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Roland Cormier, Michael Elliott, Jake Rice
Marine policy and management has to cope with a plethora of human activities that cause pressures leading to changes to the natural and human systems. Accordingly, it requires many policy and management responses to address traditional, cultural, social, ecological, technical, and economic policy objectives. Because of this, we advocate that a fully-structured approach using the IEC/ISO 31010 Bow-tie analysis will allow all elements to be integrated for a cost-effective system. This industry-standard system, described here with examples for the marine environment, will fulfil many of the demands by the users and uses of the marine system and the regulators of those users and uses...
August 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Neha J Pagidipati, Anne S Hellkamp, Puza P Sharma, Tracy Y Wang, Gregg C Fonarow, Michael Pencina
IMPORTANCE: The extent to which levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), a known marker of increased cardiovascular risk, are elevated and are associated with standard cardiovascular risk factors in patients with a history of myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the pattern and determinants of the distribution of hs-CRP in those with a prior MI in the United States using a nationally representative sample. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Adults with hs-CRP data in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1999-2010...
July 27, 2018: American Heart Journal
Stephen J Mooney, Rozenn N Lemaitre, David S Siscovick, Philip Hurvitz, Charlene E Goh, Tanya K Kaufman, Garazi Zulaika, Daniel M Sheehan, Nona Sotoodehnia, Gina S Lovasi
We explored links between food environments, dietary intake biomarkers, and sudden cardiac arrest in a population-based longitudinal study using cases and controls accruing between 1990 and 2010 in King County, WA. Surprisingly, presence of more unhealthy food sources near home was associated with a lower 18:1 trans-fatty acid concentration (-0.05% per standard deviation higher count of unhealthy food sources, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.01, 0.09). However, presence of more unhealthy food sources was associated with higher odds of cardiac arrest (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2...
August 15, 2018: Health & Place
Katherine Lucas, Camilla C Luck, Ottmar V Lipp
Although contemporary treatments for anxiety disorders are very efficient in reducing anxiety, return of fear after successful treatment is common which signifies a need for interventions that have a more enduring outcome. A recent laboratory study suggested that novelty-facilitated extinction, a simple modification of standard extinction which involves presenting a novel non-aversive stimulus during extinction, prevents spontaneous recovery, one laboratory analogue of return of fear. The current study assessed whether novelty-facilitated extinction can also prevent reinstatement, a second laboratory analogue of return of fear...
August 8, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Chao Zhang, Stefi A Baum, Viraj R Adduru, Bharat B Biswal, Andrew M Michael
While static functional connectivity (sFC) of resting state fMRI (rfMRI) measures the average functional connectivity (FC) over the entire rfMRI scan, dynamic FC (dFC) captures the temporal variations of FC at shorter time windows. Although numerous studies have implemented dFC analyses, only a few studies have investigated the reliability of dFC and this limits the biological interpretation of dFC. Here, we used a large cohort (N = 820) of subjects and four rfMRI scans from the Human Connectome Project to systematically explore the relationship between sFC, dFC and their test-retest reliabilities through intra-class correlation (ICC)...
August 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Kelly M Kreitzburg, Samuel C Fehling, Charles N Landen, Tracy L Gamblin, Rebecca B Vance, Rebecca C Arend, Ashwini A Katre, Patsy G Oliver, Robert C A M van Waardenburg, Ronald D Alvarez, Karina J Yoon
Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in the United States. Although most patients respond to frontline therapy, virtually all patients relapse with chemoresistant disease. This study addresses the hypothesis that carboplatin or tamoxifen + FTY720, a sphingosine analogue, will minimize or circumvent drug-resistance in ovarian cancer cells and tumor models. In vitro data demonstrate that FTY720 sensitized two drug-resistant (A2780. cp20, HeyA8. MDR) and two high-grade serous ovarian cancer cell lines (COV362, CAOV3) to carboplatin, a standard of care for patients with ovarian cancer, and to the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen...
August 15, 2018: Cancer Letters
D M Gilmore, E Grogan, I D Feurer, H Hoy, S A Rega, J Barnes, R Park, M Staykov, M Via, C M Shaver, C W Pinson, E Lambright
BACKGROUND: While single (SLT) and double lung transplantation (DLT) are associated with differences in morbidity and mortality, the effects of transplant type on patient-reported outcomes are not widely reported and conclusions have differed. Previous studies compared mean health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores but did not evaluate potentially different temporal trajectories in the context of longitudinal follow up. To address this uncertainty, this study is designed to evaluate longitudinal HRQOL after SLT and DLT with the hypothesis that temporal trajectories differ between SLT and DLT...
August 15, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Joannes F M Jacobs, Xavier Bossuyt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Fredrik Åberg, Helena Isoniemi, Eero Pukkala, Hannu Jalanko, Allan Rasmussen, Hans H Storm, Nicolai Schultz, William Bennet, Nils Ekvall, Bo-Göran Ericzon, Silvia Malenicka, Steinar Tretli, Pål-Dag Line, Kirsten Muri Boberg, Anniken Østensen, Tom Hemming Karlsen, Arno Nordin
Cancer after liver transplantation (LT) constitutes a threat also for young recipients, but cancer risk factors are usually absent in children and large studies on cancer risk profile in young LT recipients are scarce. Data of patients younger than 30 years who underwent LT 1982-2013 in the Nordic countries was linked with respective national cancer registries to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIR). Thirty-seven cancer cases were observed in 923 patients with 7846 person-years of follow-up. The SIR for all cancer types, compared to matched general population, was 9...
August 18, 2018: Liver Transplantation
George B McDonald, James W Freston, James L Boyer, Laurie D DeLeve
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Treatment of hematologic malignancy with antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) may cause liver injury. ADCs deliver a toxic moiety into antigen-expressing tumor cells but may also injure hepatic sinusoids (Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome, SOS). We studied patients who received an anti-CD22-calicheamicin conjugate (inotuzumab ozogamicin) to gain insight into mechanisms of sinusoidal injury, as there are no CD22+ cells in the normal liver but non-specific uptake of ADCs by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells...
August 18, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Ichiro Tamaki, Koichiro Hata, Yusuke Okamura, Yermek Nigmet, Hirofumi Hirao, Toyonari Kubota, Osamu Inamoto, Jiro Kusakabe, Toru Goto, Tetsuya Tajima, Junichi Yoshikawa, Hirokazu Tanaka, Tatsuaki Tsuruyama, Rene H Tolba, Shinji Uemoto
Cold storage (CS) remains the gold standard for organ preservation worldwide, though it is inevitably associated with cold-ischemia/warm-reperfusion injury (IRI). Molecular hydrogen (H2 ) is well-known to have anti-oxidative properties, however, its unfavorable features, i.e. inflammability, low solubility, and high tissue/substance permeability, have hampered its clinical application. To overcome such obstacles, we developed a novel reconditioning method for donor organs, named HyFACS (hydrogen flush after cold storage), just an end-ischemic H2 -flush directly to donor organs ex vivo, and herein report its therapeutic impact against hepatic IRI...
August 18, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Allison C Waters, Ashan Veerakumar, Ki Sueng Choi, Bryan Howell, Vineet Tiruvadi, Kelly R Bijanki, Andrea Crowell, Patricio Riva-Posse, Helen S Mayberg
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) to the subcallosal cingulate cortex (SCC) is an emerging therapy for treatment resistant depression. Precision targeting of specific white matter fibers is now central to the model of SCC DBS treatment efficacy. A method to confirm SCC DBS target engagement is needed to reduce procedural variance across treatment providers and to optimize DBS parameters for individual patients. We examined the reliability of a novel cortical evoked response that is time-locked to a 2 Hz DBS pulse and shows the propagation of signal from the DBS target...
August 18, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Bradley J Peters, Andrew D Rule, Kianoush B Kashani, John C Lieske, Kristin C Mara, Ross A Dierkhising, Erin F Barreto
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Serum creatinine concentration (SCr) is used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for medication dosing. Serum cystatin C concentration (CysC) has been proposed as an adjunct or alternative to SCr. This study sought to evaluate the impact that using CysC in eGFR equations could have on drug dose recommendations in hospitalized patients with infections. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Large academic tertiary care medical center...
August 18, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Tom Hildebrandt, Kurt Schulz, Lazar Fleysher, Trevor Griffen, Ashley Heywood, Robyn Sysko
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with eating disorders are theorized to have basic impairments in affective appraisal and social-emotional processing that contribute to pathogenesis of the disease. We aimed to determine if facial electromyography could be used to discriminate between happy and disgust emotions during simultaneous acquisition of an fMRI BOLD sequence in efforts to establish a novel tool for investigating emotion-driven hypotheses about eating pathology. In line with standards for rigor and reproducibility, we provide detailed protocols and code to support each step of this project...
August 18, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Pierre Maurage, Séverine Lannoy, Valérie Dormal, Marine Blanco, Jean-Baptiste Trabut
BACKGROUND: Decision-making impairments have been repeatedly evaluated in severe alcohol use disorders (SAUD) using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT, capitalizing on strong theoretical background and ecological significance, allowed identifying large-scale deficits in this population and is now a standard decision-making assessment in therapeutic settings. However, the clinical usefulness of the IGT, particularly regarding its ability to predict relapse and its link with key cognitive-physiological deficits, remains to be clarified...
August 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Sandy Feng, John Bucuvalas
We read with great interest the thoughtful letter from Branco and colleagues in response to our review of tolerance in liver transplantation. The group proposes instituting immunosuppression withdrawal as part of standard clinical practice for a subset of their patients, outside of the clinical trial setting but selected and followed according to guidelines derived from completed or ongoing trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 17, 2018: Liver Transplantation
D Mangan, B V McCleary, H Culleton, C Cornaggia, R Ivory, V McKie, E Delaney, T Kargelis
BACKGROUND: In recent years there has been a surge in the number of commercially available lactose-free variants of a wide variety of products. This presents an analytical challenge for the measurement of the residual lactose content in the presence of high levels of mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides. RESULTS: In the current work, we describe the development of a novel enzymatic low-lactose determination method termed LOLAC which is based on an optimised glucose removal pre-treatment step followed by a sequential enzymatic assay which measures residual glucose and lactose in a single cuvette...
August 17, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Zhenqi Liu, Shunchen Qiu, Yiqun Gu, Meiying Ning
A specific and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method that could be used to determine the concentration of levonorgestrel (LNG) in Beagle dog plasma was developed. Specifically, terfenadine was used as the internal standard (IS). The separation was achieved on a Kinetex-C18 110A column (3 mm * 30 mm ID., 2.6 um, phenomenex) and a gradient mobile phase consists of methanol (0.1% formic acid) and water (0.1% formic acid) was used. The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min and the injection volume was 10 μl...
August 17, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Tony Young, David Thwaites, Lois Holloway
Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard for radiotherapy simulation and treatment planning, providing spatial accuracy, bony anatomy definition and electron density information for dose calculations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced in radiotherapy to improve visualisation of anatomy for accurate target definition and contouring, however lacks electron density information required for dose calculations, with various methods used to overcome this. The aim of this work is to assess the impact on dose calculation accuracy and optimisation results of different approaches to determine electron density, as could be used in MRI only treatment planning for nasopharyngeal datasets with VMAT treatment plans...
August 17, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Fabrizio Luca, Danielle K Craigg, Maheswari Senthil, Matthew J Selleck, Blake D Babcock, Mark E Reeves, Carlos A Garberoglio
Several studies have reported high rates of urogenital dysfunction after open and laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer. Robotic surgery has several features that could facilitate identification and preservation of autonomic nerves. This manuscript aims to summarize the literature regarding urogenital function after robotic rectal cancer surgery and focus on technical aspects of nerve-sparing total mesorectal excision. Comprehensive searches were conducted through online databases. Selection criteria included: original articles assessing urinary and sexual function after robotic surgery of males and/or females with standardized questionnaires...
August 17, 2018: Updates in Surgery
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