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radiation-induced cancer

Julia Krombach, Roman Hennel, Nikko Brix, Michael Orth, Ulrike Schoetz, Anne Ernst, Jessica Schuster, Gabriele Zuchtriegel, Christoph A Reichel, Susanne Bierschenk, Markus Sperandio, Thomas Vogl, Steffen Unkel, Claus Belka, Kirsten Lauber
The major goal of radiotherapy is the induction of tumor cell death. Additionally, radiotherapy can function as in situ cancer vaccination by exposing tumor antigens and providing adjuvants for anti-tumor immune priming. In this regard, the mode of tumor cell death and the repertoire of released damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are crucial. However, optimal dosing and fractionation of radiotherapy remain controversial. Here, we examined the initial steps of anti-tumor immune priming by different radiation regimens (20 Gy, 4 × 2 Gy, 2 Gy, 0 Gy) with cell lines of triple-negative breast cancer in vitro and in vivo ...
2019: Oncoimmunology
Alessio Cortellini, Valentina Cocciolone, Azzurra Irelli, Francesco Pavese, Tina Sidoni, Alessandro Parisi, Paola Lanfiuti Baldi, Olga Venditti, Carla D'Orazio, Pierluigi Bonfili, Pietro Franzese, Luigi Zugaro, Lucilla Verna, Giampiero Porzio, Daniele Santini, Katia Cannita, Corrado Ficorella
The most frequent site of recurrence in breast cancer (BC) is the bone, particularly in patients with 'luminal-like' disease. Denosumab has been shown to prevent aromatase inhibitors (AIs) induced bone resorption in postmenopausal early BC patients and reduce skeletal-related events (SREs) in bone metastatic breast cancer (BMBC). A 'real life' analysis of 90 BMBC patients treated with denosumab was performed. Eighty-six patients (95.6%) had 'luminal-like' disease, 72 (80%) had bone metastases at the time of first recurrence of disease...
December 2018: Oncology Letters
Enid M Eslick, Mark J Stevens, Dale L Bailey
Curative-intent lung cancer radiation therapy either alone (RT) or combined with immuno-chemotherapy is associated with potential risk of serious radiation-induced lung injury. This review provides a summary of the role of SPECT ventilation perfusion (V/Q) imaging as an emerging adjunct to lung cancer RT planning and treatment dosimetry. Denoted "functional lung avoidance RT" it is hypothesized that preferential dosimetric avoidance of physiologically functional lung may reduce the frequency of radiation-induced lung injury...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Masataka Sunagawa, Kojiro Yamaguchi, Mana Tsukada, Nachi Ebihara, Hideshi Ikemoto, Tadashi Hisamitsu
Stomatitis is occasionally multiple, recurrent, and refractory. Currently, mucositis induced by chemotherapy and radiation therapy in patients with cancer has become a significant clinical problem. Effective treatments have not been established and the treatment of numerous cases remains a challenge for physicians. Traditional Japanese herbal medicines termed Kampo formulae (i.e., Hangeshashinto, Orengedokuto, Inchinkoto, Orento, Byakkokaninjinto, Juzentaihoto, Hochuekkito, and Shosaikoto) are used for treating various types of stomatitis and mucositis...
December 10, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Jianyang Wang, Hong Zhao, Jing Yu, Xin Xu, Wenyang Liu, Hao Jing, Ning Li, Yuan Tang, Yexiong Li, Jianqiang Cai, Jing Jin
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common digestive system malignant tumors. Due to the resistance to radiotherapy, the prognosis in patients with HCC is poor. Based on previous studies and online tools prediction, we hypothesized that miR-92b, which was reported to promote HCC cell proliferation, might bind to p57kip2, a well-known tumor suppressor, to modulate the radioresistance of HCC to ionizing radiation (IR) -based radiotherapy. In the present study, a higher miR-92b expression in HCC tissues and cell lines was observed; a high miR-92b expression was correlated with poorer prognosis in patients with HCC...
December 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Abhishek Chandra, Sean S Park, Robert J Pignolo
Human aging-related changes are exacerbated in cases of disease and cancer, and conversely aging is a catalyst for the occurrence of disease and multimorbidity. For example, old age is the most significant risk factor for cancer and among people who suffer from cancer, >60% are above the age of 65. Oxidative stress and DNA damage, leading to genomic instability and telomere dysfunction, are prevalent in aging and radiation-induced damage and are major cellular events that lead to senescence. Human exposures from nuclear fallout, cosmic radiation and clinical radiotherapy (RT) are some common sources of irradiation that affect bone tissue...
December 10, 2018: Bone
Gazal Jain, Sasidharanpillai Sabeena, Akhila Vasudeva, Anjali Mundkur, Srilatha Parampalli Srinivas, G Arunkumar, Pratap Kumar
Once the recommended 5-year recurrence-free follow-up is achieved for cervical cancers regular annual pelvic examination is mandatory. The main aim of presenting this short report is to emphasize the difficulties in the collection and interpretation of cytology samples from stenosed cervix or vault after pelvic irradiation. Radiotherapy can induce changes in the cellular morphology which may persist for many years. A 64-year old post-menopausal lady who had received radiation therapy 32 years back for cervical carcinoma stage IIb presented to the Gynecology outpatient department with vaginal spotting...
December 2018: Virusdisease
Fang Wang, Aihong Mao, Jinzhou Tang, Qianjing Zhang, Junfang Yan, Yupei Wang, Cuixia Di, Lu Gan, Chao Sun, Hong Zhang
Prostate cancer (CaP) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide in 2012, and radiation therapy is one of the most common definitive treatment options for localized CaP. However, radioresistance is a major challenge for the current radiotherapy, accumulating evidences suggest microRNAs (miRNAs), as an important regulator in cellular ionizing radiation (IR) responses, are closely correlated with radiosensitivity in many cancers. Here, we identified microRNA-16-5p(miR-16-5p) is significantly upregulated in CaP LNCaP cells following IR and can enhance radiosensitivity through modulating Cyclin D1/E1-pRb-E2F1 pathway...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Masaru Konishi, Rinus Gerardus Verdonschot, Kiichi Shimabukuro, Takashi Nakamoto, Minoru Fujita, Naoya Kakimoto
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to perform a systematic literature search and meta-analysis to reveal the most effective mouthwash for head and neck cancer patients who are experiencing radiation therapy-induced mucositis. METHODS: Using two electronic databases, a literature search and data interpretation were systematically performed as follows: (i) problem specification, (ii) devising of a literature search plan, (iii) literature search and retrieval of publications, and (iv) meta-analysis and data interpretation...
December 10, 2018: Oral Radiology
Yann Guéguen, Alice Bontemps, Teni G Ebrahimian
This article reviews the current knowledge on the mechanisms of adaptive response to low doses of ionizing radiation or chemical exposure. A better knowledge of these mechanisms is needed to improve our understanding of health risks at low levels of environmental or occupational exposure and their involvement in cancer or non-cancer diseases. This response is orchestrated through a multifaceted cellular program involving the concerted action of diverse stress response pathways. These evolutionary highly conserved defense mechanisms determine the cellular response to chemical and physical aggression...
December 8, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Pavel Kundrát, Werner Friedland
Oncogenic transformed cells represent an in vitro system mimicking early-stage carcinogenesis. These precancerous cells are subject to a selective removal via apoptosis induced by neighbor cells. By modulating the underpinning intercellular signaling mediated by cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, ionizing radiation enhances this removal of precancerous cells in vitro, at doses from a few mGy to a few Gy. However, epidemiological data demonstrate that radiation exposure induces cancer, at least above 100 mGy...
December 11, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Pavel Kundrát, Julia Remmele, Hannes Rennau, Sabine Sebb, Cristoforo Simonetto, Markus Eidemüller, Ulrich Wolf, Guido Hildebrandt
With improved cure rates and prolonged patient survival after breast-cancer radiotherapy, radiation-induced second cancers and heart diseases become increasingly important. The heart, lungs and contralateral breast are the most critical organs for these long-term effects. Doses to these organs and hence the risks differ between radiotherapy techniques and especially among patients. To address this variability, treatment plans were generated for 128 early-stage breast-cancer patients using intensity-modulated, 3D-conformal and hybrid radiotherapy...
December 11, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
A Kobayashi, N Autsavapromporn, T A F Tengku Ahmad, M Oikawa, S Homma-Takeda, Y Furusawa, J Wang, T Konishi
Bi-directional signaling involved in radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) between irradiated carcinoma cells and their surrounding non-irradiated normal cells is relevant to radiation cancer therapy. Using the SPICE-NIRS microbeam, we delivered 500 protons to A549-GFP lung carcinoma cells, stably expressing H2B-GFP, which were co-cultured with normal WI-38 cells. The level of γ-H2AX, a marker for DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), was subsequently measured up to 24-h post-irradiation in both targeted and bystander cells...
December 11, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Edwin Chang, Chirag B Patel, Christoph Pohling, Caroline Young, Jonathan Song, Thomas Anthony Flores, Yitian Zeng, Lydia-Marie Joubert, Hamed Arami, Arutselvan Natarajan, Robert Sinclair, Sanjiv S Gambhir
Glioblastoma is the most common yet most lethal of primary brain cancers with a one-year post-diagnosis survival rate of 65% and a five-year survival rate of barely 5%. Recently the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a novel fourth approach (in addition to surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy) to treating glioblastoma; namely, tumor treating fields (TTFields). TTFields involves the delivery of alternating electric fields to the tumor but its mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Current theories involve TTFields disrupting mitosis due to interference with proper mitotic spindle assembly...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Hongmei Zhu, Shu Ruan, Feng Jia, Jiusheng Chu, Yong Zhu, Yongjiu Huang, Guan Liu
Background: Berbamine (BBM), one of the bis-benzylisoquinoline products isolated from Berberis amurensis , has been demonstrated for its anticancer effect against leukemia, breast cancer, liver cancer, etc. There are some studies focusing on the chemosensitization effect of BBM. However, there is no report about whether BBM could enhance the anticancer effect of radiation, which made us to explore the possible radiosensitization effect of BBM. Materials and methods: Here, in vitro cytotoxicity of BBM was evaluated on two kinds of head and neck squamous cancer cell lines...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Paul Lesueur, Valentin Calugaru, Catherine Nauraye, Dinu Stefan, Kim Cao, Evelyne Emery, Yves Reznik, Jean Louis Habrand, Thomas Tessonnier, Abdulhamid Chaikh, Jacques Balosso, Juliette Thariat
INTRODUCTION: The depth-dose distribution of a proton beam, materialized by the Bragg peak makes it an attractive radiation modality as it reduces exposure of healthy tissues to radiations, compared with photon therapy Prominent indications, based on a long-standing experience are: intraocular melanomas, low-grade skull-base and spinal canal malignancies. However, many others potential indications are under investigations such as the benign morbid conditions that are compatible with an extended life-expectancy: low grade meningiomas, paragangliomas, pituitary adenomas, neurinomas craniopharyngioma or recurrent pleomorphic adenomas...
December 1, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Kathleen A Ashcraft, Johanna L Hannan, Gary Eichenbaum, Xiaojie Zhang, Elena S Pak, Austin M Faught, Pranalee Patel, Mark W Dewhirst, Bridget F Koontz
PURPOSE: Radiation therapy (RT) offers an important and curative approach to treating prostate cancer but is associated with a high incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED). It is not clear if the etiology of radiation-induced ED (RI-ED) is driven by RT-mediated injury to the vasculature, the nerves, or both. This pilot study sought to distinguish the impacts of vascular and nerve injury in RI-ED by applying a vascular radioprotectant in a rat model of prostate RT. METHODS: A single dose of the thrombopoietin mimetic, TPOm (RWJ-800088), previously shown to mitigate radiation-induced vascular injury, was administered ten minutes after a single fraction conformal prostate RT...
December 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
María E Rodriguez-Ruiz, I Rodriguez, Olwen Leaman, Fernando López Campos, Angel Montero, Antonio J Conde, J J Aristu, Pedro Lara, Manuel Calvo Felipe, Ignacio Melero
Radiotherapy of cancer has been traditionally considered as a local therapy without noticeable effects outside the irradiated fields. However, ionizing radiation exerts multiple biological effects on both malignant and stromal cells that account for a complex spectrum of mechanisms beyond simple termination of cancer cells. In the era of immunotherapy, interest in radiation-induced inflammation and cell death has considerably risen, since these mechanisms lead to profound changes in the systemic immune response against cancer antigens...
December 5, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Xin Jin, Donglin Ding, Yuqian Yan, Hui Li, Bo Wang, Linlin Ma, Zhenqing Ye, Tao Ma, Qiang Wu, Daniel N Rodrigues, Manish Kohli, Rafael Jimenez, Liguo Wang, David W Goodrich, Johann de Bono, Haidong Dong, Heshui Wu, Runzhi Zhu, Haojie Huang
Aberrant expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) in tumor cells promotes cancer progression by suppressing cancer immunity. The retinoblastoma protein RB is a tumor suppressor known to regulate the cell cycle, DNA damage response, and differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that RB interacts with nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) protein p65 and that their interaction is primarily dependent on CDK4/6-mediated serine-249/threonine-252 (S249/T252) phosphorylation of RB. RNA-seq analysis shows a subset of NF-κB pathway genes including PD-L1 are selectively upregulated by RB knockdown or CDK4/6 inhibitor...
December 3, 2018: Molecular Cell
Narongchai Autsavapromporn, Cuihua Liu, Alisa Kobayashi, Tengku Ahbrizal Farizal Tengku Ahmad, Masakazu Oikawa, Nahathai Dukaew, Jun Wang, Ariyaphong Wongnoppavich, Teruaki Konishi
Increased understanding of radiation-induced secondary bystander effect (RISBE) is relevant to radiation therapy since it likely contributes to normal tissue injury and tumor recurrence, subsequently resulting in treatment failure. In this work, we developed a simple method based on proton microbeam radiation and a transwell insert co-culture system to elucidate the RISBE between irradiated human lung cancer cells and nonirradiated human normal cells. A549 lung cancer cells received a single dose or fractionated doses of proton microbeam radiation to generate the primary bystander cells...
December 11, 2018: Radiation Research
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