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"Envenomation" OR "Snake Bite" OR "Pressure Immobilisation Bandage" OR "Pressure Immobilization Bandage" OR "PIB" OR "Spider Bite" OR "Insect Bite" OR "Bites And Stings" OR "Marine Sting" OR "Mammalian Bite" OR "Octopus" OR "Jellyfish" OR "Stonefish"

Ida S Sano-Martins, Camila Gonzalez, Isabelle Valle Dos Anjos, Juana Diaz, Luis Roberto C Gonçalves
In South America, accidental contact with Lepidoptera larvae can produce a diversity of reactions that vary from dermatological problems to severe hemorrhagic syndromes, such as those caused by contact with caterpillars of the genus Lonomia (Saturniidae). Lonomia venom can alter the hemostatic system and lead to renal failure, internal and brain bleeding, and in severe cases, death. The only specific treatment available for these envenomations is the Lonomia Antivenom (LAV) produced by the Butantan Institute, in Brazil, using an extract of Lonomia obliqua as the antigen...
August 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
L G Popova, D V Belyaev, A V Shuvalov, A A Yurchenko, D A Matalin, D E Khramov, Y V Orlova, Y V Balnokin
De novo assembled transcriptomes of the marine microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyta) were analyzed. Transcriptome assemblies were performed using short-read RNA-seq data deposited in the SRA database (DNA and RNA Sequence Read Archive, NCBI). A merged transcriptome was assembled using a pooled RNA-seq data set. The goal of the study was in silico identification of nucleotide sequences encoding P-type ATPases in D. tertiolecta transcriptomes. P-type ATPases play a considerable role in the adaptation of an organism to a variable environment, and this problem is particularly significant for microalgae inhabiting an environment with an unstable ionic composition...
July 2018: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Alexandra G M Caron, Colette R Thomas, Kathryn L E Berry, Cherie A Motti, Ellen Ariel, Jon E Brodie
Quantifying the extent of microplastic (<5 mm) contamination in the marine environment is an emerging field of study. Reliable extraction of microplastics from the gastro-intestinal content of marine organisms is crucial to evaluate microplastic contamination in marine fauna. Extraction protocols and variations thereof have been reported, however, these have mostly focussed on relatively homogenous samples (i.e. water, sediment, etc.). Here, we present a microplastic extraction protocol for examining green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) chyme (i...
2018: MethodsX
Sonika Agarwal, Nidhi Kaeley, Sushant Khanduri, Nand Kishore
Snakebite is considered as a significant public health problem contributing considerably to morbidity and mortality. A neurotoxic snake bite can present from mild ptosis to complete paralysis with external and internal ophthalmoplegia. Three patients presented in emergency intubated outside with deeply comatose, fixed dilated pupil, and absent doll's eye reflex mimicking as brain dead.
July 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Pattreeya Tungcharoen, Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul, Pimpimon Tansakul, Seikou Nakamura, Hisashi Matsuda, Supinya Tewtrakul
Curcuma zedoaroides, a Zingiberaceae species, has been used for snake bite antidote and wound care in Thailand. Seven compounds were isolated from the bioactive chloroform extract consisted of one new guaiane sesquiterpene lactone, 5-epiphaeocaulisin A (4) and one new diarylheptanoid, 1,2,3,5-tetrahydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl) heptane (7), together with five known guaiane-type sesquiterpene lactones including gweicurculactone (1), zedoalactone B (2), phaeocaulisin C (3), zedoalactone H (5), and zedoalactone E (6)...
August 15, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
G S M Sundaram, Kristen Binz, Vedica Sharma, Melany Yeung, Vijay Sharma
Thioflavin T (ThT), a positively charged heterocyclic small molecule, is a widely used fluorescent marker of amyloid pathophysiology to confirm the cause of death in post mortem brain tissue of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Literature precedents indicate that current positron emission tomography (PET) agents, such as 11 C-PIB and 18 F-flutemetamol, share significant structural similarity with ThT, a lipophilic dye which does not traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to enable the detection of Aβ plaques in vivo ...
June 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Giacomo Milisenda, Sergio Rossi, Salvatrice Vizzini, Veronica L Fuentes, Jennifer E Purcell, Uxue Tilves, Stefano Piraino
Jellyfish populations apparently have increased in some places around the world and human problems with them also have increased. However, effects of jellyfish outbreaks in the ecosystems remain poorly understood and little or no information is available on their dietary preferences - in relation to the seasonal shifts of prey abundance - and on the potential variability of their impact on marine food webs. The mauve stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775) is by far the most common outbreak-forming scyphozoan jellyfish in the Western Mediterranean...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shinji Sugihara, Masahiro Sudo, Yasushi Maeda
Biomimetic ABC triblock copolymers of poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine]- b-poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]- b-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PMPC- b-PDMA- b-PHPMA) were synthesized by RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) in the presence of a PMPC- b-PDMA macromolecular chain transfer agent (macro-CTA). This ABC triblock copolymer deploys well-known biocompatible PMPC and PDMA for the coordination of Ag+ ions to form silver nanoparticles in situ on reduction, and PHPMA for assembling (core) in water...
August 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Maya Gopalakrishnan, Kolar Vishwanath Vinod, Tarun Kumar Dutta, Kusha Kumar Shaha, Magadi Gopalakrishna Sridhar, Suman Saurabh
Background: Viper envenomation contributes to nearly 50% of snake-bite deaths in India, chiefly due to circulatory shock. The mechanisms leading to circulatory shock include bleeding, capillary leak syndrome (CLS) and myocardial depression. Pituitary-adrenal axis involvement in circulatory shock, though described, has not been fully elucidated. Aims: To identify predictors of circulatory shock and mortality in viper envenomation and explore the role of pituitary-adrenal axis in circulatory shock...
August 13, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Leng Wei Khoo, Siew Audrey Kow, Ming Tatt Lee, Chin Ping Tan, Khozirah Shaari, Chau Ling Tham, Faridah Abas
Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau (Acanthaceae), commonly known as Sabah snake grass, is a vegetable and a well-known herb that is considered an alternative medicine for insect bites, skin rashes, herpes infection, inflammation, and cancer and for health benefits. Current review aims to provide a well-tabulated repository of the phytochemical screening, identification and quantification, and the pharmacological information of C. nutans according to the experimental design and the plant preparation methods which make it outstanding compared to existing reviews...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Victor Corassolla Carregari, Livia Rosa-Fernandes, Paulo Baldasso, Sergio Paulo Bydlowski, Sergio Marangoni, Martin R Larsen, Giuseppe Palmisano
Proteins constitute almost 95% of snake venom's dry weight and are produced and released by venom glands in a solubilized form during a snake bite. These proteins are responsible for inducing several pharmacological effects aiming to immobilize and initiate the pre-digestion of the prey. This study shows that proteins can be secreted and confined in snake venom extracellular vesicles (SVEVs) presenting a size distribution between 50 nm and 500 nm. SVEVs isolated from lyophilized venoms collected from four different species of snakes (Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix, Crotalus atrox, Crotalus viridis and Crotalus cerberus oreganus) were analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomic, which allowed the identification of proteins belonging to eight main functional protein classes such as SVMPs, serine proteinases, PLA2 , LAAO, 5'nucleotidase, C-type lectin, CRISP and Disintegrin...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Z Yan Wang, Clifton W Ragsdale
Post-reproductive life in the female octopus is characterized by an extreme pattern of maternal care: the mother cares for her clutch of eggs without feeding until her death. These maternal behaviors are eradicated if the optic glands, the octopus analog of the vertebrate pituitary gland, are removed from brooding females. Despite the optic gland's importance in regulating maternal behavior, the molecular features underlying optic gland function are unknown. Here, we identify major signaling systems of the Octopus bimaculoides optic gland...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Gabriela Gomez, Lori L Beason-Held, Murat Bilgel, Yang An, Dean Wong, Stephanie Studenski, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show links between metabolic syndrome and Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Understanding the link between vascular-related health conditions and dementia will help target at risk populations and inform clinical strategies for early detection and prevention of AD. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metabolic syndrome is associated with global cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) positivity and longitudinal Aβ accumulation. METHODS: Prospective study of 165 participants who underwent (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET neuroimaging to measure Aβ, from June 2005 to May 2016...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Dana J Caldwell, Kaelyn E Petras, Brandi L Mattison, Raegan J Wells, Victoria L Heffelman
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation of a dog with spontaneous hemoperitoneum associated with anaphylactic shock from Hymenoptera envenomation. CASE SUMMARY: An 8-year-old female neutered Beagle presented as an emergency for acute onset of collapse, hematemesis, and hematochezia. The dog was tachycardic, tachypneic, and hypotensive. Initial assessment revealed a hemoperitoneum with documentation of a nonclotting sanguineous peritoneal effusion with PCV 81% and total protein concentration 65 g/L (6...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Francis Okumu Ochola, Mitchel Otieno Okumu, Gerald Mwangi Muchemi, James Mucunu Mbaria, Joseph Kangangi Gikunju
Introduction: Snake bites are a silent public health problem in Kenya. Previous studies on snake bites in the country have mainly focused on identifying offending snake species, assessing the severity of envenomation and testing the efficacy of antivenom. Factors associated with snake bites in the country are yet to be fully understood. The aim of this work was to determine pharmaco-epidemiological factors associated with snake bites in areas of Kenya where incidence, severity and species responsible for snake bites have been reported...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Insa Feinkohl, Gunnar Lachmann, Wolf-Rüdiger Brockhaus, Friedrich Borchers, Sophie K Piper, Thomas H Ottens, Hendrik M Nathoe, Anne-Mette Sauer, Jan M Dieleman, Finn M Radtke, Diederik van Dijk, Tobias Pischon, Claudia Spies
Background: Age-related cognitive impairment is rising in prevalence but is not yet fully characterized in terms of its epidemiology. Here, we aimed to elucidate the role of obesity, diabetes and hypertension as candidate risk factors. Methods: Original baseline data from 3 studies (OCTOPUS, DECS, SuDoCo) were obtained for secondary analysis of cross-sectional associations of diabetes, hypertension, blood pressure, obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2 ) and BMI with presence of cognitive impairment in log-binomial regression analyses...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Márcia H Borges, Filipe Andrich, Pedro H Lemos, Thiago G Soares, Thiago N Menezes, Fabiana V Campos, Leandro X Neves, William Castro-Borges, Suely G Figueiredo
The biological activities observed upon envenomation by Scorpaena plumieri could be linked to both the venom and the skin mucus. Through a proteomic/functional approach we analyzed protein composition and biological activities of the venom and skin mucus. We identified 885 proteins: 722 in the Venomous Apparatus extracts (Sp-VAe) and 391 in the Skin Mucus extract (Sp-SMe), with 494 found exclusively in Sp-VAe, being named S. plumieri Venom Proteins (Sp-VP), while 228 were found in both extracts. The majority of the many proteins identified were not directly related to the biological activities reported here...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Niloy Ghosh, Jonathan A Henderson, Hyunyoung G Kim, Farren M Ancar
BACKGROUND: Snakebites in pregnancy can be life-threatening to both the mother and fetus as a result of inflammatory and toxic properties of the venom. Prompt medical treatment is critical to prevent adverse consequences. CASE: A 26-year-old woman at 37 6/7 weeks of gestation was bitten by a rattlesnake on the right middle finger, resulting in severe pain radiating up to the upper arm and swelling involving the entire hand. A total of 18 vials of crotalidae polyvalent immune fab was administered over 11 hours...
August 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Lynn A Farrugia, Sean H Rhyee, Sharan L Campleman, Bryan Judge, Louise Kao, Anthony Pizon, Lauren Porter, Anne M Riederer, Timothy Wiegand, Diane Calello, Paul M Wax, Jeffrey Brent
The Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) Case Registry was established by the American College of Medical Toxicology in 2010. The Registry collects data from participating sites with the agreement that all bedside medical toxicology consultations will be entered. The objective of this eighth annual report is to summarize the Registry's 2017 data and activity with its additional 7577 cases. Cases were identified for inclusion in this report by a query of the ToxIC database for any case entered from 1 January to 31 December 2017...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Sabine Hellwig, Lars Frings, Tobias Bormann, Werner Vach, Ralph Buchert, Philipp T Meyer
PURPOSE: Cerebral beta-amyloid and regional glucose metabolism assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) are used as diagnostic biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study validates the incremental diagnostic value of amyloid PET in addition to clinical diagnosis and [18 F]FDG PET in a real-life memory clinic population. METHODS: Of 138 consecutive patients with cognitive impairment who received combined [18 F]FDG and [11 C]PIB PET, 84 were diagnosed with major neurocognitive disorder (DSM-5) and included...
August 10, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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