja Wallberg
We report the restoration of euglycaemia in chemically induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice and spontaneously diabetic Non Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice by intravenous systemic administration of a single-stranded adeno-associated virus (ssAAV2/8) codon optimised (co) vector encoding furin cleavable human proinsulin under a liver-specific promoter. There were no immunological barriers to efficacy of insulin gene therapy in chemically induced C57BL/6 mice, which enjoyed long-lasting correction of hyperglycaemia after therapy, up to 250 days...
December 4, 2018: Gene Therapy
Anna Karolina Matczuk, Małgorzata Skarbek, Natalia Anna Jackulak, Barbara Anna Bażanów
BACKGROUND: Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is one of the main infectious causative agents of abortion in mares and can also be associated with stillbirth, neonatal foal death, rhinopneumonitis in young horses and a neurological disorder called equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). The neuropathogenicity of the virus was shown to be significantly higher in EHV-1 strains that carry a single nucleotide point (SNP) mutation in the ORF30, which encodes a catalytic subunit of viral DNA polymerase (ORF30 D752 )...
December 3, 2018: Virology Journal
J Jaworska, T Janowski
Retained fetal membranes (RFM) is a prevalent postpartum disease in mares. During parturition, various proinflammatory cytokines are released in the placenta, which further facilitates uterine contractions, expulsion of the fetus and fetal membranes. We hypothesized that an altered inflammatory response in mares results in retained fetal membranes. Samples of the endometrium and the allantochorion were collected from 15 mares with RFM and from 29 control mares within 2 h of foal delivery. Next, the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα proteins was analyzed by Real Time PCR and Western blot...
November 27, 2018: Theriogenology
Frida Martin, Johan Höglund, Tomas F Bergström, Oskar Karlsson Lindsjö, Eva Tydén
The aims of this study were to determine the species of Parascaris present in foals in Sweden and to establish whether anthelmintic resistance to pyrantel and fenbendazole is present on Swedish stud farms. Ascarid eggs collected from different regions in Sweden were karyotyped and were all identified as Parascaris univalens, characterized by one chromosomal pair. Faecal egg count reduction tests were performed on a total of 142 foals on 9 farms between September 2016 and May 2017. Healthy foals with at least 150 eggs per gram faeces (EPG) were included in the study and treated with oral pastes of pyrantel embonate or fenbendazole according to manufacturer instructions...
December 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Rafael Françoso, Amanda Vallone Riccio, Claudia Barbosa Fernandes, Maria Augusta Alonso, Carla Bargi Belli
Equine piroplasmosis, disease globally responsible for significant economic losses, is caused by the transmission of the hemoprotozoa Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by ticks. Transplacental transmission has been reported previously in horses, which is not the case for mules´ foals. The present study investigated, by Real Time-PCR (RT-PCR), the presence of both Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in newborn mules before the ingestion of colostrum. Blood samples of 18 mares and their respective mules´ foals were collected and analyzed by RT-PCR...
December 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Sandra Schöniger, Hilke Gräfe, Maritta Wipplinger, Heinz-Adolf Schoon
In mares, placental diseases are a common cause of pregnancy failure and they can have an economic impact on the horse breeding industry. To our knowledge no published data on TLR expression in the equine placenta exist. This study examined the expression of TLR 2, 4 and 6 as transcript and protein in the placenta (chorioallantois) of 14 foals born alive. By PCR, all examined placental samples contained TLR 2, 4 and 6 transcripts. Using immunohistochemistry, trophoblasts and allantoic epithelium were immunopositive for TLR 2, 4 and 6 in all placental samples...
December 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Boglárka Vincze, Ferenc Baska, Márton Papp, Ottó Szenci
Prepartum fetal surveillance techniques have been widely used in both human and veterinary obstetrics, although these tests differ in their sensitivity for the assessment of fetal well-being. In equine reproduction, the 'gold standard' examination technique is the equine biophysical profile (EBP) described by Virginia Reef in 1995. Although this fetal assessment has many benefits, its accuracy, sensitivity and specificity have not been evaluated so far. In this study, 129 late-term pregnant mares were scanned twice in their last month of gestation using two different protocols (the EBP and a new, rapid examination protocol, REP) in order to determine the accuracy of these tests...
November 13, 2018: Theriogenology
Rachael E Antwis, Jessica M D Lea, Bryony Unwin, Susanne Shultz
BACKGROUND: Microbiome composition is linked to host functional traits including metabolism and immune function. Drivers of microbiome composition are increasingly well-characterised; however, evidence of group-level microbiome convergence is limited and may represent a multi-level trait (i.e. across individuals and groups), whereby heritable phenotypes are influenced by social interactions. Here, we investigate the influence of spatial structuring and social interactions on the gut microbiome composition of Welsh mountain ponies...
November 22, 2018: Microbiome
R E Ellerbrock, I F Canisso, P J Roady, L T Rothrock, L Zhong, P Wilkins, L Dirikolu, F S Lima, J Honoroto
BACKGROUND: In select cases, enrofloxacin may be an alternative antibacterial agent to treat unresponsive infections in pregnant mares. Supratherapeutic doses of enrofloxacin are toxic to adult horses and also to newborn foals, however, it is unknown if enrofloxacin crosses the equine placenta or if it is toxic to the foetus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diffusion of enrofloxacin and its metabolite to foetal fluids and its effects on foetal cartilage when administered to pregnant mares...
November 18, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Iman Mehdizadeh Gohari, Patrick Boerlin, John F Prescott
NetF-producing type A Clostridium perfringens, a pathotype of C. perfringens, causes necrotizing enteritis in neonatal foals and necrotizing and hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs. Recent core genome multilocus sequence typing study revealed that netF+ C. perfringens strains belong to two distinct clonal populations (clonal complexes I and II). There are no reports on susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs of isolates from this pathotype. The susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial drugs of 49 netF+ strains recovered from foals or dogs with necrotizing enteritis in Canada, the United States, and Switzerland was assessed using a commercial microdilution panel designed for anaerobic human pathogens...
November 15, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Lisa J Hill, Ben Mead, Chloe N Thomas, Simon Foale, Elena Feinstein, Martin Berry, Richard J Blanch, Zubair Ahmed, Ann Logan
Purpose: Elevations in intraocular pressure (IOP) are associated with the development of glaucoma and loss of sight. High transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) 1 levels in the eye's anterior chamber can lead to dysfunctional contractions through RhoA signaling in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and IOP spikes. Sustained high TGF-β levels leads to TM fibrosis and sustained increases in IOP. We investigated whether inhibiting RhoA, using a siRNA-mediated RhoA (siRhoA), controls IOP by altering TM expression of fibrosis and contractility-related proteins in a rodent model of glaucoma...
2018: Molecular Vision
I Elsohaby, C B Riley, J T McClure
BACKGROUND: Neonatal foals with failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) are at higher risk of morbidity and mortality. Successful treatment of FTPI is time-dependent, thus rapid and accurate measurement of serum IgG concentration is important for the management and care of neonatal foals. OBJECTIVES: To validate the use of digital and optical refractometers for assessing FTPI in neonatal foals and compare the diagnostic performance and level of agreement of the two refractometers to the reference standard radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay...
November 12, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Iman Mehdizadeh Gohari, Eric K Brefo-Mensah, Michael Palmer, Patrick Boerlin, John F Prescott
NetF-producing type A Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of canine and foal necrotizing enteritis. NetF, related to the β-sheet pore-forming Leukocidin/Hemolysin superfamily, is considered a major virulence factor for this disease. The main purpose of this work is to demonstrate the pore-forming activity of NetF and characterize the chemical nature of its binding site. Electron microscopy using recombinant NetF (rNetF) confirmed that NetF is able to oligomerize and form large pores in equine ovarian (EO) cell membranes and sheep red blood cells...
2018: PloS One
Friday Ocheja Zakari, Joseph Olusegun Ayo, Peter Ibrahim Rekwot, Mohammed Umar Kawu, Ndazo Salka Minka
The aim of the study was to evaluate daily rhythms of rectal temperature (RT) and body surface temperature (BST) of adult, yearling and foal donkeys during the cold-dry (harmattan) and hot-dry seasons in a tropical savanna. The RTs and BSTs of 30 clinically healthy, free-ranging donkeys were recorded using digital and infrared thermometers. The RT and BST of each donkey and thermal environmental parameters inside the pen were measured bi-hourly from 0600 to 0600 hours (GM + 1) on each experimental day. Application of single cosinor procedure showed that RT and BST exhibited varying levels of daily rhythmicity in both seasons, with values usually higher during the afternoon periods of the photophase of the light/dark cycle...
December 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Laura Huber, Steeve Giguère, Nathan M Slovis, Craig N Carter, Bonnie S Barr, Noah D Cohen, Justine Elam, Erdal Erol, Stephan J Locke, Erica D Phillips, Jacqueline L Smith
Objective: To determine the prevalence of R. equi strains resistant to macrolides and rifampicin over time in clinical samples from foals submitted to diagnostic laboratories in central Kentucky. Methods: Retrospective observational study of all clinical samples from foals that were submitted to veterinary diagnostics laboratories in Kentucky between January 1995 and December 2017. Samples were included if R. equi was cultured and tested for in vitro susceptibility to erythromycin or rifampicin. Results: In vitro susceptibility to erythromycin was available for 2169 isolates of R...
October 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
A M de Mestre, B V Rose, Y M Chang, D C Wathes, K L P Verheyen
Early pregnancy loss (EPL) between days 15-65 after breeding has been shown to occur in 7.9% of equine pregnancies with substantial economical, welfare and safety implications. Whilst maternal age has been recognised as an important risk factor in relation to the incidence of EPL, few other risk factors have been conclusively identified. Further, multivariable data analysis of risk factors for EPL is sparse. A prospective cohort investigation of thoroughbred broodmares in the United Kingdom was conducted over the 2013 and 2014 breeding seasons...
January 15, 2019: Theriogenology
Vitória Müller, Bruna R Curcio, Ramiro E Toribio, Lorena S Feijó, Luciana A Borba, Igor F Canisso, Carlos E W Nogueira
This study aimed to evaluate steroid hormones in foals born from mares treated for ascending placentitis with different combinations of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMS), flunixin meglumine (FM), long-acting altrenogest (ALT) and estradiol cypionate (ECP) for ten consecutive days, starting two days after experimental induction of placentitis with Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Fourty-six pregnant mares and respective foals were assigned as healthy group (Control, n = 8) or treated groups as follows: TMS+FM (n = 8), TMS+FM+ALT (n = 8), TMS+FM+ALT+ECP (n = 6), TMS+FM+ECP (n = 6) and no treatment (NO TREAT n = 10)...
January 1, 2019: Theriogenology
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