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Vitória Müller, Bruna R Curcio, Ramiro E Toribio, Lorena S Feijó, Luciana A Borba, Igor F Canisso, Carlos E W Nogueira
This study aimed to evaluate steroid hormones in foals born from mares treated for ascending placentitis with different combinations of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMS), flunixin meglumine (FM), long-acting altrenogest (ALT) and estradiol cypionate (ECP) for ten consecutive days, starting two days after experimental induction of placentitis with Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Fourty-six pregnant mares and respective foals were assigned as healthy group (Control, n = 8) or treated groups as follows: TMS+FM (n = 8), TMS+FM+ALT (n = 8), TMS+FM+ALT+ECP (n = 6), TMS+FM+ECP (n = 6) and no treatment (NO TREAT n = 10)...
June 30, 2018: Theriogenology
Mohamed Dilai, Mohammed Piro, Mehdi El Harrak, Stéphanie Fougerolle, Mohammed Dehhaoui, Asmaa Dikrallah, Loïc Legrand, Romain Paillot, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri
To evaluate the humoral immune response to mixed Equine Influenza vaccination, a common practice in the field, an experimental study was carried out on 42 unvaccinated thoroughbred weanling foals divided into six groups of seven. Three groups were vaccinated using a non-mixed protocol (Equilis® Prequenza-Te, Proteqflu-Te® or Calvenza-03® ) and three other groups were vaccinated using a mix of the three vaccines mentioned previously. Each weanling underwent a primary EI vaccination schedule composed of two primary immunisations (V1 and V2) four weeks apart followed by a third boost immunisation (V3) six months later...
October 4, 2018: Vaccines
Jennifer M Willingham-Lane, Garry B Coulson, Mary K Hondalus
Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular bacterium of macrophages and is an important pathogen of animals and immunocompromised people wherein disease results in abcessation of the lungs and other sites. Prior work has shown that the presence of the major virulence determinant, VapA, encoded on the pVAPA-type plasmid, disrupts normal phagosome development and is essential for bacterial replication within macrophages. pVAPA- type plasmids are typical of R. equi strains derived from foals while strains from pigs carry plasmids of the pVAPB-type, lacking vapA, and those from humans harbor various types of plasmids including pVAPA and pVAPB...
2018: PloS One
N M Collins, J B Carrick, C M Russell, J E Axon
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hypernatraemia in foals presenting as medical emergencies to an intensive care unit (ICU) to determine the prevalence, clinical findings, primary diagnosis and outcome. METHODS: Retrospective case study of records from Thoroughbred foals aged less than 3 months that presented to an ICU as medical emergencies in 2002-12. Data retrieved included signalment, clinical findings, laboratory results, primary diagnosis and outcome. Foals with hypernatraemia (serum sodium > 145 mmol/L) on admission laboratory data were identified and further evaluated...
October 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
Alejandro Corrales-Hernández, Daniel Mota-Rojas, Isabel Guerrero-Legarreta, Patricia Roldan-Santiago, Selene Rodríguez-Salinas, Ariadna Yáñez-Pizaña, Luis de la Cruz, Miguel González-Lozano, Patricia Mora-Medina
The horse welfare at markets includes fatigue, fear, fasting, dehydration and injuries. However, the scientific literature contains no readily-available information on the physiology responses of equids sold in livestock markets. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of holding in livestock markets on gas exchange, the acid-base balance, energy metabolism, and the mineral and water balance in 4 types of horses ( Equus caballus ), donkeys ( Equus asinus ) and mules (( Equus asinus  ×  Equus caballus )...
June 2018: International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine
Marcin Kalinowski, Zbigniew Grądzki, Łukasz Jarosz, Łukasz Adaszek
Rhodococcus equi (R. hoagii) is an opportunistic pathogen commonly found in foals up to 6 months old and animal environment. The R. equi genome contains genetically stable chromosomal DNA and an 80-90 kb plasmid containing vapA gene, responsible for virulence. Most reports from around the world focus on the determination of R. equi plasmid profiles. Few studies have attempted to determine differences in nucleotide sequences between virulent strains of R. equi isolated from foals and breeding environment. The aim of the study was to perform a molecular analysis of a fragment of the chromosomal gene encoding the 16S rRNA subunit and the vapA plasmid gene of virulent R...
2018: PloS One
Kristine von Bargen, Mirella Scraba, Ina Krämer, Maren Ketterer, Christian Nehls, Sina Krokowski, Urska Repnik, Michaela Wittlich, Anna Maaser, Pia Zapka, Madeleine Bunge, Martin Schlesinger, Gitta Huth, Annette Klees, Philipp Hansen, Andreas Jeschke, Gerd Bendas, Olaf Utermöhlen, Gareth Griffiths, Thomas Gutsmann, Jens Wohlmann, Albert Haas
Professional phagocytic cells such as macrophages are a central part of innate immune defense. They ingest microorganisms into membrane-bound compartments (phagosomes) which acidify and eventually fuse with lysosomes, exposing their contents to a microbicidal environment. Gram-positive Rhodococcus equi can cause pneumonia in young foals and in immunocompromised humans. The possession of a virulence plasmid allows them to subvert host defence mechanisms and to multiply in macrophages. Here we show that the plasmid-encoded and secreted Virulence-associated protein A (VapA) participates in exclusion of the proton-pumping vacuolar-ATPase complex from phagosomes and causes membrane permeabilization, thus contributing to a pH-neutral phagosome lumen...
September 24, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Harutaka Murase, Akira Matsui, Yoshiro Endo, Fumio Sato, Tetsuro Hada
The lying behavior of Thoroughbred foals on breeding farms was continuously measured using triaxial accelerometers. Accelerometers were attached on the side of the hind limb cannon and under the halter of six foals to record triaxial angle data every 10 sec for a period of 24 hr. Lying behavior was divided into sternal lying and lateral lying based on head angle. Sampling was performed for two consecutive days each week until weaning. Sampling periods were divided into two periods on the basis of pasturing time: daytime pasturing (period A: 7-hr pasturing period, 2-60 days of age) and overnight pasturing (period B: 19-hr pasturing period, 32-152 days of age)...
September 2018: Journal of Equine Science
Tamara L Grubb, Danielle Kurkowski, Deborah C Sellon, Kathy K Seino, Todd Coffey, Jennifer L Davis
Buprenorphine is absorbed following sublingual administration, which would be a low-stress delivery route in foals. However, the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics are not described in foals. Six healthy foals <21 days of age participated in a blinded, randomized, 3-period, 5-sequence, 3-treatment crossover prospective study. Foals received 0.01-0.02 mg/kg buprenorphine administered SL or IV with an equivalent volume of saline administered by the opposite route. Blood was collected from the cephalic vein for pharmacokinetic analysis...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Katrin Hinrichs
A wide variety of assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) are available to aid in managing aspects of equine reproduction. Embryo recovery and transfer can be used to obtain more than one foal per mare per year, and to obtain foals from mares that cannot carry a foal to term. Oocyte recovery and either transfer to the oviduct of an inseminated recipient mare (oocyte transfer), or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo culture can be used to obtain foals from mares with some types of subfertility, such as problems of the tubular tract...
September 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Boglárka Vincze, Norbert Solymosi, Viktória Debnár, Gabriella Kútvölgyi, Eszter Krikó, Anna Wölfling, Ottó Szenci
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is best known in human obstetrics for its association with fetal anomalies recognized in the 1970s. Although this fetal protein had been shown to be present in the sera of many mammalian species, its possible diagnostic role in the detection of abnormalities was evaluated only later, when a research laboratory published variable levels of AFP in different groups of mares with pregnancy problems (twins, conception failure, placentitis, embryonic loss), and subsequently differences were demonstrated in its serum levels between aborted and healthy mares...
September 8, 2018: Theriogenology
Radana Karlíková, Jitka Široká, Marek Mech, David Friedecký, Hana Janečková, Lucie Mádrová, Františka Hrdinová, Zuzana Drábková, Olga Dobešová, Tomáš Adam, Petr Jahn
The case of atypical myopathy (AM) in newborn Haflinger foal with clinical signs of depression and weakness appearing 6 hours after birth resulting in recumbency 12 hours after birth is described. The foal's dam was diagnosed with AM in the 6th month of gestation based on clinical signs of a myopathy, elevated serum activity of creatine kinase, metabolomic analysis and the presence of methylenecyclopropyl acetyl carnitine (MCPA-carnitine) in the blood. At the time of delivery, the mare was grazing on a pasture near sycamore trees but was free of clinical signs of AM...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
L Reig Cordina, S R Werre, J A Brown
BACKGROUND: Umbilical remnant infection and patent urachus are an important cause of morbidity for the equine neonate. Left untreated, fatal complications can develop. Identifying risk factors for post-operative complications after surgery are important for estimating prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors associated with post-operative complications in foals undergoing umbilical remnant resection due to patent and/or infected umbilical remnants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series...
September 14, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
C Yang, S Weisbrode, J Yardley, E Schroeder, C Premanandan
Ischaemia-induced physeal injury has not been described previously in the horse. A 1-month-old Quarter horse foal was submitted for necropsy examination due to an acute onset of ataxia followed by a 4-week history of progressive decline. Focal narrowing of the spinal canal due to ventral compression by the rotation of the cranial aspect of the third cervical vertebra (C3) was observed. The metaphysis and diaphysis of C3 were markedly shortened and white-tan in colour. Microscopically, there was complete loss of the dorsal compact bone of C3 and replacement of 80% of the physis that runs parallel to the vertebral canal with fibrous tissue and thickened viable trabecular bone...
August 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Lena Ström, Måns Michanek, Björn Ekesten
OBJECTIVE: To investigate age-associated changes of flash visual evoked potentials (FVEPs) in sedated horses. ANIMAL STUDIED: Twenty-eight clinically healthy Standardbred Warmblooded trotters, aged 36 hours to 28 years. PROCEDURES: Light-adapted FVEPs and FERGs were recorded (An-vision RETIport, Roland-consult, Germany) in response to flash stimuli. Sedation was obtained using alpha-2-agonists intravenously. Akinesia of the eyelids was induced and pupils were dilated...
September 13, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Aristide Maggiolino, Josè Manuel Lorenzo, Rosaria Marino, Antonella Della Malva, Pasquale Centoducati, Pasquale De Palo
BACKGROUND: Cooked meat flavor arises through a combination of thermally generated aroma volatile and non-volatile compounds in a matrix of muscle fiber, connective tissue and fat.Ageing could affect meat odor, taste and flavor by the development of odors compounds in the raw product. The aim of the work is to assess the ageing effect on the volatile compounds profile by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of foal meat vacuum packaged storage at 4 °C for a period of 14 days...
September 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Peter J Carr, James C R Rippey, Marie L Cooke, Niall S Higgins, Michelle Trevenen, Aileen Foale, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: Most patients admitted to the hospital via the emergency department (ED) do so with a peripheral intravenous catheter/cannula (PIVC). Many PIVCs develop postinsertion failure (PIF). OBJECTIVE: To determine the independent factors predicting PIF after PIVC insertion in the ED. METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective clinical cohort study of ED-inserted PIVCs admitted to the hospital wards. Independent predictors of PIF were identified using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling...
October 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Friday O Zakari, Joseph O Ayo, Peter I Rekwot, Muhammed U Kawu, Ndazo S Minka
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of season on diurnal rhythms of heart (HR) and respiratory rates (RespR) in the adult, yearling, and foal donkeys during the cold-dry and hot-dry seasons under natural light/dark cycle. The resting HR and RespR were recorded bihourly for 24 consecutive hours from 06:00 to 06:00 h (GMT +1) in 30, clinically healthy donkeys (10 adults,10 yearlings, and 10 foals). Dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH), temperature-humidity index (THI) and wet-bulb globe temperature index (WBGT) inside the pen were recorded bihourly from 06:00 to 06:00 h...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Rebecca L Tallmadge, Minghui Wang, Qi Sun, Maria Julia B Felippe
During the neonatal period, the ability to generate immune effector and memory responses to vaccines or pathogens is often questioned. This study was undertaken to obtain a global view of the natural differences in the expression of immune genes early in life. Our hypothesis was that transcriptome analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of foals (on day 1 and day 42 after birth) and adult horses would show differential gene expression profiles that characterize natural immune processes. Gene ontology enrichment analysis provided assessment of biological processes affected by age, and a list of 897 genes with ≥2 fold higher (p<0...
2018: PloS One
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