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Kazutaka Sugimoto, Sadahiro Nomura, Satoshi Shirao, Takao Inoue, Hideyuki Ishihara, Reo Kawano, Akiko Kawano, Fumiaki Oka, Eiichi Suehiro, Hirokazu Sadahiro, Mizuya Shinoyama, Takayuki Oku, Yuichi Maruta, Yuya Hirayama, Koichiro Hiyoshi, Miwa Kiyohira, Hiroshi Yoneda, Koki Okazaki, Jens P Dreier, Michiyasu Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: Traditionally, angiographic vasospasm (aVS) has been thought to cause delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). However, successful treatment of aVS alone does not result in improved neurological outcome. Therefore, there may be other potential causes of poor neurological outcome including spreading depolarization (SD). A recent study showed beneficial effects of cilostazol on DCI and neurological outcome. The present prospective clinical trial and experimental study focused on effects of cilostazol on SDs...
October 20, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Sara Gili, Angelica Abreo, Miguel GóMez-Fernández, Roma Solà, Carlos Morros, Xavier Sala-Blanch
Our objective was to define the positions of the nerves around the brachial artery and, secondarily, to assess the risk of intraneural injection during dual guided axillary block. Sixty ultrasound-guided axillary blocks were performed. The locations of the musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, and radial nerves relative to the brachial artery were determined. The position of the ulnar nerve was defined in relation to that of the brachial vein, and the position of the musculocutaneous nerve in relation to the coracobrachialis muscle...
October 20, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Lisa-Marie Niestroj, Juanjiangmeng Du, Michael Nothnagel, Patrick May, Aarno Palotie, Mark J Daly, Peter Nürnberg, Ingmar Blümcke, Dennis Lal
OBJECTIVE: Increasing availability of surgically resected brain tissue from patients with focal epilepsy and focal cortical dysplasia or low-grade glioneuronal tumors has fostered large-scale genetic examination. However, assessment of pathogenicity of germ line and somatic variants remains difficult. Here, we present a state-of-the-art evaluation of reported genes and variants associated with epileptic brain lesions. METHODS: We critically reevaluated the pathogenicity for all neuropathology-associated variants reported to date in the PubMed and ClinVar databases, including 101 neuropathology-associated missense variants encompassing 11 disease-related genes...
October 20, 2018: Epilepsia
Xin Liu, Chunkui Zhang, Qian Liu, Kaixiang Zhou, Nannan Yin, Hongyun Zhang, Minghong Shi, Xiaodong Liu, Meiqing Wang
Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) has been demonstrated to cause masseter hyperactivity via the periodontal trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vme)-trigeminal motor nucleus circuit. Here, we studied activation of motor neurons of the facial nucleus (VII), hypoglossal nucleus (XII), nucleus ambiguus (Amb), and spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve (SNA) in rats with UAC via their similar connections with Vme. An anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), was injected into the Vme to identify the central axon terminals around the motor neurons of VII, XII, Amb, and SNA...
October 20, 2018: European Journal of Oral Sciences
Guoxiong Li, Min Huang, Yingqian Cai, Yuantao Yang, Xinlin Sun, Yiquan Ke
The prognosis for human glioma, a malignant tumor of the central nervous system, is poor due to its rapid growth, genetic heterogeneity, and inadequate understanding of its underlying molecular mechanisms. Circular RNAs composed of exonic sequences, represent an understudied form of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that was discovered more than a decade ago, function as microRNA sponges. We aimed to assess the relationship between circ-U2AF1 (CircRNA ID: hsa_circ_0061868) and hsa-mir-7-5p and examine their effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and the metastatic phenotype of glioma cells regulated by neuro-oncological ventral antigen 2 (NOVA2)...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Arash Salmaninejad, Mohammad Reza Zamani, Arezoo Gowhari Shabgah, Seyedmojtaba Hosseini, Fatemeh Mollaei, Nayyerehalsadat Hosseini, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic and rare multisystemic disorder defined by autoimmunity and inflammatory characteristics, manifested by ocular lesions, recurrent genital and oral ulcers, skin symptoms and arthritis as well as neurological, intestinal, and vascular involvement. Despite the unknown cause of BD, there is some strong documentation for immunological, genetic, environmental, and infectious factors playing a role in the pathogenesis of BD. While the nature of the genetic variants remains unidentified, many genetic risk factors are considered to contribute to BD susceptibility...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Veronica Cartocci, Claudia Tonini, Tiziana Di Pippo, Florenzia Vuono, Sara Schiavi, Maria Marino, Viviana Trezza, Valentina Pallottini
Here, we investigated the protein network regulating cholesterol metabolism in the liver and brain of adolescent and adult male and female rats prenatally exposed to valproate (VPA), a well validated experimental model of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We were aimed at studying whether prenatal VPA exposure affected the proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis in a sex-dependent manner. To this aim the protein network of cholesterol metabolism, in term of synthesis and plasma membrane trafficking, was analyzed by western blot in the liver and different brain areas (amygdala, cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum) of adolescent and adult male and female rats prenatally exposed to VPA...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Shaik Afsar Pasha, Shaik Arif Pasha, T Suhasini, D Ankamma Rao
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common infection worldwide and is an emerging infectious disease in the developed countries. The unique characteristics of HEV is that it displays different epidemiological and clinical characteristics between developing and developed countries. Neurological disorders are emerging extra hepatic manifestations of both acute and chronic Hepatitis E virus infection. We report a 17 year old sportsman presenting with acute encephalitic Parkinsonism concurrent with acute hepatitis. Serology was positive for Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and HEV RNA was confirmed...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Aravind Duruvasal, Lakshmi, Srinivasan, Sowmya, Preetam Arthur
Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is an uncommon, aggressive and life threatening syndrome of excessive immune activation. We report an unusual case of HLH, in a 34 year old male, who was admitted with Subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebellar contusion in a Neurosurgical Intensive care unit, whose trigger is not clear.
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Rupal Padhiyar, Swati Chavan, Swapnil Dhampalwar, Trupti Trivedi, Nivedita Moulick
Background: In India, it is estimated that up to 20,000 people die annually from snake bites. The present study was carried to out to estimate the snake bite related epidemiology, predictors of severity, relationship between type of snake, clinical severity, complications, outcome and usage pattern of polyvalent anti snake venom (ASV) in a tertiary care center. Methods: All indoor patients admitted in our institute with definitive history of bite by a snake, with or without presence of fang marks, Evidence of cellulitis, acute onset of neurotoxicity or bleeding diathesis were serially recruited in the study...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
R K Anadure, C S Narayanan, V Hande
Neurotoxicity from elapid bite may masquerade as early morning neuroparalytic syndrome (EMNS). We are reporting a series of two cases who presented as EMNS with absent brain stem reflexes, mimicking brain death. The first case was being considered for potential organ retrieval when the diagnosis was revised, and he recovered completely with Anti-snake venom (ASV). The second patient developed severe anaphylaxis to ASV, which made continuation of the empirical therapy in a comatose patient very tricky. She gradually tolerated a low dose ASV infusion under steroid and adrenaline cover, with reversal of paralysis and coma...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Archana Aher, Madhuri Paithankar, Baliram Bhurke
Aims and Objective: To assess the clinical features, complications and outcome in patients with central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB) and to correlate the clinical, laboratory and radiological findings of CNS TB. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, total 50 diagnosed cases of CNS TB (either TB meningitis or tuberculoma) were studied. The data on demographic factors, clinical features, complications and laboratory findings, details of treatment and outcome were recorded and analyzed...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Ashutosh Chaturvedi, Arun Kumar
Background: Syncope is a common clinical presentation in emergency department. The diagnostic workup for syncope causes significant man-hour loss and expensive investigations. Most often the battery of investigations does not lead to any conclusive diagnosis. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study in which included 50 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of syncope. These patients were admitted to a tertiary care hospital between Sep 2009 to Aug 2011...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Shakeb Hasan, Saikat Datta, Sharmistha Bhattacherjee
Background: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), or portosystemic encephalopathy, represents a reversible decrease in neurologic function caused by liver disease, and treatment has traditionally been with non-absorbable disaccharides along with antibiotics and supportive measures. The present study was undertaken to evaluate if their combination therapy were superior to the established therapy in management of HE. Methods: Ninety six (96) patients of hepatic encephalopathy were randomly assigned to receive either lactulose and rifaximin in standard dosage or lactulose only and their response to therapy was monitored using standard assessment tools...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Saki Minami, Hiroshi Nomura, Masabumi Minami
AIMS: Thermoregulatory responses in homeothermic animals, including humans, are classified into involuntary autonomous and voluntary behavioral thermoregulatory responses. Although behavioral thermoregulatory responses are probably driven by positive (pleasant) and/or negative (unpleasant) emotions, the neuronal mechanisms underlying the induction of negative emotions by hot and cold environments remain poorly understood. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is a brain region implicated in stress responses and negative emotions, such as fear, anxiety, and aversion...
October 19, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology reports
Violeta Carmona-Martínez, Antonio J Ruiz-Alcaraz, María Vera, Antonio Guirado, María Martínez-Esparza, Pilar García-Peñarrubia
Pteridines are aromatic compounds formed by fused pyrazine and pyrimidine rings. Many living organisms synthesize pteridines, where they act as pigments, enzymatic cofactors, or immune system activation molecules. This variety of biological functions has motivated the synthesis of a huge number of pteridine derivatives with the aim of studying their therapeutic potential. This review gathers the state-of-the-art of pteridine derivatives, describing their biological activities and molecular targets. The antitumor activity of pteridine-based compounds is one of the most studied and advanced therapeutic potentials, for which several molecular targets have been identified...
October 19, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Samia Rebouh, Sonia Lefnaoui, Mounir Bouhedda, Madiha M Yahoum, Salah Hanini
In the present study, we investigated the drug release behavior from cellulose derivative (CD) matrices in the oral form of tablets. We used the adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the best formulation parameters to get the perfect sustained drug delivery using ibuprofen (IB) as a model drug. The different formulations were prepared with different CDs, namely CMC, HEC, HPC, HPMC, and MC. The amount of the active ingredient varied between 20 and 50%. The flow properties of the powder mixtures were evaluated for their angle of repose, compressibility index, and Hausner ratio, while the tablets were evaluated for weight uniformity, hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration time, and release ratio...
October 19, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Amira A H Ali, Beryl Schwarz-Herzke, Shakila Mir, Benita Sahlender, Marion Victor, Boris Görg, Martin Schmuck, Katharina Dach, Ellen Fritsche, Andreas Kremer, Charlotte von Gall
We demonstrate the impact of a disrupted molecular clock in Bmal1-deficient (Bmal1-/- ) mice on migration of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Proliferation of NPCs in rostral migratory stream (RMS) was reduced in Bmal1-/- mice, consistent with our earlier studies on adult neurogenesis in hippocampus. However, a significantly higher number of NPCs from Bmal1-/- mice reached the olfactory bulb as compared to wild-type littermates (Bmal1+/+ mice), indicating a higher migration velocity in Bmal1-/- mice. In isolated NPCs from Bmal1-/- mice, not only migration velocity and expression pattern of genes involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species were affected, but also RNA oxidation of catalase was increased and catalase protein levels were decreased...
October 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Aurelie Leplus, Inger Lauritzen, Christophe Melon, Lydia Kerkerian-Le Goff, Denys Fontaine, Frederic Checler
Recent studies have suggested deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a promising therapy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Particularly, the stimulation of the forniceal area was found to slow down the cognitive decline of some AD patients, but the biochemical and anatomical modifications underlying these effects remain poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of chronic forniceal stimulation on amyloid burden, inflammation, and neuronal loss in a transgenic Alzheimer rat model TgF344-AD, as well as in age-matched control rats...
October 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Christina Bourne, Laura Kenkel
Women are more likely than men to experience depression throughout the life span. Sex differences in neurochemistry and brain structure, as well as societal factors may contribute to women's increased likelihood of depression. Pharmacological research targeting depression has historically excluded women, leading to a knowledge gap regarding effective antidepressant treatment in women. Antidepressant pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are clearly different in men and women, necessitating a thoughtful approach to their prescription and management...
October 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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