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"Envenomation" OR "Snake Bite" OR "Pressure Immobilisation Bandage" OR "Pressure Immobilization Bandage" OR "PIB" OR "Spider Bite" OR "Insect Bite" OR "Bites And Stings" OR "Marine Sting" OR "Mammalian Bite" OR "Octopus" OR "Jellyfish" OR "Stonefish"

Sun-Ho Han, Jong-Chan Park, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Jun Ho Lee, Dong Young Lee, Inhee Mook-Jung
Cerebral β-amyloid (cAβ) deposition and cholinergic dysfunction have been considered as major pathological and functional hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is one of the major cholinergic enzymes, and there is no report to show the relationship between cAβ accumulation and peripheral AChE alteration in early stage of AD pathogenesis. Recent studies demonstrate that cAβ starts to deposit 15-20 years ahead of symptomatic appearance and this preclinical AD is important for early diagnosis of disease...
September 8, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Leijiane F Sousa, Christina N Zdenek, James S Dobson, Bianca Op den Brouw, Francisco Coimbra, Amber Gillett, Tiago H M Del-Rei, Hipócrates de M Chalkidis, Sávio Sant'Anna, Marisa M Teixeira-da-Rocha, Kathleen Grego, Silvia R Travaglia Cardoso, Ana M Moura da Silva, Bryan G Fry
Lancehead pit-vipers ( Bothrops genus) are an extremely diverse and medically important group responsible for the greatest number of snakebite envenomations and deaths in South America. Bothrops atrox (common lancehead), responsible for majority of snakebites and related deaths within the Brazilian Amazon, is a highly adaptable and widely distributed species, whose venom variability has been related to several factors, including geographical distribution and habitat type. This study examined venoms from four B...
October 11, 2018: Toxins
Mariana Rocha de Souza, Michael N Dawson
Mastigias, the 'golden' or 'spotted' jellyfish, is distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific. Specimens are identified routinely as Mastigias papua, although eight species were described historically, and molecular analyses evince at least three phylogenetic species. Understanding species diversity in Mastigias has become a priority because of its growing relevance in studies of boom-bust dynamics related to environmental change, cryptic species, local adaptation, parallel evolution, and peripatric speciation...
August 10, 2018: Zootaxa
Wolfgang Zeidler, Jacob Douek, Baruch Rinkevich, Roy Gevili, Menachem Goren, Bella S Galil
The hyperiidean amphipod Brachyscelus rapacoides Stephensen, 1925 is recorded from the scyphozoan jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica Galil, 1990, a new record of association for the genus Brachyscelus, as well as the first record of hyperiid infestation of a non-indigenous scyphozoan host. Because of some past confusion concerning the status of B. rapacoides and the closely related species B. rapax (Claus, 1871) a redescription of B. rapacoides and molecular analysis are provided in order to validate it as a species distinguished from B...
September 6, 2018: Zootaxa
Ehsan Alirahimi, Fatemeh Kazemi-Lomedasht, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi, Mohammad Hosseininejad Chafi, Nazli Sotoudeh, Hajarossadat Ghaderi, Serge Muyldermans, Mahdi Behdani
BACKGROUND: An effective therapy against envenoming should be a priority in view of the high number scorpion stings and snakebites. Serum therapy is still widely applied to treat the envenomation victims; however this approach suffers from several shortcomings. The employment of monoclonal antibodies might be an outcome as these molecules are at the core of a variety of applications from protein structure determination to cancer treatment. The progress of activities in the twilight zone between genetic and antibody engineering have led to the development of a unique class of antibody fragments...
August 30, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Ritesh G Menezes, Syed Ather Hussain, Sushil Allen Luis, Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian
Snakebite envenomation is an important public health problem in tropical countries. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in a 28-y-old man with Russell's viper bite that occurred in the Sathyamangalam forest range in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. In this case, a combination of early bite recognition, hospital-based supportive care, corticosteroid therapy, and timely administration of polyvalent antivenom resulted in a favorable clinical outcome.
October 8, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Ji Hye Kim, Seung Baik Han, Areum Durey
Jellyfish have been increasing at a global scale in recent years. These blooms not only have deleterious effects on marine ecosystems, they also increase the risk of jellyfish stings and accompanying envenomation. Here, we report a fatal case of pulmonary edema caused by jellyfish envenomation in a child in Korea. The patient died 4 h after envenomation despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Nemopilema nomurai was the suspected species of jellyfish encountered by the patient, although we are unable to confirm this...
October 8, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Jason Han, Hao Xiang, William E Ridley, Lloyd J Ridley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Bárbara Duarte-Abritta, Mirta F Villarreal, Carolina Abulafia, David Loewenstein, Rosie E Curiel Cid, Mariana N Castro, Ezequiel Surace, Stella-Maris Sánchez, Daniel E Vigo, Silvia Vázquez, Charles B Nemeroff, Gustavo Sevlever, Salvador M Guinjoan
The natural history of preclinical late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) remains obscure and has received less attention than that of early-onset AD (EOAD), in spite of accounting for more than 99% of cases of AD. With the purpose of detecting early structural and functional traits associated with the disorder, we sought to characterize cortical thickness and subcortical grey matter volume, cerebral metabolism, and amyloid deposition in persons at risk for LOAD in comparison with a similar group without family history of AD...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Ana Teresa Azevedo Sachetto, Jaqueline Gomes Rosa, Marcelo Larami Santoro
Snakebites are a major Collective Health problem worldwide. In Brazil, Bothrops jararaca snake venom (BjV) evokes hemostatic disturbances, bleeding manifestations, and redox status imbalance. Specific antivenom therapy, although efficacious to revert most snakebite-induced manifestations, is incapable of treating secondary manifestations, such as oxidative/nitrosative stress. Searching for new complementary therapies that could attenuate physiological derangements triggered by envenomation, we elected to test quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin) by its potential as both a potent antioxidant and a hemostasis modulatory compound...
October 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Matteo Tonietto, Gaia Rizzo, Mattia Veronese, Faith Borgan, Peter Bloomfield, Oliver Howes, Alessandra Bertoldo
OBJECTIVE: Full quantification of dynamic PET data requires the knowledge of tracer concentration in the arterial plasma. However, its accurate measurement is challenging due to the presence of radiolabeled metabolites and measurement noise. Mathematical models are fitted to the plasma data for both radiometabolite correction and data denoising. However, the models used are generally not physiologically informed and not consistently applied across studies even when quantifying the kinetics of the same radiotracer, introducing methodological variability affecting the results interpretation...
October 9, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Vidal Haddad Junior
INTRODUCTION: Injuries caused by fish are common in the Pantanal, a flooded area in Midwestern Brazil. METHODS: A survey was conducted to identify venomous and trauma-inducing fish and the incidence of such injuries in a local fishing community. RESULTS: The injuries were caused by catfish, freshwater stingrays, and piranhas. All fishermen had suffered injuries, and nearly 30% had recent injuries. CONCLUSIONS: A leaflet and discussions decreased the injuries (only two were recorded in the next year)...
September 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Amon Ryakitimbo, Misso Kennedy, Elichilia Shao, Maria E Itana, Ronald Mbwasi, Grace Kinabo, Karen Yeates, Kajiru Kilonzo
Bee sting has been identified as among causative agents of nephrotoxic acute tubular necrosis which may lead to acute kidney injury. Bee envenomation has medicinal properties but when a higher dose is inoculated may cause severe anaphylaxis with very poor prognosis. We report a 12-year-old boy with acute kidney injury following multiple bee stings who recovered well after hemodialysis.
October 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Xiang Gao, Guoshan Wang
RT-qPCR (Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) is a reliable molecular biology technique used for gene expression detection due to its high sensibility and good reproducibility. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR are often not available to investigate the expression of target genes in jellyfish under different conditions. To determine the responsible genes of jellyfish under hypoxia, primers to amplify the actin gene was designed for the amplification according to the conserved actin amino acid sequences of cnidarian...
September 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Xiaotian T Fang, Greta Hultqvist, Silvio R Meier, Gunnar Antoni, Dag Sehlin, Stina Syvänen
PET imaging of amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposits in brain has become an important aid in Alzheimer's disease diagnosis, and an inclusion criterion for patient enrolment into clinical trials of new anti-Aβ treatments. Available PET radioligands visualizing Aβ bind to insoluble fibrils, i.e. Aβ plaques. Levels of prefibrillar Aβ forms, e.g. soluble oligomers and protofibrils, correlate better than plaques with disease severity and these soluble species are the neurotoxic form of Aβ leading to neurodegeneration...
October 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Tamar Gutnick, Michael J Kuba
Building on the recently published Octopus bimaculoides genome, a new study identifies an evolutionarily conserved neural mechanism for serotonergic regulation of social behaviors.
October 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Ryan Arvidson, Maayan Kaiser, Sang Soo Lee, Jean Paul Urenda, Christopher J Dail, Haroun Mohammed, Cebrina Nolan, Song-Qing Pan, Jason E Stajich, Frederic Libersat, Michael E Adams
The parasitoid emerald jewel wasp Ampulex compressa induces a compliant state of hypokinesia in its host, the American cockroach Periplaneta americana through direct envenomation of the central nervous system (CNS). To elucidate the biochemical strategy underlying venom-induced hypokinesia, we subjected the venom apparatus and milked venom to RNAseq and proteomics analyses to construct a comprehensive "venome", consisting of 264 proteins. Abundant in the venome are enzymes endogenous to the host brain, including M13 family metalloproteases, phospholipases, adenosine deaminase, hyaluronidase, and neuropeptide precursors...
October 6, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Gwynn Curran-Sills, Jenna Kroeker
INTRODUCTION: There are 3 pit viper species in Canada. Limited Canadian literature exists on the epidemiology of venomous snakebites and the treatment patterns with antivenom. This study described the epidemiology, the utilization of antivenom, and estimated expenditures due to forfeited antivenom for pit viper envenomations in Canada. METHODS: A retrospective review of the Health Canada Special Access Program records to generate descriptive statistics. Data are presented as mean±SD (range), as appropriate...
October 3, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Gareth Whiteley, Nicholas R Casewell, Davinia Pla, Sarai Quesada-Bernat, Rhiannon A E Logan, Fiona M S Bolton, Simon C Wagstaff, José M Gutiérrez, Juan J Calvete, Robert A Harrison
While envenoming by the southern African shield-nosed or coral snakes (genus Aspidelaps) has caused fatalities, bites are uncommon. Consequently, this venom is not used in the mixture of snake venoms used to immunise horses for the manufacture of regional SAIMR (South African Institute for Medical Research) polyvalent antivenom. Aspidelaps species are even excluded from the manufacturer's list of venomous snakes that can be treated by this highly effective product. This leaves clinicians, albeit rarely, in a therapeutic vacuum when treating envenoming by these snakes...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Ajay Mishra, Aditya Binu, George Abraham, Harshad Vanjare, Tina George, Ramya Iyadurai
BACKGROUND: Neurological complications following snake and scorpion bite are diverse. Literature regarding patterns of cerebrovascular injury (CVI) and outcomes among these patients is scarce. This is a descriptive study of the clinical profile, brain imaging findings, mechanisms of injury, vascular territory involvement and outcomes of CVI following scorpion and snake envenomation, in a tertiary care center in South India.MethodologyPatients with scorpion sting- and snake envenomation-related complications were retrospectively enrolled...
October 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
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