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Antiviral high throughput screen method

Jean A Bernatchez, Zunhua Yang, Michael Coste, Jerry Li, Sungjun Beck, Yan Liu, Alex E Clark, Zhe Zhu, Lucas A Luna, Christal D Sohl, Byron W Purse, Rongshi Li, Jair L Siqueira-Neto
Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to the development of microcephaly in newborns, as well as Guillain-Barré syndrome. There are currently no drugs available to treat ZIKV infection, and accordingly, there is an unmet medical need for the discovery of new therapies. High-throughput drug screening efforts focusing on indirect readouts of cell viability are prone to a higher frequency of false positives in cases where the virus is viable in the cell but the cytopathic effect (CPE) is reduced or delayed. Here, we describe a fast and label-free phenotypic high-content imaging assay to detect cells affected by the virus-induced CPE using automated imaging and analysis...
October 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Chiara Platella, Domenica Musumeci, Angela Arciello, Filippo Doria, Mauro Freccero, Antonio Randazzo, Jussara Amato, Bruno Pagano, Daniela Montesarchio
Target selectivity is one of the main challenges in the search for small molecules able to act as effective and non-toxic anticancer and/or antiviral drugs. To achieve this goal, handy, rapid and reliable High Throughput Screening methodologies are needed. We here describe a novel functionalization for the solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides on Controlled Pore Glass, including a flexible hexaethylene glycol spacer linking the first nucleoside through the nucleobase via a covalent bond stable to the final deprotection step...
November 7, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
María Eugenia Quintana, Lucas Barone, María Belén Forlenza, Myrian Vanesa Trotta, Cecilia Turco, Florencia Celeste Mansilla, Nancy Patricia Cardoso, Alejandra Victoria Capozzo
Low-cost high-throughput methods applicable to any virus strain are required for screening antiviral compounds against multiple field strains. Colorimetric cell-viability assays are used for this purpose as long as the viruses are cytopathic (CP) in cell culture. However, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strains circulating in the field are mostly non-cytopathic (NCP). An In Cell-ELISA aimed to measure viral infectivity by detecting a conserved protein produced during viral replication (non-structural protein 3, "NS3") was developed...
October 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Amrita Saha, Badri Narayan Acharya, Raj Priya, Nagesh K Tripathi, Ambuj Shrivastava, M Kameswara Rao, Pooja Kesari, Manju Narwal, Shailly Tomar, Sameer S Bhagyawant, Manmohan Parida, Paban Kumar Dash
Chikungunya virus has emerged as one of the most important global arboviral threats over the last decade. Inspite of large scale morbidity, with long lasting polyarthralgia, so far no licensed vaccine or antiviral is available. CHIKV nsP2 protease is crucial for processing of viral nonstructural polypeptide precursor to release enzymes required for viral replication, thus making it a promising drug target. In this study, high cell density cultivation (HCDC) of Escherichia coli in batch process was carried out to produce rCHIKV nsP2pro in a cost-effective manner...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Baicheng Huang, Xia Xiao, Biyun Xue, En-Min Zhou
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a widespread disease that affects domestic pigs of all ages. Accurate and rapid detection of PRRSV specific neutralizing antibodies levels in a pig herd is beneficial for the evaluation of the herd's immunity to combat the specific viral infection. However, the current methods for viral detection, including fluorescent focus neutralization (FFN) and cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction neutralizing assays, are subjective and time-consuming...
September 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Benjamin Clémençon, Benjamin P Lüscher, Matthias A Hediger
INTRODUCTION: Membrane proteins represent roughly one third of the human proteome and many of them serve as targets of therapeutic drugs. An exception is the SLC solute carrier superfamily with only a handful of approved drugs targeting SLCs. Indeed, for many of the SLCs, the natural transport substrates are still unknown. A major limitation for SLCs has been the difficulty to thoroughly characterize these multimembrane spanning proteins. The intrinsic properties of membrane proteins with alternative hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains lead to instability, making the purification tasks even more challenging compared to soluble proteins...
July 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Karen B Fowler, Suresh B Boppana
Each year, thousands of children are born with or develop permanent disabilities such as hearing loss, vision loss, motor and cognitive deficits from congenital CMV infection (cCMV). However, awareness of cCMV and its associated sequelae is very low in pregnant women and healthcare providers. Both targeted and universal approaches to screen newborns for CMV infection are now achievable due to recent scientific advances including the development of a rapid, high-throughput method for detecting CMV in saliva, the efficacy of antiviral treatment in symptomatic infants, and the demonstration of cost effectiveness of CMV screening...
April 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Nyo Min, Pok Thim Leong, Regina Ching Hua Lee, Jeffery Seng Eng Khuan, Justin Jang Hann Chu
Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), resulting from human enterovirus A71 (HEVA71) infection can cause severe neurological complications leading to fatality in young children. Currently, there is no approved antiviral for therapeutic treatment against HEVA71 infection. In this study, a 500-compound flavonoid library was screened to identify potential inhibitors of HEVA71 using high-throughput immunofluorescence-based phenotypic screening method. Two lead flavonoid compounds, ST077124 and ST024734 at the non-cytotoxic concentration of 50 μM were found to be effective antivirals that inhibited replication of HEVA71, reducing infectious viral titers by 3...
February 2018: Antiviral Research
Na Yang, Chaomin Sun, Lixin Zhang, Jianguo Liu, Fuhang Song
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to severe liver diseases, including liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-structural protein 3 helicase (NS3h) and non-structural protein 5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B) are involved in the replication of HCV RNA genome, and have been proved to be excellent targets for discovery of direct-acting antivirals. In this study, two high-throughput screening systems, fluorescence polarization (FP)-based ssDNA binding assay and fluorescence intensity (FI)-based dsRNA formation assay, were constructed to identify candidate NS3h and NS5B inhibitors, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andri Vasou, Christina Paulus, Janina Narloch, Zoe O Gage, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti, Jean-François Eléouët, Michael Nevels, Richard E Randall, Catherine S Adamson
Viral interferon (IFN) antagonists are a diverse class of viral proteins that counteract the host IFN response, which is important for controlling viral infections. Viral IFN antagonists are often multifunctional proteins that perform vital roles in virus replication beyond IFN antagonism. The critical importance of viral IFN antagonists is highlighted by the fact that almost all viruses encode one of these proteins. Inhibition of viral IFN antagonists has the potential to exert pleiotropic antiviral effects and thus this important protein class represents a diverse plethora of novel therapeutic targets...
February 2018: Antiviral Research
Teilo Schaller, Tobias Wenner, Rupesh Agrawal, Stephen Teoh, Li Ting Phua, Joachim S C Loo, Terry W J Steele
Ganciclovir and valganciclor are antiviral agents used for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. The conventional method for administering ganciclovir in cytomegalovirus retinitis patients is repeated intravitreal injections. In order to obviate the possible detrimental effects of repeated intraocular injections, to improve compliance and to eliminate systemic side-effects, we investigated the tuning of the ganciclovir pro-drug valganciclovir and the release from thin films of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polycaprolactone (PCL), or mixtures of both, as a step towards prototyping periocular valganciclovir implants...
April 13, 2015: Materials
Hong-Wei Ma, Wei Ye, He-Song Chen, Tie-Jian Nie, Lin-Feng Cheng, Liang Zhang, Pei-Jun Han, Xing-An Wu, Zhi-Kai Xu, Ying-Feng Lei, Fang-Lin Zhang
Hantaviruses encompass rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever disease with high mortality rates in humans. Detection of infectious virus titer lays a solid foundation for virology and immunology researches. Canonical methods to assess viral titers rely on visible cytopathic effects (CPE), but Hantaan virus (HTNV, the prototype hantavirus) maintains a relatively sluggish life cycle and does not produce CPE in cell culture. Here, an in-cell Western (ICW) assay was utilized to rapidly measure the expression of viral proteins in infected cells and to establish a novel approach to detect viral titers...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Dezső P Virók, Ildikó Eszik, Tímea Mosolygó, Kamil Önder, Valéria Endrész, Katalin Burián
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are common human pathogens that can cause painful but benign manifestations and recurrent complaints, but can also cause significant morbidity and mortality on infection of the eye or brain and with disseminated infection of an immunosuppressed patient or a neonate. HSV growth inhibition measurement by plaque or yield reduction is a key task in the development of novel antiviral compounds but the manual methods are very labour intensive. The sensitive and specific PCR technology could be an effective method for quantitation of HSV DNA related to virus replication; however the currently described PCR approaches have a major limitation, namely the requirement of purification of DNA from the infected cells...
April 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Robert S Adcock, Yong-Kyu Chu, Jennifer E Golden, Dong-Hoon Chung
Recent studies have clearly underscored the association between Zika virus (ZIKV) and severe neurological diseases such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Given the historical complacency surrounding this virus, however, no significant antiviral screenings have been performed to specifically target ZIKV. As a result, there is an urgent need for a validated screening method and strategy that is focused on highlighting potential anti-ZIKV inhibitors that can be further advanced via rigorous validation and optimization...
February 2017: Antiviral Research
Sarit Kipper, Dorit Avrahami, Monika Bajorek, Doron Gerber
We present a high-throughput microfluidics platform to identify novel host cell binding partners of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) matrix (M) protein. The device consists of thousands of reaction chambers controlled by micro-mechanical valves. The microfluidic device is mated to a microarray-printed custom-made gene library. These genes are then transcribed and translated on-chip, resulting in a protein array ready for binding to RSV M protein.Even small viral proteome, such as that of RSV, presents a challenge due to the fact that viral proteins are usually multifunctional and thus their interaction with the host is complex...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lingyan Wang, Wenjun Li, Shitao Li
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a human respiratory pathogen that causes seasonal epidemics and occasional global pandemics with devastating levels of morbidity and mortality. Currently approved treatments against influenza are losing effectiveness, as new viral strains are often refractory to conventional treatments. Thus, there is an urgent need to find new therapeutic targets with which to develop novel antiviral drugs. The common strategy to discover new drug targets and antivirals is high throughput screening...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Samuel Mang, Hannes Bucher, Peter Nickolaus
The scintillation proximity assay (SPA) technology has been widely used to establish high throughput screens (HTS) for a range of targets in the pharmaceutical industry. PDE12 (aka. 2'- phosphodiesterase) has been published to participate in the degradation of oligoadenylates that are involved in the establishment of an antiviral state via the activation of ribonuclease L (RNAse-L). Degradation of oligoadenylates by PDE12 terminates these antiviral activities, leading to decreased resistance of cells for a variety of viral pathogens...
2016: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Shuaihua Gao, Rong Huang, Shaozhou Zhu, Hongxia Li, Guojun Zheng
2-Azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-3-one (γ-lactam) is an important precursor of many carbocyclic nucleoside analogs and pharmaceuticals. (-)-γ-Lactam has attracted much attention because of its role as an intermediate of antiviral drugs such as abacavir and carbovir. (+)-γ-Lactamase can be used for the kinetic resolution of γ-lactam to obtain (-)-γ-lactam. In this study, a novel (+)-γ-lactamase (Mh33H4-5540) was discovered from the gene library of Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans based on a colorimetric high-throughput screening method and it could be used to enantioselectively catalyze the bioresolution of racemic γ-lactam with high enantiomeric excess (ee) (>99 %) and yield (>49 %)...
November 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jocelyne Piret, Nathalie Goyette, Guy Boivin
The plaque reduction assay (PRA) is the gold standard phenotypic method to determine herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) susceptibilities to antiviral drugs. However, this assay is subjective and labor intensive. Here, we describe a novel antiviral phenotypic method based on real-time cell analysis (RTCA) that measures electronic impedance over time. The effective drug concentrations that reduced by 50% (EC50s) the cytopathic effects induced by HSV-1 and HCMV were evaluated by both methods...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Yan-Dong Tang, Ji-Ting Liu, Qiong-Qiong Fang, Tong-Yun Wang, Ming-Xia Sun, Tong-Qing An, Zhi-Jun Tian, Xue-Hui Cai
A Pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant has emerged in China since 2011 that is not protected by commercial vaccines, and has not been well studied. The PRV genome is large and difficult to manipulate, but it is feasible to use clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology. However, identification of single guide RNA (sgRNA) through screening is critical to the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and is traditionally time and labor intensive, and not suitable for rapid and high throughput screening of effective PRV sgRNAs...
March 29, 2016: Viruses
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