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Low grade inflammation

Anne Gad, Algis Jonas Vingrys, Chinn Yi Wong, David Charles Jackson, Laura Elizabeth Downie
PURPOSE: To investigate the ocular inflammatory response, using clinical and immunological techniques, in people experiencing contact lens (CL) discomfort. METHODS: This study involved 38 adults who were full-time, silicone-hydrogel CL wearers. Participants were categorized into groups based upon a validated CL dry-eye questionnaire (CLDEQ-8) (n = 17 'asymptomatic', CLDEQ-8 score <9; n = 21 'symptomatic', CLDEQ-8 score ≥13). Examinations were performed at two visits (one with, and one without, CL wear), separated by one-week...
October 12, 2018: Ocular Surface
Yuksel Cicek, Murtaza Emre Durakoglugil, Halil Rakici, Akif Serhat Balcioglu, Hakan Duman, Turan Erdogan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of epicardial adipose tissue thickness with irritable bowel syndrome. METHODS: This case-control and observational study was conducted in Recep Tayyip Erdogan University between January and December 2014, and comprised patients of irritable bowel syndrome and healthy controls who underwent a complete transthoracic echocardiographic examination as well as measurements of epicardial adipose tissue. They were screened for psychiatric or organic bowel diseases for the sake of precise diagnosis...
October 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Dahu Li, Houjiu Wu, Huating Dou, Li Guo, Wei Huang
Obesity is associated with the changes in gut microbiota. The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of sweet orange essential oil (SOEO) microcapsules on body weight and gut microbiota in obese rats induced by high-fat diet. By analyzing the body weight, fat rate and the sequence of cloned microbial small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA) in rats fecal samples, we found that SOEO microcapsules decreased the body weight and increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium (genus-level) in gut microbiota...
October 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nikita B Gadekar, Jagadish V Hosmani, Kishore G Bhat, Vijayalakshmi S Kotrashetti, Ramakant S Nayak, Deepa V Babji, Smita M Pattanshetty, Vinayak M Joshi, Rani A Bansode
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a persistent polymicrobial infection, which leads to chronic inflammation in the tooth supporting tissues. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are normal commensals of oral cavity but are low in number in periodontally healthy subjects. They are one of the major pathogens aetiologically linked to periodontal disease. Plasma and salivary antibody measurement may be useful to support diagnosis, disease activity, classification and prognosis of periodontitis...
October 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Krishnan V Chakravarthy, Fang Xing, Kelly Bruno, Alexander R Kent, Adil Raza, Rene Hurlemann, Thomas M Kinfe
BACKGROUND: There is increasing literature evidence both clinically and experimentally on the existence of potent, adaptive interactions between the central and peripheral aspects of the neuroimmune system in the genesis and maintenance of chronic neuropathic extremity pain and nociceptive back pain. The neuroinflammatory pathways are modulated by the interaction of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which are released by peripheral immune system-derived cell species (macrophages and leukocytes)...
October 12, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Eunho Chun, Soojung Yoon, Amna Parveen, Mirim Jin
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder manifesting as unexplained abdominal pain and bowel habit changes. The pathogenesis of post-infectious IBS is associated with gut⁻brain axis dysfunction, including low-grade colonic inflammation and anxiety-related long-term brain changes. This study analyzed the efficacy of a standardized extract of Dolichos lablab L. extract (DL), a bean species, in an IBS mouse model resembling post-infectious, diarrhea-dominant IBS. Using a zymosan-induced animal IBS model, we found that oral administration of DL significantly attenuated zymosan-induced increases in colonic macroscopic scores and minimized weight loss without affecting food intake...
October 10, 2018: Nutrients
Fang-Hui Li, Lei Sun, Min Zhu, Tao Li, Hao-En Gao, Da-Shuai Wu, Ling Zhu, Rui Duan, Timon Cheng-Yi Liu
Sarcopenia is associated with loss of muscle mass and function as well as oxidative stress, chronic low-grade inflammatory status, and adipocytokine dysfunction. It has been reported that sarcopenia can be attenuated by exercise training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether long-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) protocols could differentially modulate changes in body composition, physical performance, inflammatory parameters, and adipocytokines in fat tissues and serum, as well as oxidative parameters and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels in skeletal muscle tissue of aged rats...
October 9, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Peter Kuhn, Hetalben M Kalariya, Alexander Poulev, David M Ribnicky, Asha Jaja-Chimedza, Diana E Roopchand, Ilya Raskin
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced leaky gut syndrome combined with low-grade inflammation increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the intestine and may contribute to dysbiosis and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Poorly bioavailable and only partially metabolizable dietary polyphenols, such as proanthocyanidins (PACs), may exert their beneficial effects on metabolic health by scavenging intestinal ROS. To test this hypothesis, we developed and validated a novel, noninvasive, in situ method for visualizing intestinal ROS using orally administered ROS-sensitive indocyanine green (ICG) dye...
2018: PloS One
Antonio Inserra, Claudio Alberto Mastronardi, Geraint Rogers, Julio Licinio, Ma-Li Wong
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide, and its incidence is expected to increase. Despite tremendous efforts to understand its underlying biological mechanisms, MDD pathophysiology remains elusive and pharmacotherapy outcomes are still far from ideal. Low-grade chronic inflammation seems to play a key role in mediating the interface between psychological stress, depressive symptomatology, altered intestinal microbiology, and MDD onset. We review the available pre-clinical and clinical evidence of an involvement of pro-inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis, treatment, and remission of MDD...
October 10, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Débora Romualdo Lacerda, Michele Macedo Moraes, Albená Nunes-Silva, Katiá Anunciação Costa, Débora Fernandes Rodrigues, Josiana Lopes Sabino, Letícia Maria de Souza Cordeiro, Vanessa Pinho, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Samuel Penna Wanner, Danusa Dias Soares, Adaliene Versiani Matos Ferreira
Obesity is associated with an energy imbalance that results from excessive energy intake, low diet quality and a sedentary lifestyle. In this regard, the increased consumption of a high-refined carbohydrate diet (HC) is strongly related to higher adiposity and low-grade inflammation. Aerobic training is a well-known non-pharmacological intervention to treat obesity and metabolic disturbances. However, the mechanisms through which aerobic training ameliorates the low-grade inflammation induced by the HC diet need to be further investigated...
October 10, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Melinda Wang, Maureen P Kohi
Background: Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a minimally invasive technique well established for treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. However, the post-procedure recovery for UAE involves a notable inflammatory process in response to ischemia known as post-embolization syndrome (PES). PES encompasses transient leukocytosis, low-grade fever, and can result in readmission of up to 10% of patients. In surgical settings, multiple studies have demonstrated the efficacy of glucocorticoids in reducing inflammation and associated pain...
December 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Durgesh Kumar, Sanket Kumar Pandya, Salil Varshney, Kripa Shankar, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Abhishek Gupta, Sanchita Gupta, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Amit Misra, Anil N Gaikwad
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Chronic low-grade inflammation/meta-inflammation in adipose tissue leads to obesity-associated metabolic complications. Despite growing understanding, the roles of immune cell subsets, their interrelationship, and chronological events leading to progression of obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) remains unclear. METHODS: We carried out temporal immunometabolic profiling of adipose tissue from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Armelle Paule, Domenico Frezza, Marvin Edeas
An imbalance of bacterial quantity and quality of gut microbiota has been linked to several pathologies. New strategies of microbiota manipulation have been developed such as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT); the use of pre/probiotics; an appropriate diet; and phage therapy. The presence of bacteriophages has been largely underestimated and their presence is a relevant component for the microbiome equilibrium. As a promising treatment, phage therapy has been extensively used in Eastern Europe to reduce pathogenic bacteria and has arisen as a new method to modulate microbiota diversity...
October 5, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Stephanie Böhmert, Ralf Schubert, Stephan Fichtlscherer, Sonja Alesci, Wolfgang Miesbach
The life expectancy of patients with haemophilia has increased and therefore the interest in age-related comorbidities has grown. The aim of this study was to determine whether haemophilia patients have a different endothelial function compared with the general population. A total of 26 patients with severe or moderate haemophilia A or B, 14 controls and 36 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) were included in this study. Five markers of endothelial dysfunction (MOEDs) were determined. Moreover, the endothelial function was examined using the Itamar Endo-PAT, and the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) was calculated from the results...
October 9, 2018: Hämostaseologie
Donato Zipeto, Michela Serena, Simona Mutascio, Francesca Parolini, Erica Diani, Elisabetta Guizzardi, Valentina Muraro, Emanuela Lattuada, Sebastiano Rizzardo, Marina Malena, Massimiliano Lanzafame, Giovanni Malerba, Maria Grazia Romanelli, Stefano Tamburin, Davide Gibellini
AIDS dementia complex (ADC) and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are complications of HIV-1 infection. Viral infections are risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Aging is associated with low-grade inflammation in the brain, i.e., the inflammaging. The molecular mechanisms linking immunosenescence, inflammaging and the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease, are largely unknown. ADC and HAND share some pathological features with AD and may offer some hints on the relationship between viral infections, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Fani Karagianni, Agapi Kataki, Eythymios Koniaris, Sotirios Karamagkiolas, Anastasia Derventzi, Evangelos Giotakis, Manousos Konstandoulakis, George Zografos, Ioannis Giotakis
BACKGROUND: Nasal polyposis (NP) and sinonasal inverted papillomas (SIP) are considered benign lesions capable of recurrence or malignant transformation although not with the same prevalence. Since fluctuations of Caveolin-1 and Notch-1 proteins expression have been reported in many pathologies, the current study aimed to investigate their involvement in the epithelial transformation observed in SIPs compared to NP. METHODS: Immunohistochemical expression of Caveolin-1 and Notch-1 proteins was assessed in 104 patients with sinonasal lesions (45 NP, 45 SIP and 14 NP with SIP), semiquantively (percentage times intensity)...
September 29, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Martin Fruth, Bjoern Buehring, Xenofon Baraliakos, Juergen Braun
OBJECTIVES: To identify inflammatory pelvic structures of patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detail, searching for a disease-specific pattern. METHODS: A total of 40 contrast-enhanced pelvic MRIs of patients with a clinical diagnosis of PMR was reviewed by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist who assessed all abnormalities semi-quantitatively, based on a predefined scoring system. RESULTS: The median (25th/75th percentiles) age of patients was 67 (55/73) years, median symptom duration 13 (6/22) weeks, 55% female, median CRP 1...
September 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Meiyan Dai, Lujin Wu, Ling Tu, Xizhen Xu, Dao Wen Wang
Macrophages in adipose tissue are associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation, which contributed to insulin resistance and the related metabolic diseases. Macrophages display phenotypic plasticity, and polarize under the condition of obesity. Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids (EETs) are lipid mediators that are involved in the regulation of inflammatory cascades and glucose homeostasis. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize the macrophages recruitment, infiltration and polarization in obese mice, and also discuss the immune-metabolic regulatory role of EETs in this process (See Fig...
October 5, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Mehwish Anwer, Muhammad J Iqbal
Objectives: Obesity in children can lead to morbidity and mortality due to metabolic and inflammatory comorbidities. Aims: The objective of the study was to investigate the alterations in acute inflammatory markers, serum amyloid P (SAP) and cortisol, and endocrine markers, leptin and insulin, in obese children. Materials and Methods: Serum leptin, insulin, cortisol, and amyloid P concentrations were measured in obese (BMI percentile >85, n = 17) and nonobese (BMI percentile < 75, n = 20) children using ELISA and Bio-Plex Bead-based assay...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Eduardo Lemos de Souza Bastos, Ana Maria Alvim Liberatore, Roberto Carlos Tedesco, Ivan Hong Jun Koh
INTRODUCTION: Some traditional bariatric surgery procedures may lead to functional gut shortening, which may unsettle the fine-tuned gastrointestinal physiology and affect gut microbiota balance. PURPOSE: Evaluate the gut microbiota behavior in rat models facing gut shortening due to intestinal bypass. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats (n = 17) were randomly distributed in three groups: (1) sham group (n = 5); (2) blind loop group (n = 6); and (3) resection group (n = 6)...
October 6, 2018: Obesity Surgery
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