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Ian A Harris, Adrian Traeger, Ralph Stanford, Christopher G Maher, Rachelle Buchbinder
Lumbar spine fusion is a common procedure associated with a high cost burden and risk of serious complications. We aimed to summarise systematic reviews on the effectiveness of lumbar spine fusion for most diagnoses. We found no high-quality systematic reviews and the risk of bias of the randomised controlled trials in the reviews was generally high. The available evidence does not support a benefit from spine fusion compared to non-operative alternatives for back pain associated with degeneration. The available evidence does not support a clinical benefit from spine fusion compared to non-operative treatment or stabilisation without fusion for thoracolumbar burst fractures...
December 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
James Anderson, George Tay, George Denby, Jan Robinson, James Douglas, Peter Robinson, Deanne Curtin
Patients with neuromuscular diseases benefit from coordinated multidisciplinary care to achieve best outcomes. The integration of multi-specialty healthcare delivered in a single clinic can be challenging for service providers due to cost and resource limitation. Our cross-sectional survey of 53 adult patients with neuromuscular disease across Queensland revealed only 27% support the introduction of an integrated multidisciplinary clinic. The most cited reason for opposition to a multidisciplinary clinic was a perceived loss of contact with one's usual doctor...
December 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Lucie Sedláčková, Petra Laššuthová, Katalin Štěrbová, Jana Haberlová, Emílie Vyhnálková, Jana Neupauerová, David Staněk, Marie Šedivá, Pavel Kršek, Pavel Seeman
INTRODUCTION:  Neurodegenerative diseases of childhood present with progressive decline in cognitive, social, and motor function and are frequently associated with seizures in different stages of the disease. Here we report a patient with severe progressive neurodegeneration with drug-resistant epilepsy of unknown etiology from the age of 2 years. METHODS AND RESULTS:  Using whole exome sequencing, we found heterozygous missense de novo variant c.628G > A (p...
December 5, 2018: Neuropediatrics
Youichi Yanagawa, Kazuhiko Omori, Ikuto Takeuchi, Kei Jitsuiki, Hiromichi Ohsaka, Kouhei Ishikawa
Commercial or occupational breath-hold (BH) harvest divers along the coast and islands of Japan are collectively called Ama divers. Repetitive BH diving by Ama divers may place them at risk of developing neurological decompression sickness (DCS). We report a 74-year-old Ama diver who demonstrated right hemiparesis during an ascent after free diving at a depth of 5 metres' sea water. This report suggests the usefulness of on-site ultrasound for making a differential diagnosis of DCS from endogenous cerebral ischaemia...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
D Sylvain Zabsonre, Henri Lankoande, Chantal F C Zoungrana/Ouattara, Abdoulaye Thiombiano, Soumaila Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye Sanou, Pacome Yameogo, Sonia J E Kaboret-Douamba, Abel Kabre
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (spina bifidas or cephaloceles) are congenital malformations that can be associated with hydrocephalus. Even if the surgical management of each of these pathologies separately is well established, this is not the case for a combination of these conditions. AIM: To report our results of simultaneous or separate surgery for the association of hydrocephalus with neural tube defect in the same patient. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of the association of hydrocephalus with neural tube defect (spina bifida or cephalocele) managed over a period of 7 years at the Department of Neurosurgery, Yalgado Ouedraogo University Hospital, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso...
December 5, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Ana Clara Liberman, Emiliano Trias, Luana da Silva Chagas, Pablo Trindade, Marissol Dos Santos Pereira, Damian Refojo, Cecilia Hedin-Pereira, Claudio A Serfaty
An extensive microglial-astrocyte-monocyte-neuronal cross talk seems to be crucial for normal brain function, development, and recovery. However, under certain conditions neuroinflammatory interactions between brain cells and neuroimmune cells influence disease outcome and brain pathology. Microglial cells express a range of functional states with dynamically pleomorphic profiles from a surveilling status of synaptic transmission to an active player in major events of development such as synaptic elimination, regeneration, and repair...
December 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Wouter W de Herder, Jaume Capdevila
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Li Chen, Chao Huang, Zhuo Chen
Depression is a mental disease that causes severe economic and social burdens. The mechanism for the onset of depression remains largely unknown. Recently, more and more attention is being given to the role of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in depression. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a clinically available agent used to treat cholesterol gallstone and protect neurons against neurodegeneration, has been reported to prevent neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effect of TUDCA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like behavior, neuroinflammation, and oxido-nitrosative stress in mice...
December 5, 2018: Pharmacology
Yangzhou Liu, Shankun Zhao, Jiamin Wang, Zhiguo Zhu, Lianmin Luo, Ermao Li, Fucai Tang, Zhigang Zhao
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether serum neuroendocrine markers could effectively predict treatment outcomes in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase databases were sought to identify eligible studies concerning serum neuroendocrine markers and the prognosis of post-treatment mCRPC from inception to April 2018. The association between serum neuroendocrine markers, that is, chromogranin A (CgA) and neurone-specific enolase (NSE), levels and the prognosis of post-treatment mCRPC were summarized using a random-effects model and hazard ratio (HR) with 95% CI Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess potential bias...
December 5, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
Yoshiaki Ohi, Daisuke Kodama, Akira Haji
Dextromethorphan (DEX) presynaptically decreases glutamatergic transmission in second-order neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (TS). To clarify the inhibitory mechanism of DEX, the present study examined the interaction of DEX with cAMP. The effects of DEX on miniature and TS-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs and eEPSCs) were recorded under activation of the cAMP-dependent pathway using the brainstem slices. An increase in cAMP by forskolin counteracted the inhibitory effect of DEX on mEPSCs...
December 5, 2018: Pharmacology
Peter Baillie-Johnson, Octavian Voiculescu, Penny Hayward, Benjamin Steventon
Neuromesodermal progenitors (NMps) are a population of bipotent progenitors that maintain competence to generate both spinal cord and paraxial mesoderm throughout the elongation of the posterior body axis. Recent studies have generated populations of NMp-like cells in culture, which have been shown to differentiate to both neural and mesodermal cell fates when transplanted into either mouse or chick embryos. Here, we aim to compare the potential of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived progenitor populations to generate NMp behaviour against both undifferentiated and differentiated populations...
December 5, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Jonathan M Zuidema, Ryan J Gilbert, Manoj K Gottipati
Over several decades, biomaterial scientists have developed materials to spur axonal regeneration and limit secondary injury and tested these materials within preclinical animal models. Rarely, though, are astrocytes examined comprehensively when biomaterials are placed into the injury site. Astrocytes support neuronal function in the central nervous system. Following an injury, astrocytes undergo reactive gliosis and create a glial scar. The astrocytic glial scar forms a dense barrier which restricts the extension of regenerating axons through the injury site...
December 5, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Alexander J Martin, Christopher I Price
BACKGROUND: Early neurological deterioration (END) following acute stroke is associated with poorer long-term outcomes. Identification of patients at risk could assist early monitoring and treatment decisions. This review summarised the evidence describing non-radiological biomarkers for END. SUMMARY: Electronic searches from January 1990 to March 2017 identified studies reporting a blood/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/urine biomarker measurement within 24 h of acute stroke and at least 2 serial assessments of clinical neurological status (< 24 h and < 7 days)...
December 5, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Simone Tassani, Josep M Font-Llagunes, Miguel Ángel González Ballester, Jérôme Noailly
BACKGROUND: Muscular co-contraction is a strategy commonly used by elders with the aim to increase stability. However, co-contraction leads to stiffness which in turns reduces stability. Some literature seems to suggest an opposite approach and to point out relaxation as a way to improve stability. Teaching relaxation is therefore becoming the aim of many studies letting unclear whether tension or relaxation are the most effective muscular strategy to improve stability. Relaxation is a misleading concept in our society...
November 28, 2018: Gait & Posture
Srijeeb Karmakar, Laipubam Gayatri Sharma, Abhishek Roy, Anjali Patel, Lalit Mohan Pandey
SNARE (Soluble NSF(N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) Attachment Receptor) complex is a trimeric supramolecular organization of SNAP25, syntaxin, and VAMP which mediates fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane. The functioning of this entire protein assembly is dependent on its tetrahelical coiled coil structure alongside its interaction with a large spectrum of regulatory proteins like synaptotagmin, complexin, intersectin, etc. Defects arising in SNARE complex assembly due to mutations or faulty post-translational modifications are associated to severe synaptopathies like Schizophrenia and also proteopathies like Alzheimer's disease...
December 2, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Guanghua Xiong, Lufang Zou, Yunyun Deng, Yunlong Meng, Xinjun Liao, Huiqiang Lu
Clethodim is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, but its potential negative effects on aquatic organisms are still poorly understood. This study examined the effects of clethodim on zebrafish at aspects of early stage embryonic development, immune toxicity, cell apoptosis and locomotor behavior. Firstly, clethodim exposure markedly decreased the survival rate, body length, and heart rate and resulted in a series of morphological abnormalities, primarily spinal deformities (SD) and yolk sac edema, in zebrafish larvae...
December 2, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Guillaume Bompard, Juliette van Dijk, Julien Cau, Yoann Lannay, Guillaume Marcellin, Aleksandra Lawera, Siem van der Laan, Krzysztof Rogowski
Tubulin glutamylation is a reversible posttranslational modification that accumulates on stable microtubules (MTs). While abnormally high levels of this modification lead to a number of disorders such as male sterility, retinal degeneration, and neurodegeneration, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of glutamylase activity. Here, we found that CSAP forms a complex with TTLL5, and we demonstrate that the two proteins regulate their reciprocal abundance. Moreover, we show that CSAP increases TTLL5-mediated glutamylation and identify the TTLL5-interacting domain...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Laura H Rosenberg, Anne-Laure Cattin, Xavier Fontana, Elizabeth Harford-Wright, Jemima J Burden, Ian J White, Jacob G Smith, Ilaria Napoli, Victor Quereda, Cristina Policarpi, Jamie Freeman, Robin Ketteler, Antonella Riccio, Alison C Lloyd
The formation of myelinating Schwann cells (mSCs) involves the remarkable biogenic process, which rapidly generates the myelin sheath. Once formed, the mSC transitions to a stable homeostatic state, with loss of this stability associated with neuropathies. The histone deacetylases histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC2 are required for the myelination transcriptional program. Here, we show a distinct role for HDAC3, in that, while dispensable for the formation of mSCs, it is essential for the stability of the myelin sheath once formed-with loss resulting in progressive severe neuropathy in adulthood...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Benjamin M Vincent, Daniel F Tardiff, Jeff S Piotrowski, Rebecca Aron, Matthew C Lucas, Chee Yeun Chung, Helene Bacherman, YiQun Chen, Michelle Pires, Radha Subramaniam, Dimple B Doshi, Heather Sadlish, Waseem K Raja, Eric J Solís, Vikram Khurana, Bertrand Le Bourdonnec, Robert H Scannevin, Kenneth J Rhodes
The lack of disease-modifying treatments for neurodegenerative disease stems in part from our rudimentary understanding of disease mechanisms and the paucity of targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we used an integrated discovery paradigm to identify a new therapeutic target for diseases caused by α-synuclein (α-syn), a small lipid-binding protein that misfolds and aggregates in Parkinson's disease and other disorders. Using unbiased phenotypic screening, we identified a series of compounds that were cytoprotective against α-syn-mediated toxicity by inhibiting the highly conserved enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Adam C O'Neill, Christina Kyrousi, Johannes Klaus, Richard J Leventer, Edwin P Kirk, Andrew Fry, Daniela T Pilz, Tim Morgan, Zandra A Jenkins, Micha Drukker, Samuel F Berkovic, Ingrid E Scheffer, Renzo Guerrini, David M Markie, Magdalena Götz, Silvia Cappello, Stephen P Robertson
The mammalian neocortex has undergone remarkable changes through evolution. A consequence of such rapid evolutionary events could be a trade-off that has rendered the brain susceptible to certain neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric conditions. We analyzed the exomes of 65 patients with the structural brain malformation periventricular nodular heterotopia (PH). De novo coding variants were observed in excess in genes defining a transcriptomic signature of basal radial glia, a cell type linked to brain evolution...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
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