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Emotional release

Soichiro Ide, Ryuta Yamamoto, Hiroshi Takeda, Masabumi Minami
INTRODUCTION: Although the important roles of bidirectional interactions between the brain and gut in stress and emotional responses have long been recognized, the underlying neuronal mechanisms remain unclear. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a limbic structure involved in stress responses and negative affective states, such as anxiety and depression. We have previously demonstrated that noradrenergic transmission within the ventral part of the BNST (vBNST) plays a crucial role in anxiety-like behaviors and pain-induced aversion...
March 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology reports
Teemu Aitta-Aho, Y Audrey Hay, Benjamin U Phillips, Lisa M Saksida, Tim J Bussey, Ole Paulsen, John Apergis-Schoute
The central cholinergic system and the amygdala are important for motivation and mnemonic processes. Different cholinergic populations innervate the amygdala, but it is unclear how these projections impact amygdala processes. Using optogenetic circuit-mapping strategies in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-cre mice, we demonstrate that amygdala-projecting basal forebrain and brainstem ChAT-containing neurons can differentially affect amygdala circuits and behavior. Photo-activating ChAT terminals in vitro revealed the underlying synaptic impact of brainstem inputs to the central lateral division to be excitatory, mediated via the synergistic glutamatergic activation of AMPA and NMDA receptors...
July 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Alasdair MacSween, Susan Lorrimer, Paul van Schaik, Marie Holmes, Anna van Wersch
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and social constructions of Thai massage (TM) and Swedish massage (SM) for patients experiencing fatigue or depleted energy. METHOD: Twenty participants were randomised to receive three once-weekly TM treatments and three once-weekly SM treatments, with crossover after three massages. Symptom checklists were administered at three time points and included Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List and VAS Scale...
July 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Gabrielle C Gregoriou, Sarah A Kissiwaa, Sahil D Patel, Elena E Bagley
Neural circuits in the amygdala are important for associating the positive experience of drug taking with the coincident environmental cues. During abstinence, cue re-exposure activates the amygdala, increases dopamine release in the amygdala and stimulates relapse to drug use in an opioid dependent manner. Neural circuits in the amygdala and the learning that underlies these behaviours are inhibited by GABAergic synaptic inhibition. A specialised subtype of GABAergic neurons in the amygdala are the clusters of intercalated cells...
August 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Stana Pačarić, Jozo Kristek, Jure Mirat, Goran Kondža, Tajana Turk, Nikolina Farčić, Želimir Orkić, Ana Nemčić
BACKGROUND: Measuring the quality of life (QoL) of women with breast cancer is an important aspect of measuring treatment success. In Croatia, no QoL studies have been carried out with a focus on patients after mastectomy. The aim of this study was to examine QoL 1 month and 1 year after mastectomy. METHODS: This cross-sectional single-center study of quality of life was conducted in 101 patients, 50 of whom had undergone a mastectomy 1 month prior, and 51 of whom had undergone a mastectomy 1 year prior...
August 10, 2018: BMC Public Health
Neeti D Mehta, Ebrahim Haroon, Xiaodan Xu, Bobbi J Woolwine, Zhihao Li, Jennifer C Felger
Biomarkers of inflammation, including inflammatory cytokines and the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP), are reliably increased in a subset of patients with depression, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Administration of innate immune stimuli to laboratory subjects and the associated release of inflammatory cytokines has been shown to affect brain regions involved in fear, anxiety and emotional processing such as the amygdala. However, the role of inflammation in altered circuitry involving amygdala and other brain regions and its subsequent contribution to symptom severity in depression, anxiety disorders and PTSD is only beginning to be explored...
August 1, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Patrick Connolly
Freud's core interest in the psyche was the dynamic unconscious: that part of the psyche which is unconscious due to conflict (Freud, 1923/1961). Over the course of his career, Freud variously described conflict as an opposition to the discharge of activation (Freud, 1950), opposition to psychic activity due to the release of unpleasure (Freud, 1990/1991), opposition between the primary principle and the reality principle (Freud, 1911/1963), structural conflict between id, ego, and superego (Freud, 1923/1961), and ambivalence (Freud, 1912/1963)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Silvia Barbiero, Alberto Aimo, Vincenzo Castiglione, Alberto Giannoni, Giuseppe Vergaro, Claudio Passino, Michele Emdin
The hectic pace of contemporary life is a major source of acute and chronic stress, which may have a deleterious impact on body health . In the field of cardiovascular disease, acute emotional stress has been associated with coronary spasm and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, whereas the manifestations of chronic stress have been overlooked, and most underlying pathophysiology remains to be elucidated. Chronic stress affects the neuronal circuitry composed of cortico-limbic structures and the nuclei regulating autonomic function, eliciting a sympatho-vagal imbalance, characterised by adrenergic activation and vagal withdrawal...
July 27, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Laura Musazzi, Paolo Tornese, Nathalie Sala, Maurizio Popoli
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the fifth most prevalent mental disorder in the United States, is a chronic, debilitating mental illness with as yet limited options for treatment. Hallmark symptoms of PTSD include intrusive memory of trauma, avoidance of reminders of the event, hyperarousal and hypervigilance, emotional numbing, and anhedonia. PTSD is often triggered by exposure to a single traumatic experience, such as a traffic accident, a natural catastrophe, or an episode of violence. This suggests that stressful events have a primary role in the pathogenesis of the disorder, although genetic background and previous life events are likely involved...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Zhiguo Lu, Yongchang Zheng, Tianlu Zhang, Jie Shen, Zuobing Xiao, Jing Hu, Yunwei Niu, Dan Yu, Xin Zhang
Many kinds of fragrances have the effects on life cultivation and health preservation. These fragrances can be used for emotional regulation, partly because of the way it can modulate our central nervous system (CNS), further affect our moods and even improve our behaviour. But the effects are very dependent on their concentrations in the air. In this study, photo-responsive micelles named as PPMM-PEG@S803 were designed and prepared to encapsulate and controllably release sandela 803. PPMM-PEG@S803 was then applied to wallpaper (PPMM-PEG-W@S803) and the effects of this treated wallpaper on CNS of mice were evaluated...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
William J Giardino, Ada Eban-Rothschild, Daniel J Christoffel, Shi-Bin Li, Robert C Malenka, Luis de Lecea
Lateral hypothalamus (LH) neurons containing the neuropeptide hypocretin (HCRT; orexin) modulate affective components of arousal, but their relevant synaptic inputs remain poorly defined. Here we identified inputs onto LH neurons that originate from neuronal populations in the bed nuclei of stria terminalis (BNST; a heterogeneous region of extended amygdala). We characterized two non-overlapping LH-projecting GABAergic BNST subpopulations that express distinct neuropeptides (corticotropin-releasing factor, CRF, and cholecystokinin, CCK)...
August 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Gudrun Winther, Betina Elfving, Heidi Kaastrup Müller, Sten Lund, Gregers Wegener
Prenatal exposure to high-fat diet (HFD) might predispose offspring to develop metabolic and mental disorders later in life. Insight into the molecular and behavioral consequences of maternal HFD on offspring is sparse but may involve both neuroinflammation and a dysregulated neuroendocrine stress axis. Thus, the aim of this work was to: (i) investigate the influence of maternal HFD on memory, anxiety and depression-like behavior in adult offspring and (ii) identify possible biological biomarkers related to neuroinflammation and stress responses...
July 17, 2018: Neuroscience
Vivian Y Y Lam, Charlis Raineki, Linda Ellis, Wayne Yu, Joanne Weinberg
Children and adults prenatally exposed to alcohol show higher rates of mental health problems than unexposed individuals, with depression and anxiety being among the more commonly encountered disorders. Previous studies in rats showed that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can indeed increase depressive- and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood; however, depression and anxiety are often observed in the context of stress and/or a dysregulated stress response system (the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis)...
June 23, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
M Vodička, P Ergang, T Hrnčíř, A Mikulecká, P Kvapilová, K Vagnerová, B Šestáková, A Fajstová, P Hermanová, T Hudcovic, H Kozáková, J Pácha
The commensal microbiota affects brain functioning, emotional behavior and ACTH and corticosterone responses to acute stress. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in shaping the chronic stress response in the peripheral components of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and in the colon. Here, we studied the effects of the chronic stress-microbiota interaction on HPA axis activity and on the expression of colonic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system, cytokines and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11HSD1), an enzyme that determines locally produced glucocorticoids...
July 7, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Hiroyuki Muraoka, Hidehiro Oshibuchi, Masahiko Kawano, Takaaki Kawano, Takahiro Tsutsumi, Makiko Yamada, Jun Ishigooka, Katsuji Nishimura, Ken Inada
Serotonin reuptake inhibitors modulate the serotonergic pathways of the nervous system and are widely used for treating psychiatric conditions such as anxiety and depression. The dopaminergic system is related to the development of these conditions. Previous studies on methamphetamine-sensitised rats (behavioural models of stress vulnerability) have shown increased release of dopamine in response to conditioned stress in the amygdala. This biochemical abnormality was proposed to underlie the pathophysiology of stress vulnerability...
July 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Boldizsár Czéh, Irina Vardya, Zsófia Varga, Fabia Febbraro, Dávid Csabai, Lena-Sophie Martis, Kristoffer Højgaard, Kim Henningsen, Elena V Bouzinova, Attila Miseta, Kimmo Jensen, Ove Wiborg
Clinical and experimental data suggest that fronto-cortical GABAergic deficits contribute to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). To further test this hypothesis, we used a well characterized rat model for depression and examined the effect of stress on GABAergic neuron numbers and GABA-mediated synaptic transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to 9-weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) and based on their hedonic-anhedonic behavior they were behaviorally phenotyped as being stress-susceptible (anhedonic) or stress-resilient...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Edouard Ga Mills, Waljit Singh Dhillo, Alexander N Comninos
Reproduction is fundamental for the survival of all species and requires meticulous synchronisation of a diverse complement of neural, endocrine and related behaviours. The reproductive hormone kisspeptin (encoded by the KISS1/kiss1 gene), is now a well-established orchestrator of reproductive hormones, acting upstream of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) at the apex of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) reproductive axis. Beyond the hypothalamus, kisspeptin is also expressed in limbic and paralimbic brain regions, which are areas of the neurobiological network implicated in sexual and emotional behaviours...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Vikas Navratna, Dilip K Tosh, Kenneth A Jacobson, Eric Gouaux
The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) plays a major role in dopamine homeostasis and regulation of neurotransmission by clearing dopamine from the extracellular space using secondary active transport. Dopamine is an essential monoamine chemical messenger that regulates reward seeking behavior, motor control, hormonal release, and emotional response in humans. Psychostimulants such as cocaine primarily target the central binding site of hDAT and lock the transporter in an outward-facing conformation, thereby inhibiting dopamine reuptake...
2018: PloS One
Ozcan Ozeke, Serkan Cay, Firat Ozcan, Serkan Topaloglu, Dursun Aras
The evidence-based medicine is rooted in the scientific truth. Oxford Dictionaries has released its 2016 word of the year: "Post-truth," which they define as "relating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief". In everything from climate change denial to the anti-vaccine movement, we're seeing the consequences of a failure to engage with scientific evidence. Fake news and post-truth pronouncements are increasingly common in social media and political era and are unfortunately also progressively being applied to the medical science...
May 2018: Indian Heart Journal
Emily G Lowery-Gionta, Nicole A Crowley, Olena Bukalo, Shana Silverstein, Andrew Holmes, Thomas Louis Kash
Chronic stress contributes to the neuropathology of mental health disorders, including those associated with anxiety. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) coordinates emotional behavioral responses through glutamatergic outputs to downstream regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). We explored the effects of chronic stress on BLA outputs to the PFC, NAcc and BNST using slice electrophysiology combined with optogenetics in two inbred mouse strains with distinct stress-induced anxiety responses...
September 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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