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Low grade inflammation

Pei-Sheng Lee, Chia-Yi Teng, Nagabhushanam Kalyanam, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan
SCOPE: Obesity has become a major health problem worldwide and is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis. This study was conducted to investigate the chemopreventive effects of garcinol, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivative isolated from the fruit rind of Garcinia indica. We sought to delineate how garcinol protects against obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mice and determine whether its anti-obesity effects are related to gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: The results showed that garcinol reduced HFD-fed mice body weight gain and relative visceral adipose tissue fat weight in a dose-dependent manner...
December 5, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Alex Pizzini, Lukas Lunger, Thomas Sonnweber, Guenter Weiss, Ivan Tancevski
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a growing healthcare concern and will represent the third leading cause of death worldwide within the next decade. COPD is the result of a complex interaction between environmental factors, especially cigarette smoking, air pollution, and genetic preconditions, which result in persistent inflammation of the airways. There is growing evidence that the chronic inflammatory state, measurable by increased levels of circulating cytokines, chemokines, and acute phase proteins, may not be confined to the lungs...
December 2, 2018: Nutrients
Athina Chasapi, Kostas Balampanis, Eleni Kourea, Fotios Kalfarentzos, Vaia Lambadiari, George I Lambrou, Maria Melachrinou, Georgia Sotiropoulou-Bonikou
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is characterized by a chronic, low grade, systemic inflammation. However, little is known about the role of skeletal muscle, which represents an active metabolic organ whose activities need to be determined. The purpose of our study was to detect relationships between skeletal muscle and adipose tissue inflammation with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes, as well as to explore associations with clinicopathological parameters. METHODS: Our study population consisted of 50 morbidly obese patients undergoing planned bariatric surgery...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Anna Pedrinolla, Massimo Venturelli, Emine Kirmizi, Federica Moschetta, Monica Zardini, Doriana Rudi, Elisabetta Bacchi, Federico Schena, Paolo Moghetti, Massimo Lanza
In western countries, aging is often accompanied by obesity and age-related obesity is characterized by vascular dysfunction and a low-grade inflammatory profile. Exercise is a nonpharmacological strategy able to decrease the development and incidence of risk factors for several health-threatening diseases. Nonetheless, its long-term effect on vascular function and inflammation in age-related obesity is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of regular, supervised exercise on inflammatory profile and vascular function in age-related obesity...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Daria M McMahon, James B Burch, James R Hébert, James W Hardin, Jiajia Zhang, Michael D Wirth, Shawn D Youngstedt, Nitin Shivappa, Steven J Jacobsen, Bette Caan, Stephen K Van Den Eeden
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between proinflammatory diet and prostate cancer risk. METHODS: Energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII) scores were computed among 40,161 participants in the California Men's Health Study. Over 9.7 ± 3.8 years of follow-up, 2707 incident prostate cancer cases were diagnosed and categorized as low-, intermediate-, or high-risk, based on disease grade and stage. Accelerated failure-time models assessed time to diagnosis of prostate cancer...
November 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Zachary I Grunewald, Sunhye Lee, Rebecca Kirkland, Matthew Ross, Claire B de La Serre
Circulating levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin are chronically elevated in obesity (metabolic endotoxemia), resulting in low-grade inflammation. Metabolic endotoxemia has been identified as a triggering factor for obesity-associated metabolic complications such as insulin resistance. Furthermore, LPS has been shown to modulate endocannabinoid synthesis and notably to induce cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) ligand synthesis. CB1 activation promotes inflammation, increases food intake and impairs insulin signaling...
November 28, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Venesa Dizdar, Trygve Hausken, Ole D Larum, Odd Helge Gilja, Nina Langeland, Kurt Hanevik
Objective: Persisting low grade inflammation is suggested to play a role in post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGID). The present study examined alterations in duodenal mucosal lymphocytes during and after Giardia gastroenteritis in patients who did, or did not, develop PI-FGID. Design: Duodenal mucosal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD20 lymphocytes were quantified in 28 chronic giardiasis (CG) patients, 66 patients with persistent abdominal symptoms after acute Giardia infection (PI-FGID), 19 recovered controls (RC) and 16 healthy volunteers (HC)...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Maia R Aitken, Darko Stefanovski, Louise L Southwood
OBJECTIVE: To determine serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations in the postoperative (PO) colic horse and its association with PO complications and infection. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case series. ANIMALS: Fifty-one horses after colic surgery. METHODS: Blood samples from horses undergoing exploratory celiotomy were analyzed for quantitative SAA and fibrinogen concentrations and for neutrophil count at days 0, 1, 2, and 4-6 and at hospital discharge...
November 29, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Michalis Hamilos, Stylianos Petousis, Fragiskos Parthenakis
Platelets were traditionally considered to purely have a role in the maintenance of haemostasis. Recently their role in vasomotor function, inflammation and atherosclerosis has been very well-recognized. Endothelium which was originally considered as a simple passive barrier, it is now viewed as an organ whose normal functioning is crucial for maintaining vascular health. When endothelial balance is disturbed, vascular disease initiates. Platelet interactions with endothelium have an important contribution in this process...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Carina Gröschel, André Sasse, Sebastian Monecke, Charlotte Röhrborn, Leslie Elsner, Michael Didié, Verena Reupke, Gertrude Bunt, Andrew H Lichtman, Karl Toischer, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Gerd Hasenfuß, Ralf Dressel
Heart failure due to pressure overload is frequently associated with inflammation. In addition to inflammatory responses of the innate immune system, autoimmune reactions of the adaptive immune system appear to be triggered in subgroups of patients with heart failure as demonstrated by the presence of autoantibodies against myocardial antigens. Moreover, T cell-deficient and T cell-depleted mice have been reported to be protected from heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and we have shown recently that CD4+ -helper T cells with specificity for an antigen in cardiomyocytes accelerate TAC-induced heart failure...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hua Zhu, Yang Liu, Shengda Li, Ye Jin, Lei Zhao, Fuya Zhao, Jing Feng, Wei Yan, Yunwei Wei
Splenectomy carries a long-term risk of postoperative infection, and the chronic, low-grade inflammation associated with endotoxemia may be related to the gut microbiota. In this study, to increase our understanding of the potential cause of the high rate of infection in postsplenectomy patients, we evaluated the differences in the gut microbiota and plasma lipopolysaccharide level of patients after splenectomy relative to those of healthy controls. Thirty-two patients having undergone splenectomy and 42 healthy individuals were enrolled into the splenectomy (SP) and healthy control (HC) groups, respectively...
November 30, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Aline Castilho de Almeida, Maria Gabriela Pedroso, Jessica Bianca Aily, Glaucia Helena Gonçalves, Carlos Marcelo Pastre, Stela Marcia Mattiello
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of a 14-week periodized circuit training protocol on patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), in randomized intervention groups, on thigh intermuscular adipose tissue (interMAT), body composition, systemic inflammation, cartilage degradation, and its repercussion on pain, functional performance and quality of life. METHODS: This study presents a protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Sixty selected participants diagnosed with knee OA grades II and III, 40-65 years old and BMI < 30 kg/m2, will be randomly divided into three groups:periodized circuit training, strength training, and educational protocol...
November 30, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Agnieszka Baranowska-Bik, Wojciech Bik
Insulin was discovered in 1922 by Banting and Best. Since that time, extensive research on the mechanisms of insulin activity and action has continued. Currently, it is known that the role of insulin is much greater than simply regulating carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin in physiological concentration is also necessary to maintain normal vascular function. Insulin resistance is defined as a pathological condition characterized by reduced sensitivity of skeletal muscles, liver, and adipose tissue, to insulin and its downstream metabolic effects under normal serum glucose concentrations...
November 28, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Christine R Keenan, Rhys S Allan
Aging inevitably leads to reduced immune function, leaving the elderly more susceptible to infections, less able to respond to pathogen challenges, and less responsive to preventative vaccinations. No cell type is exempt from the ravages of age, and extensive studies have found age-related alterations in the frequencies and functions of both stem and progenitor cells, as well as effector cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The intrinsic functional reduction in immune competence is also associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, termed "inflamm-aging," which further perpetuates immune dysfunction...
November 28, 2018: Aging Cell
Matthew K Hensley, Jane C Deng
Both the adaptive and innate arms of immunity are altered in patients with cirrhosis, which have both prognostic and clinical implications. Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF), defined as decompensated cirrhosis with associated organ failure, carries a high risk of 28-day mortality and is marked by a significant inflammatory response. Patients with decompensated chronic liver disease display a shift from a chronic low-grade inflammatory state to one of intense inflammation, followed by the development of immunoparalysis...
October 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Runxiang Xie, Yue Sun, Jingyi Wu, Shumin Huang, Ge Jin, Zixuan Guo, Yujie Zhang, Tianyu Liu, Xiang Liu, Xiaocang Cao, Bangmao Wang, Hailong Cao
Background: Accumulating evidence shows that high fat diet is closely associated with inflammatory bowel disease. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of maternal high fat diet (MHFD) on the susceptibility of offspring to colitis in adulthood lacks confirmation. Methods: C57BL/6 pregnant mice were given either a high fat (60 E% fat, MHFD group) or control diet [10 E% fat, maternal control diet (MCD) group] during gestation and lactation. The intestinal development, mucosal barrier function, microbiota, and mucosal inflammation of 3-week old offspring were assessed...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Cong Cai, Changyu Liu, Liming Zhao, Hui Liu, Weijin Li, Hanfeng Guan, Libo Zhao, Jun Xiao
Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent disease which has been a major public health problem and considered to be associated with chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and oxidative damage. Taxifolin is a natural flavonoid and possesses many pharmacological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Because flavonoids have been confirmed to fight osteoporosis and promote bone health, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of taxifolin on the formation and function of osteoclast. In this study, we examined the effects of taxifolin on osteoclast using both in vitro and in vivo studies...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Fanny M Elahi, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Marie Altendahl, Adam M Staffaroni, Evan Fletcher, Teresa J Filshtein, Maria M Glymour, Bruce L Miller, Jason D Hinman, Charles DeCarli, Edward J Goetzl, Joel H Kramer
Background and Objective: In the aging brain, increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) on MRI are frequently presumed secondary to cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) or endotheliopathy. We investigate this association in vivo by quantifying protein cargo from endothelial-derived exosomes (EDE), and comparing levels between two groups of functionally normal elders with and without WMH. In addition, we study associations of EDE proteins with upstream and downstream factors, such as inflammation and neurodegenerative changes, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Toshiaki Komo, Koichi Oishi, Toshihiko Kohashi, Jun Hihara, Masanori Yoshimitsu, Noriaki Tokumoto, Mikihiro Kanou, Akira Nakashima, Yoshirou Aoki, Manabu Shimomura, Masashi Miguchi, Mahito Funakoshi, Hidenori Mukaida, Mayumi Kaneko, Hiroo Matuura, Naoki Hirabayashi
INTRODUCTION: Neurofibromas are a characteristic of the autosomal dominant disorder Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), also known as von Recklinghausen's disease. Appendiceal neurofibromas are extremely rare, and low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) have not previously been reported in NF1. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 62-year-old man with NF1 was scheduled for elective surgical treatment of an asymptomatic, enlarged and diffusely thickened appendix that remained after curative antimicrobial treatment of acute appendicitis...
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Aamer Imdad, Maribeth R Nicholson, Emily E Tanner-Smith, Joseph P Zackular, Oscar G Gomez-Duarte, Dawn B Beaulieu, Sari Acra
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing disease of the gastrointestinal tract that is thought to be associated with a complex interplay between microbes and the immune system, leading to an abnormal inflammatory response in genetically susceptible individuals. Dysbiosis, characterized by the alteration of the composition of the resident commensal bacteria in a host compared to healthy individuals, is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), two subtypes of IBD...
November 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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