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Emotional release

Nina Kampka, Nicole Frommann, Uwe Henning, Robert Schwark, Wolfgang Wölwer, Reinhard Pietrowsky, Christian Luckhaus
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is known to be an important modulator of social cognition. It has been shown that lower OT plasma concentrations are linked to impairments in social cognition. Studies have also shown that intranasal OT may enhance social-cognitive abilities in healthy subjects. We hypothesize that, besides baseline OT concentrations, the reactivity of the OT system may have an important role in social-cognitive functioning of individuals. In the present study, we explored if an emotional challenge paradigm is suitable to elicit OT release into plasma to make the reactivity of the OT system measurable...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Matthew B Pomrenze, Jorge Tovar-Diaz, Angelo Blasio, Rajani Maiya, Simone M Giovanetti, Kelly Lei, Hitoshi Morikawa, F Woodward Hopf, Robert O Messing
The central amygdala (CeA) is important for fear responses to discrete cues. Recent findings indicate that the CeA also contributes to states of sustained apprehension that characterize anxiety, although little is known about the neural circuitry involved. The stress neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is anxiogenic and is produced by subpopulations of neurons in the lateral CeA and the dorsolateral BST (dlBST). Here we investigated the function of these CRF neurons in stress-induced anxiety using chemogenetics in male rats that express Cre recombinase from a Crh promoter...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yi Liu, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
A growing body of researches support a role for dysfunction of serotoninergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic systems in the neurobiological processes involved in major depression disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (ADs). The physiological changes underlying abnormal signaling of 5-HT, NE, and DA may be due to either reduced presynaptic release of these neurotransmitters or aberrant signal transductions, and thus contributing to the alterations in regulation or function of receptors and/or impaired intracellular signal processing...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yuki Hashimotodani, Fuyuki Karube, Yuchio Yanagawa, Fumino Fujiyama, Masanobu Kano
The supramammillary nucleus (SuM) of the hypothalamus projects to the dentate gyrus (DG) and the CA2 region of the hippocampus. Although the SuM-to-hippocampus circuits have been implicated in spatial and emotional memory formation, little is known about precise neural connections between the SuM and hippocampus. Here, we report that axons of SuM neurons make monosynaptic connections to granule cells (GCs) and GABAergic interneurons, but not to hilar mossy cells, in the DG and co-release glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at these synapses...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Damien Gulliver, Eryn Werry, Tristan A Reekie, Timothy A Katte, William Jorgensen, Michael Kassiou
Deficits in social behavioral domains, such as interpersonal communication, emotion recognition, and empathy, are a characteristic symptom in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has emerged as a key regulator of diverse social behaviors in vertebrates and, thus, has been identified as a potential therapeutic target for improving social dysfunction. In recent years, the field of OT research has seen an explosion of scientific inquiry, producing a more comprehensive picture of oxytocinergic signaling and the pathways that regulate its release and degradation in the brain...
November 30, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Magdalena Tertil, Urszula Skupio, Justyna Barut, Valentyna Dubovyk, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargiela, Zbigniew Soltys, Slawomir Golda, Lucja Kudla, Lucja Wiktorowska, Klaudia Szklarczyk, Michal Korostynski, Ryszard Przewlocki, Michal Slezak
Stress elicits the release of glucocorticoids (GCs) that regulate energy metabolism and play a role in emotional memory. Astrocytes express glucocorticoid receptors (GR), but their contribution to cognitive effects of GC's action in the brain is unknown. To address this question, we studied how astrocyte-specific elimination of GR affects animal behavior known to be regulated by stress. Mice with astrocyte-specific ablation of GR presented impaired aversive memory expression in two different paradigms of Pavlovian learning: contextual fear conditioning and conditioned place aversion...
November 28, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Heidemarie Haller, Felix J Saha, Barbara Ebner, Anna Kowoll, Dennis Anheyer, Gustav Dobos, Bettina Berger, Kyung-Eun Choi
BACKGROUND: Neural Therapy (NT) is a common complementary treatment approach using injections with short-acting local anesthetics to treat pain and chronic diseases. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms and the domains of treatment response. This study therefore analyzed patient experiences following NT injections with procaine. METHODS: Maximum variation sampling was used to collect data from semi-structured interviews conducted with 22 hospital inpatients aged 59...
November 27, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Marcos L Pietto, Mathias Gatti, Federico Raimondo, Sebastián J Lipina, Juan E Kamienkowski
The use of human neuroimaging technology provides knowledge about several emotional and cognitive processes at the neural level of organization. In particular, electroencephalographic (EEG) techniques allow researchers to explore high-temporal resolution of the neural activity that underlie the dynamics of cognitive processes. Although EEG research has been mostly applied in laboratory settings, recently a low-cost, portable EEG apparatus was released, which allows exploration of different emotional and cognitive processes during every-day activities...
2018: PloS One
Pilar Serra-Añó, Marta Inglés, Cristina Bou-Catalá, Amparo Iraola-Lliso, Gemma Victoria Espí-López
PURPOSE: The scars derived from the treatment of breast cancer lead to adverse effects such as fibrosis or retractions of the connective tissue. Myofascial release (MR) seeks to reduce restrictions of the fascial system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the clinical impact of MR treatment on women survivors of breast cancer. METHODS: We enrolled 24 women with breast cancer, 13 received myofascial release treatment (MR) and 11, a placebo manual lymphatic drainage treatment (PMLD)...
November 24, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Barb Toews, Amy Wagenfeld, Julie Stevens
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to understand the impact of a short-term nature-based intervention on the social-emotional well-being of women incarcerated on a mental health unit in a state prison. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This research used a mixed method approach with individual interviews, a focus group and a visual analog scale (VAS). FINDINGS: Qualitative results found that women appreciated the planting party and the way the plants improved the physical environment...
December 17, 2018: International Journal of Prisoner Health
Kevin G Mulvihill
The signaling dynamics of the neurotransmitter dopamine has been established to have an important role in a variety of behavioural processes including motor control, cognition, and emotional processing. Key regulators of transmitter release and the signaling dynamics of dopamine are the plasma membrane reuptake transporter (DAT) and the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2). These proteins serve to remove dopamine molecules from the extracellular and cytosolic space, respectively and both determine the amount of transmitter released from synaptic vesicles...
November 19, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Lijuan Zhang, Jinqiang Zhang, Zili You
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common emotional cognitive disorder that seriously affects people's physical and mental health and their quality of life. Due to its clinical and etiological heterogeneity, the molecular mechanisms underpinning MDD are complex and they are not fully understood. In addition, the effects of traditional drug therapy are not ideal. However, postmortem and animal studies have shown that overactivated microglia can inhibit neurogenesis in the hippocampus and induce depressive-like behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Hsien-Hsueh Shih, Chi-Yung Shang, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
OBJECTIVE: Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are efficacious in reducing core symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but little is known about their efficacy in improving emotional/behavioral problems among youths with ADHD. METHODS: One hundred sixty drug-naïve youths with DSM-IV-defined ADHD, aged 7-16 years, were recruited and randomly assigned to osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-methylphenidate; n = 80) and atomoxetine (n = 80) in a 24-week, open-label, head-to-head clinical trial...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Tony J Cunningham, Stephanie L Leal, Michael A Yassa, Jessica D Payne
Stress influences how we remember emotional events and how these events shape future behaviors. However, the impact of stress on memory specificity for emotional events has yet to be examined. To this end, the present study utilized a mnemonic discrimination task that taxes hippocampal pattern separation, the process of distinguishing between overlapping experiences, thereby allowing us to better understand the mechanisms by which stress affects gist versus detail memory of emotional events. Participants encoded scenes composed of negative or neutral objects placed on neutral backgrounds and then underwent a psychosocial stressor or matched control task...
December 2018: Learning & Memory
Hyo Sun Roh, Bo Ra Park, Eun Young Jang, Jin Sook Kim, Young S Gwak
Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disease, which causes serious social and economic problems. The most important trial for the successful treatment of drug addiction is to prevent the high rate of relapse to drug-seeking behaviors. Opponent process as a motivational theory with excessive drug seeking in the negative reinforcement of drug dependence reflects both loss of brain reward system and recruitment of brain stress system. The negative emotional state produced by brain stress system during drug withdrawal might contribute to the intense drug craving and drive drug-seeking behaviors via negative reinforcement mechanisms...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Bernhard A Sabel, Josef Flammer, Lotfi B Merabet
Vision loss due to ocular diseases such as glaucoma, optic neuropathy, macular degeneration, or diabetic retinopathy, are generally considered an exclusive affair of the retina and/or optic nerve. However, the brain, through multiple indirect influences, has also a major impact on functional visual impairment. Such indirect influences include intracerebral pressure, eye movements, top-down modulation (attention, cognition), and emotionally triggered stress hormone release affecting blood vessel dysregulation...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Nathália Carolina Nhimi Miranda de Paula, Jacqueline Antônia Matias Martins, Lorena Maciel Amaral, Paula Rhana, Eduardo Carlos Tavares, Wilson Soares Leite, Glaucia Rezende Tavares, Andréia Laura Prates Rodrigues
Cancer is characterized by the disordered growth of cells that have high capacity of invasion to the tissues and organs. One of the types of tumour that has national incidence and high mortality is breast cancer. Studies show that in addition to hereditary factors, lifestyle and environmental factors, there are factors related to emotional distress (mourning), which interfere with the development of breast cancer. Thus, it is necessary to investigate if the experience of mourning can trigger the appearance of the tumour...
July 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Natalia V Gulyaeva
The hippocampus is not a homogeneous brain area, and the complex organization of this structure underlies its relevance and functional pleiotropism. The new data related to the involvement of the ventral hippocampus in the cognitive function, behavior, stress response and its association with brain pathology, in particular, depression, are analyzed with a focus on neuroplasticity, specializations of the intrinsic neuronal network, corticosteroid signaling through mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus...
October 24, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Anna Skórzewska, Aleksandra Wisłowska-Stanek, Małgorzata Lehner, Danuta Turzyńska, Alicja Sobolewska, Paweł Krząścik, Janusz Szyndler, Piotr Maciejak, Adam Płaźnik
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that high-anxiety (HR) rats are more sensitive to the effects of chronic corticosterone administration and antalarmin (corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor 1, CRF1 antagonist) injections than low-anxiety (LR) rats, and this effect is accompanied by changes in CRF system activity in brain regions involved in the control of emotions and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Male rats were divided into LR (n = 25) and HR (n = 30) groups according to the duration of conditioned freezing in a contextual fear test...
October 20, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Benjamin Sack, Katja Broer, Silke Anders
Observational and experimental studies have shown that sleep deprivation disinhibits emotional responses to disturbing and rewarding external events. On the other hand, most studies on sleep deprivation and interpersonal emotion recognition report that sensitivity to others' emotions is dampened after sleep deprivation. This is at odds with current neuroscientific theories of social cognition that assume that affective experiences and emotion recognition in others are closely tied at the neural and physiological level...
October 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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