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Peres Ramos Badial, Raffaella Bertoni Cavalcanti Teixeira, Diego José Zanzarini Delfiol, Ligia Souza Lima Silveira da Mota, Alexandre Secorun Borges
Overo lethal white foal syndrome (OLWFS) is a genetic disorder caused by a dinucleotide mutation in the endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) gene leading to the death of affected foals shortly after birth. The use of rapid and reliable genetic testing is imperative for the early diagnosis of the mutation avoiding, therefore, either additional suffering or the production of affected animals. In the present study, we developed and validated a high-resolution melting (HRM) genotyping assay to detect the OLWFS causative mutation, and we also determined the frequency of heterozygotes among American Paint horses in Brazil...
August 7, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Sercan Karav, Jaime Salcedo, Steven A Frese, Daniela Barile
The Thoroughbred is among the most valuable horse breeds, and its husbandry is a major industry. Mare's milk plays a major role in the health of neonatal foals. Although the main components of mare's milk are broadly characterized, free oligosaccharides (OS), which possess various bioactivities in many mammalian milks, have not been fully profiled in Thoroughbreds. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify OS in Thoroughbred mare's milk during the first week of lactation, when foals typically consume mare's milk exclusively...
August 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Manabu Nemoto, Mizuho Inagaki, Norihisa Tamura, Hiroshi Bannai, Koji Tsujimura, Takashi Yamanaka, Hiroshi Kokado
BACKGROUND: Equine group A rotaviruses (RVAs) cause diarrhea in suckling foals. The dominant RVAs circulating among horses worldwide, including Japan, are G3P[12] and/or G14P[12] genotypes. Inactivated vaccines containing a G3P[12] RVA are commercially available in some countries for prevention of diarrhea caused by equine RVAs. However, there is no reported evidence whether vaccines containing a G3P[12] RVA are effective against G14P[12] RVAs or whether using a G14P[12] RVA results in a more effective vaccine...
July 31, 2018: Vaccine
Dan L Baker, Jenny G Powers, Jason I Ransom, Blake E McCann, Michael W Oehler, Jason E Bruemmer, Nathan L Galloway, Douglas C Eckery, Terry M Nett
Wildlife and humans are increasingly competing for resources worldwide, and a diverse, innovative, and effective set of management tools is needed. Controlling abundance of wildlife species that are simultaneously protected, abundant, competitive for resources, and in conflict with some stakeholders but beloved by others, is a daunting challenge. Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus) present such a conundrum and managers struggle for effective tools for regulating their abundance. Controlling reproduction of female horses presents a potential alternative...
2018: PloS One
Constanze Hartmann, Laura Lidauer, Jörg Aurich, Christine Aurich, Christina Nagel
Observation of preparturient mares is labour-intensive and time requirements would be reduced with automated monitoring systems. Recently, small-size accelerometers have become available. We followed the hypothesis that increased restlessness in mares shortly before the expulsive stage of labour can be detected with such accelerometers. Accelerometers were attached medioventrally to the halter of eight late pregnant mares. To evaluate an influence of accelerometer position, in one mare two additional accelerometers were attached close to the mandibular and atlanto-occipital joints...
July 30, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
A M Becher, D C van Doorn, K Pfister, R M Kaplan, M Reist, M K Nielsen
Experts recommend a change in the control of equine parasites across the world in order to adopt a surveillance-based approach utilizing parasite faecal egg counts (FEC). Several European countries have implemented prescription-only restrictions of anthelmintic usage by law, which is in stark contrast to US, where all anthelmintic products continue to be available over the counter. This study aimed to describe and compare equine parasite control strategies employed in Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, US, and Denmark...
August 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Natalia Domanska-Kruppa, Monica Venner, Astrid Bienert-Zeit
Overjet is defined as the projection of the maxillary incisors labial to their antagonists in a horizontal direction. This malocclusion in horses can lead to incorrect dental wear and is aesthetically undesirable. Whether lengthening of the maxilla or shortening of the mandible causes the condition has not yet been determined. Therefore, a measurement technique was developed to investigate the correlations between skull bone measurements in overjet-affected individuals. The position of the incisors in 650 Warmblood foals born in a private German stud was examined at two weeks of age, revealing the prevalence of overjet to be 2 per cent...
July 24, 2018: Veterinary Record
Colette Cywes-Bentley, Joana N Rocha, Angela I Bordin, Mariana Vinacur, Safia Rehman, Tanweer S Zaidi, Mark Meyer, Sarah Anthony, McKenzie Lambert, Daniel R Vlock, Steeve Giguère, Noah D Cohen, Gerald B Pier
Immune correlates of protection against intracellular bacterial pathogens are largely thought to be cell-mediated, although a reasonable amount of data supports a role for antibody-mediated protection. To define a role for antibody-mediated immunity against an intracellular pathogen, Rhodococcus equi, that causes granulomatous pneumonia in horse foals, we devised and tested an experimental system relying solely on antibody-mediated protection against this host-specific etiologic agent. Immunity was induced by vaccinating pregnant mares 6 and 3 weeks prior to predicted parturition with a conjugate vaccine targeting the highly conserved microbial surface polysaccharide, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG)...
July 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Léa Lansade, Aline Foury, Fabrice Reigner, Marianne Vidament, Elodie Guettier, Gwenaelle Bouvet, Delphine Soulet, Céline Parias, Alice Ruet, Nuria Mach, Frédéric Lévy, Marie-Pierre Moisan
Early and definitive separation between offspring and their mothers has negative consequences on behavioral and physiological responses. This study compared sudden and definitive weaning (Sudd group, N = 16) and weaning involving progressive habituation to separation using a fence line during the month preceding definitive separation (Prog group, N = 18). The impact of these two methods was assessed in both foals and their mothers through behavioral and biological parameters, including salivary cortisol, telomere length and blood transcriptomes...
July 5, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Linda Wright, Sarah M Puchalski, Mads Kristoffersen, Casper Lindegaard
OBJECTIVE: To develop arthroscopic approaches to the atlanto-occipital (A-O) and describe associated arthroscopic anatomy. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental ex vivo study and clinical case report. ANIMALS: Ten equine cadaver joints and 1 clinical case. METHODS: CT arthrograms of 8 A-O joints were performed to determine the placement of an arthroscopic portal. Arthroscopy was performed via dorsal and/or ventral approaches (dorsal or ventral to the longissimus capitis tendon) in 10 cadaveric A-O joints and the A-O joint of a 2-week-old foal with septic arthritis...
July 13, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Karol Stasiak, Magdalena Dunowska, Jerzy Rola
BACKGROUND: Equid herpesviruses (EHVs) are widespread in equine populations worldwide. While the infection with equine α-herpesviruses (EHV-1 and EHV-4) has been linked to several clinical outcomes, the pathogenic potential for equine γ-herpesviruses (EHV-2 and EHV-5) is still unclear. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence of infection with EHVs among Polish horses, to investigate factors associated with EHV infections among horses sampled, and to determine genetic variability within Polish EHV-2 isolates...
July 11, 2018: Virology Journal
Joshua D Ramsay, Ryan Evanoff, Robert H Mealey
Hepacivirus A (also known as non-primate hepacivirus and equine hepacivirus) is a hepatotropic virus that can cause both transient and persistent infection in horses. The evolution of intrahost viral populations (quasispecies) has not been studied in detail for hepacivirus A and its roles in immune evasion and persistence are unknown. To address these knowledge gaps we evaluated the envelope gene (E1 and E2) diversity of two different hepacivirus A strains (WSU and CU) in longitudinal blood samples from experimentally infected adult horses, juvenile horses (foals) and foals with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Virology
Scott V Dindot, Ryan N Doan, Kyle R Kuskie, Paul R Hillman, Canaan M Whitfield, Cole M McQueen, Angela I Bordin, Jessica R Bourquin, Noah D Cohen
Neonates of all species, including foals, are highly susceptible to infection, and neutrophils play a crucial role in innate immunity to infection. Evidence exists that neutrophils of neonatal foals are functionally deficient during the first weeks of life, including expression of cytokine genes such as IFNG. We hypothesized that postnatal epigenetic changes were likely to regulate the observed age-related changes in foal neutrophils. Using ChIP-Seq, we identified significant differences in trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4, an epigenetic modification associated with active promoters and enhancers, in neutrophils in foals at 30 days of age relative to 1 day of age...
October 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Toby L Pinn, Thomas J Divers, Teresa Southard, Nikhita P De Bernardis, Joe J Wakshlag, Stephanie Valberg
A 12-hours-old Paint filly was examined because of weakness and dull mentation after birth. Despite IV administered dextrose, the foal remained persistently hypoglycemic with increase in serum activity of muscle and liver enzymes. A postmortem diagnosis of lipid myopathy most similar to multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) was confirmed by findings of myofiber lipid accumulation, elevated urine organic acids, and serum free acylcarnitines with respect to control foals. This report details a case of equine neonatal lipid storage myopathy with many biochemical characteristics of MADD...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Vincent Marolf, Alessandro Mirra, Nathalie Fouché, Cristobal Navas de Solis
A 3-day-old Swiss Warmblood colt was diagnosed with uroabdomen after urinary bladder rupture. The foal had classical electrolyte abnormalities (hyponatremia, hypochloremia and hyperkalemia) on presentation. The foal was supported prior to surgery with intravenous fluids and the electrolyte abnormalities were treated with physiologic saline, glucose and insulin. Urine could not be drained from the abdomen prior to surgery because the omentum was continuously occluding the drainage cannula and due to progressive abdominal distension, it was decided to pursue surgery without further correction of electrolyte abnormalities...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
N E Lean, N R Perkins, B J Ahern
BACKGROUND: Conventional radiography is currently the most common imaging modality used by veterinarians investigating foals with suspected osteomyelitis. Emerging evidence in adult horses and humans suggests computed tomography (CT) is a superior modality for evaluation of osseous changes in general. This study aimed to evaluate the potential benefits of CT versus conventional radiography in cases of osteomyelitis in foals. METHODS: Cases of osteomyelitis in foals under 6 months of age admitted over a 6-year period at a single referral hospital that had both CT and conventional radiography images were retrieved...
July 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
Luca Guardabassi, Mike Apley, John Elmerdahl Olsen, Pierre-Louis Toutain, Scott Weese
Optimization of antimicrobial treatment is a cornerstone in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Various national and international authorities and professional veterinary and farming associations have released generic guidelines on prudent antimicrobial use in animals. However, these generic guidelines need to be translated into a set of animal species- and disease-specific practice recommendations. This article focuses on prevention of antimicrobial resistance and its complex relationship with treatment efficacy, highlighting key situations where the current antimicrobial drug products, treatment recommendations, and practices may be insufficient to minimize antimicrobial selection...
May 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
S Quercia, F Freccero, C Castagnetti, M Soverini, S Turroni, E Biagi, S Rampelli, A Lanci, J Mariella, E Chinellato, P Brigidi, M Candela
BACKGROUND: Even if horses strictly depend on the gut microbiota for energy homeostasis, only a few molecular studies have focused on its characterisation and none on the perinatal gut microbial colonisation process. OBJECTIVES: To explore the perinatal colonisation process of the foal gut microbial ecosystem and the temporal dynamics of the ecosystem assembly during the first days of life. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal study. METHODS: Thirteen Standardbred mare-foal pairs were included in the study...
June 21, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Carmen Nacarino-Meneses, Meike Köhler
The annual cyclicality of cortical bone growth marks (BGMs) allows reconstruction of some important life history traits, such as longevity, growth rate or age at maturity. Little attention has been paid, however, to non-cyclical BGMs, though some record key life history events such as hatching (egg-laying vertebrates), metamorphosis (amphibians), or weaning (suggested for Microcebus and the hedgehog). Here, we investigate the relationship between non-cyclical BGMs and a stressful biological event in mammals: the moment of birth...
2018: PloS One
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