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"Envenomation" OR "Snake Bite" OR "Pressure Immobilisation Bandage" OR "Pressure Immobilization Bandage" OR "PIB" OR "Spider Bite" OR "Insect Bite" OR "Bites And Stings" OR "Marine Sting" OR "Mammalian Bite" OR "Octopus" OR "Jellyfish" OR "Stonefish"

Fabio De Sio
Contemporary neurosciences have grown beyond the limits of a natural science. To its most vocal advocates, the study of the human brain can provide nothing short of the basis for a new science of man-the link between the "natural" and "human" sciences-as a simple consequence of the growing mass of facts relating to this most marvelous organ, accumulated in the last four decades. This straightforward picture of the growing import of the neurosciences simplifies and obscures the myriad different interpretations and images of "the brain" that have inspired the development of the neurosciences...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Miguel Borja, Edgar Neri-Castro, Rebeca Pérez-Morales, Jason L Strickland, Roberto Ponce-López, Christopher L Parkinson, Jorge Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge Sáenz-Mata, Esau Flores-Martínez, Alejandro Alagón, Gamaliel Castañeda-Gaytán
Ontogenetic changes in venom composition have important ecological implications due the relevance of venom in prey acquisition and defense. Additionally, intraspecific venom variation has direct medical consequences for the treatment of snakebite. However, ontogenetic changes are not well documented in most species. The Mexican Black-tailed Rattlesnake ( Crotalus molossus nigrescens ) is large-bodied and broadly distributed in Mexico. To document venom variation and test for ontogenetic changes in venom composition, we obtained venom samples from twenty-seven C...
December 1, 2018: Toxins
Mansi Srivastava
Powerful tools for functional studies in emerging model systems are beginning to yield fresh insights into the inner workings of cells because of newly available tools for functional studies. Recent work leveraging a hydrozoan jellyfish to study light-mediated gamete maturation has uncovered a multifunctional cell type and the associated regulatory machinery, with implications for understanding the evolution of reproduction.
December 3, 2018: Developmental Cell
Michael E Mullins, Charles J Gerardo, Sean P Bush, S Rutherfoord Rose, Spencer Greene, Eugenia B Quackenbush, Brandon Lewis, Victoria E Anderson, Kurt C Kleinschmidt, Richard B Schwarz, Nathan P Charlton, Eric A Toschlog, Kapil Sharma, David A Denning, Eric J Lavonas
OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions following copperhead envenomation treated with Fab antivenom (FabAV) or placebo. METHODS: Patients with copperhead snakebites received treatment and follow-up in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of FabAV or placebo. The treatment allocation ratio was 2:1 (FabAV:placebo). All of the included patients received at least one dose of study treatment. We reviewed all treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) using a previously published scale to classify likely hypersensitivity reactions as mild, moderate, or severe...
December 2018: Southern Medical Journal
David A Gold, Takeo Katsuki, Yang Li, Xifeng Yan, Michael Regulski, David Ibberson, Thomas Holstein, Robert E Steele, David K Jacobs, Ralph J Greenspan
We present the genome of the moon jellyfish Aurelia, a genome from a cnidarian with a medusa life stage. Our analyses suggest that gene gain and loss in Aurelia is comparable to what has been found in its morphologically simpler relatives-the anthozoan corals and sea anemones. RNA sequencing analysis does not support the hypothesis that taxonomically restricted (orphan) genes play an oversized role in the development of the medusa stage. Instead, genes broadly conserved across animals and eukaryotes play comparable roles throughout the life cycle...
December 3, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Maayan Kaiser, Ryan Arvidson, Raz Zarivach, Michael E Adams, Frederic Libersat
Envenomation of cockroach cerebral ganglia by the parasitoid Jewel wasp, Ampulex compressa, induces specific, long-lasting behavioural changes. We hypothesized that this prolonged action results from venom-induced changes in brain neurochemistry. Here, we address this issue by first identifying molecular targets of the venom, i.e., proteins to which venom components bind and interact with to mediate altered behaviour. Our results show that venom components bind to synaptic proteins and likely interfere with both pre- and postsynaptic processes...
November 30, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Chien-Chun Liu, Jau-Song Yu, Po-Jung Wang, Yung-Chin Hsiao, Chien-Hsin Liu, Yen-Chia Chen, Pei-Fang Lai, Chih-Po Hsu, Wen-Chih Fann, Chih-Chuan Lin
Taiwan is an island located in the south Pacific, a subtropical region that is home to 61 species of snakes. Of these snakes, four species-Trimeresurus stejnegeri, Protobothrops mucrosquamatus, Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra-account for more than 90% of clinical envenomation cases. Currently, there are two types of bivalent antivenom: hemorrhagic antivenom against the venom of T. stejnegeri and P. mucrosquamatus, and neurotoxic antivenom for treatment of envenomation by B. multicinctus and N. atra. However, no suitable detection kits are available to precisely guide physicians in the use of antivenoms...
December 3, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Gotravalli V Rudresha, Amog P Urs, Vaddarahally N Manjuprasanna, Kanve N Suvilesh, Puttappa Sharanappa, Bannikuppe S Vishwanath
Echis carinatus envenomation leads to severe tissue necrosis at the bitten site by releasing DNA from immune cells that blocks the blood flow. An earlier report has shown that exogenous DNase 1 offers protection against such severe local tissue necrosis. Tricosanthus tricuspidata is a medicinal plant and the paste prepared from its leaves has been used extensively for the treatment of snakebite-induced tissue necrosis. Most studies including reports from our laboratory focused on plant secondary metabolite as therapeutic molecules against snakebite envenomation...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Nikolas D Scherzer, Amit G Reddy, Tan V Le, David Chernobylsky, Wayne J G Hellstrom
BACKGROUND: Priapism has been linked to many commonly prescribed medications, as well as recreational drugs and toxins. Although the incidence of priapism as a result of medication is small, the increasing use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, and recreational drugs may lead to more cases of pharmacologically-induced priapism in the future. AIM: To provide a comprehensive, up-to-date review of the most common causes of pharmacologically induced priapism and discuss incidence, pathophysiology, and basic management strategies...
November 28, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Nicholas J Youngman, Christina N Zdenek, James S Dobson, Matyas A Bittenbinder, Amber Gillett, Brett Hamilton, Nathan Dunstan, Luke Allen, Andrew Veary, Elle Veary, Bryan G Fry
Due to their potent coagulotoxicity, Australian elapid venoms are unique relative to non-Australian members of the Elapidae snake family. The majority of Australian elapids possess potent procoagulant venom, while only a few species have been identified as possessing anticoagulant venoms. The majority of research to-date has concentrated on large species with range distributions overlapping major city centres, such as brown snakes (Pseudonaja spp.) and taipans (Oxyuranus spp.). We investigated the venom from the poorly studied genus Denisonia and documented anticoagulant activities that were differentially potent on amphibian, avian, and human plasmas...
November 28, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Toluwase Oluwafemi Olukayode, Berlaine Quime, Yin-Chi Shen, Mary Jeanie Yanoria, Suobing Zhang, Jianyuan Yang, Xiaoyuan Zhu, Wei-Chiang Shen, Andreas von Tiedemann, Bo Zhou
The Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence gene AvrPib is required for the resistance mediated by its cognate resistance (R) gene Pib which has been intensively used in indica rice breeding programs in many Asian countries. However, the sequence diversity of AvrPib among geographically distinct M. oryzae populations was recently shown to be increasing. Here we selected a field population consisting of 248 rice blast isolates collected from a disease hotspot in Philippine for the analysis of AvrPib haplotypes and their pathogenicity against Pib...
December 3, 2018: Phytopathology
Francielle Almeida Cordeiro, Bárbara Marques Coutinho, Gisele Adriano Wiezel, Karla de Castro Figueiredo Bordon, Cristiane Bregge-Silva, Nathalia Gonsales Rosa-Garzon, Hamilton Cabral, Beatrix Ueberheide, Eliane Candiani Arantes
Background: Lachesis muta rhombeata (Lmr) is the largest venomous snake in Latin America and its venom contains mainly enzymatic components, such as serine and metalloproteases, L-amino acid oxidase and phospholipases A2 . Metalloproteases comprise a large group of zinc-dependent proteases that cleave basement membrane components such as fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV. These enzymes are responsible for local and systemic changes, including haemorrhage, myonecrosis and inflammation...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Henry Tomlinson, Dirk M Elston
Lionfish ( Pterois volitans ) are an invasive species originally from the Indian and Pacific oceans and the Red Sea that now are found all along the southeastern coast of the United States. Prompt and comprehensive treatment provides benefit to the patient. As lionfish numbers continue to increase, physicians across multiple specialties and regions may see an increase in envenomation injuries. It is important that physicians are aware of how to recognize and treat lionfish stings.
October 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Bethany K Bennett, Keith J Boesen, Sharyn A Welch, A Min Kang
INTRODUCTION: Arizona has the highest incidence of scorpion envenomation reported to US poison control centers (PCCs). Most cases reported are from a residence, but specific details are limited. METHODS: Specialists at Arizona's two PCCs prospectively completed the Factors of Envenomation in Arizona Residences Survey (FEARS) for residential scorpion exposures reported during 4-week periods in the summer and winter. Based on these results, a second questionnaire, FEARS-2, targeting indoor residential exposures was then administered...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Aditya John Binu, Ajay Kumar Mishra, Karthik Gunasekaran, Ramya Iyadurai
Cardiotoxicity in snake envenomation has not been adequately explored in the literature. This retrospective, observational study analysed clinical profiles and cardiovascular effects (CVE), with associated outcomes, in snake envenomation. Thirty-four patients were recruited between April 2014 and October 2017. Cardiovascular involvement was seen in 24 (70.6%) patients. Electrocardiographic changes included prolonged QTc (62.5%), T-wave inversion (37.5%) and tall T-waves (12.5%). Hospital stay was 7.2 (SD = 5...
November 28, 2018: Tropical Doctor
Şerife Seda Kucur, Gábor Holló, Raphael Sznitman
PURPOSE: To investigate the suitability of multi-scale spatial information in 30o visual fields (VF), computed from a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier, for early-glaucoma vs. control discrimination. METHOD: Two data sets of VFs acquired with the OCTOPUS 101 G1 program and the Humphrey Field Analyzer 24-2 pattern were subdivided into control and early-glaucomatous groups, and converted into a new image using a novel voronoi representation to train a custom-designed CNN so to discriminate between control and early-glaucomatous eyes...
2018: PloS One
Samuel Lim, Dominic J Glover, Douglas S Clark
Molecular chaperones promote the correct folding of proteins in aggregation-prone cellular environments by stabilizing nascent polypeptide chains and providing appropriate folding conditions. Prefoldins (PFDs) are molecular chaperones found in archaea and eukaryotes, generally characterized by a unique jellyfish-like hexameric structure consisting of a rigid beta-barrel backbone with protruding flexible coiled-coils. Unlike eukaryotic PFDs that mainly interact with cytoskeletal components, archaeal PFDs can stabilize a wide range of substrates; such versatility reflects PFD's role as a key element in archaeal chaperone systems, which often lack general nascent-chain binding chaperone components such as Hsp70...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Willem Huijbers, Aaron P Schultz, Kathryn V Papp, Molly R LaPoint, Bernard Hanseeuw, Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Trey Hedden, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
Animal studies demonstrate that hyperactive neurons facilitate early accumulation and spread of tau and amyloid-β proteins in the pathological cascade of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Human neuroimaging studies have linked hippocampal hyperactivity to amyloid-β accumulation, apolipoprotein ε4 (APOE4) and clinical progression from prodromal AD to clinical dementia. The relationship between hippocampal hyperactivity and early AD molecular pathology (amyloid-β and tau accumulation) prior to clinical symptoms remains to be elucidated...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Chao Wang, Beilei Wang, Bo Wang, Qianqian Wang, Guoyan Liu, Tao Wang, Qian He, Liming Zhang
The scyphozoan jellyfish Cyanea capillata and Nemopilema nomurai are common blooming species in China. They possess heterogeneous nematocysts and produce various types of venom that can elicit diverse sting symptoms in humans. However, the differences in venom composition between the two species remain unclear. In this study, a combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach was used to identify and compare putative toxins in penetrant nematocysts isolated from C. capillata and N. nomurai. A total of 53 and 69 putative toxins were identified in C...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Michelle J Walters, Joanna Sterling, Crystal Quinn, Christine Ganzer, Ricardo S Osorio, Randolph D Andrews, Dawn C Matthews, Shankar Vallabhajosula, Mony J de Leon, Richard S Isaacson, Lisa Mosconi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between lifestyle and vascular risk factors and changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers (beta-amyloid load via 11 C-PiB PET, glucose metabolism via 18 F-FDG PET and neurodegeneration via structural MRI) and global cognition in middle-aged asymptomatic participants at risk for AD. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal. SETTING: The study was conducted at New York University Langone/Weill Cornell Medical Centres in New York City...
November 25, 2018: BMJ Open
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