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radiation-induced cancer

Kerstin Zwirner, Franz J Hilke, German Demidov, Stephan Ossowski, Cihan Gani, Olaf Rieß, Daniel Zips, Stefan Welz, Christopher Schroeder
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiochemotherapy is a standard treatment option for patients with head and neck cancer (HNSCC). During radiation, local toxicities are common and need to be differentiated from infections. As levels of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) are known to be elevated during infections, cfDNA might complement clinical parameters. The aim of the study was to investigate the dynamics of cfDNA during radiochemotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total, 78 blood samples of 20 patients with HNSCC were analysed in this prospective biomarker study...
August 7, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Cristoforo Simonetto, Markus Eidemüller, Aurélie Gaasch, Montserrat Pazos, Stephan Schönecker, Daniel Reitz, Stefan Kääb, Michael Braun, Nadia Harbeck, Maximilian Niyazi, Claus Belka, Stefanie Corradini
PURPOSE: Aim of the current comparative modelling study was to estimate the individual radiation-induced risk for death of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) under free breathing (FB) and deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) in a real-world population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-nine patients with left-sided early breast cancer were enrolled in the prospective SAVE-HEART study. For each patient three-dimensional conformal treatment plans were created in FB and DIBH and corresponding radiation-induced risks of IHD mortality were estimated based on expected survival, individual IHD risk factors and the relative radiation-induced risk...
August 7, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Stamati Morias, Loredana Gabriela Marcu, Michala Short, Eileen Giles, Eva Bezak
Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy for lung cancer is an advanced technique where tumours are ablated with hypofractionated radiation doses, with a high degree of accuracy. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature and to discuss the SABR-induced toxicities for lung malignancies as a function of radiation delivery technique. A Medline search was conducted to identify the appropriate literature to fulfil the aim of this review and data from all applicable papers were collated and analysed...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Hoang Quy Nguyen, Nhu Hanh To, Patricia Zadigue, Stéphane Kerbrat, Alexandre De La Taille, Sabine Le Gouvello, Yazid Belkacemi
Ionizing radiation-exposure induces a variety of cellular reactions, such as senescence and apoptosis. Senescence is a permanent arrest state of the cell division, which can be beneficial or detrimental for normal tissue via an inflammatory response and senescence-associated secretion phenotype. Damage to healthy cells and their microenvironment is considered as an important source of early and late complications with an increased risk of morbidity in patients after radiotherapy (RT). In addition, the benefit/risk ratio may depend on the radiation technique/dose used for cancer eradication and the irradiated volume of healthy tissues...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Valentina Nanni, Lorena Canuti, Angelo Gismondi, Antonella Canini
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet light exposure generates, in human tissues, radical species, which represent the main cause of photo-aging, DNA damage and skin cancer onset. On the other hand, Mediterranean plants, being continuously subjected to high solar radiation levels, are naturally adapted to take on this type of abiotic stress, thanks to the production of antioxidant secondary metabolites. For these reasons, several plant extracts were documented to be excellent antineoplastic drugs. PURPOSE: We investigated the potential antitumor activity of the flower extract obtained by Spartium junceum L...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Gabriele Fenini, Serena Grossi, Emmanuel Contassot, Thomas Biedermann, Ernst Reichmann, Lars E French, Hans-Dietmar Beer
By forming a protective barrier, epidermal keratinocytes represent the first line of defense against environmental insults. UVB radiation of the sun is a major challenge for the skin and can induce inflammation, aging and eventually skin cancer. UVB induces an immune response in human keratinocytes resulting in activation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines proIL-1β and -18. This is mediated by assembly of protein complexes, termed inflammasomes. However, the mechanisms underlying sensing of UVB by keratinocytes, and particularly the types of inflammasomes required for cytokine secretion, are a matter of debate...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Lin-Lin Sun, Ri-Yao Yang, Chia-Wei Li, Mei-Kuang Chen, Bin Shao, Jung-Mao Hsu, Li-Chuan Chan, Yi Yang, Jennifer L Hsu, Yun-Ju Lai, Mien-Chie Hung
The ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase plays a crucial role in maintaining genome stability in response to DNA damage. Once activated, ATR acts via its downstream target to arrest the cell cycle, promote DNA repair, and enhance cell survival. Therefore, ATR has become an attractive therapeutic target in cancer therapy. Multiple clinical studies have demonstrated that ATR inhibitors can sensitize cancer cells to conventional DNA damaging agents. However, the potential effects of ATR inhibitors on immune response in the tumor microenvironment, especially on the expression of immune checkpoint-related proteins, remain elusive...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
Chao Yang, Hongwei Tang, Limei Wang, Renjun Peng, Fan Bai, Yajun Shan, Zuyin Yu, Pingkun Zhou, Yuwen Cong
PURPOSE: Oral mucositis is one of the most prevalent side effects in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Current therapeutic agents such as palifermin (rhKGF) and amifostine do not efficiently or fully prevent mucositis. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a free-radical scavenger, has shown therapeutic benefits in many preclinical and clinical studies. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of DMSO in a clinically relevant mouse model of acute, radiation-induced oral mucositis...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Chuanyi Zhang, Xinzhou Deng, Li Qiu, Feng Peng, Shanshan Geng, Li Shen, Zhiguo Luo
Radiotherapy has played a limited role for the treatment of human esophageal cancer owing to the risk of tumor radioresistance. Core 1 β1, 3-galactosyltransferase (C1GalT1), which catalyzes the formation of core 1 O-glycan structures, is frequently overexpressed during tumorigenesis. However, the exact effects and mechanisms of C1GalT1 in the radioresistance of esophageal cancer remain unclear. In this study, Public databases and our data revealed that C1GalT1 expression was up-regulated in esophageal cancer tissues and was associated with poor survival...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Zhiyan Liu, Jing Wang, Zhiyong Yuan, Baozhong Zhang, Linlin Gong, Lujun Zhao, Ping Wang
To evaluate the clinical outcomes of simultaneous dose reduction of elective nodal area with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIR-IMRT) versus conventional IMRT (C-IMRT) in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC), patients with LS-SCLC who received definitive SIR-IMRT or C-IMRT were retrospectively analyzed. In SIR-IMRT group, the prescribed dose was 60Gy to the planning gross target volume (PTVG ), and 54Gy to the planning target volume (PTV). In the C-IMRT group, the prescribed dose was 60Gy to the whole PTV...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Simona Gaetani, Federica Monaco, Massimo Bracci, Veronica Ciarapica, Giulia Impollonia, Matteo Valentino, Marco Tomasetti, Lory Santarelli, Monica Amati
OBJECTIVE: Medical personnel using radiation for diagnosis and therapeutic purposes are potentially at risk of cancer development. In this study, the effect of ionising radiation (IR) exposure was evaluated as DNA damage response (DDR) in the circulating cells of occupationally exposed subjects. METHODS: The study population consisted of IR-exposed workers included both in group B (effective dose ranging between 0.04 and 6 mSv/year) and group A (probable effective dose exceeding 6 mSv/year), and the control group consisted of healthy individuals who had never been occupationally exposed to IR or other known carcinogenic agents...
August 7, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Qibin Fu, Jing Wang, Tuchen Huang
Hyperthermia (HT) acts as a cancer treatment by direct cell killing, radiosensitization, and promotion of tumor reoxygenation. The sensor proteins of the DNA damage response (DDR) are the direct targets of HT. However, the spatiotemporal properties of sensor proteins under HT are still unclear. Therefore, investigating the impact of HT on sensor proteins is of great importance. In the present study, the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 stably transfected with 53BP1-GFP [the DDR protein 53BP1 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP)] was used to investigate the real-time cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by γ-rays...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Tej Pratap Singh, Pablo A Vieyra-Garcia, Karin Wagner, Josef Penninger, Peter Wolf
Exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces DNA damage, inflammation, and immune suppression that ultimately lead to skin cancer. However, some of the pathways that regulate these events are poorly understood. We exposed mice to UVB to study its early effects in the absence of Cbl-b, a known suppressor of antitumor immune response in the skin. Cbl-b-/- mice were protected from UV-induced cell damage as shown by the lower number of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and sunburn cells in exposed skin compared to wild-type mice...
August 6, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Allison M Campbell, Roy H Decker
In this article, we discuss the immunogenicity of radiation-induced cell death and describe the innate immune signaling pathways that precede adaptive antitumoral immunity. The innate and adaptive immune systems work in concert to generate systemic immune responses. In the setting of cancer, DNA damage caused by radiotherapy activates the innate immune system while tumor cell death liberates antigen that serves as a target for adaptive immunity. The immunomodulatory effects of radiation have been investigated in preclinical models; here we summarize the available data, with particular attention to the effects of radiotherapy timing, location, dose, and fractionation strategy on the antitumoral immune response...
July 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Howard B Lieberman, Alex J Rai, Richard A Friedman, Kevin M Hopkins, Constantinos G Broustas
Prostate cancer is a complex disease, with multiple subtypes and clinical presentations. Much progress has been made in recent years to understand the underlying genetic basis that drives prostate cancer. Such mechanistic information is useful for development of novel therapeutic targets, to identify biomarkers for early detection or to distinguish between aggressive and indolent disease, and to predict treatment outcome. Multiple tests have become available in recent years to address these clinical needs for prostate cancer...
July 2018: Translational Cancer Research
Yutaka Kawakami
Clinical trials for immune-checkpoint inhibitors and T cell-based adoptive cell therapy have demonstrated robust clinical responses in some patients with advanced cancer of various types, including hematological malignancies. However, response rates to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade are about 10%-30% in most cancer types. To improve the efficacy of immunotherapy, combination immunotherapy using other standard cancer therapies (e.g., chemotherapy, target therapy, and radiation) and various immune modulators for crucial regulation points in antitumor T-cell responses (e...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Jih-Kuei Yeh, Chia-Hui Chen
BACKGROUND: Radiation dose evaluation is important to cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for routine orthodontic treatment planning, especially for a significant proportion of children in orthodontic patients. This study evaluated the patient radiation dose and estimated the radiation cancer risk on dental CBCT according to the calculations by the Monte Carlo simulation method. METHODS: The dental CBCT scanner evaluated in this project was the i- CAT® (Imaging Sciences International Inc...
August 3, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Hiroshi Doi, Kozo Kuribayashi, Takashi Kijima
Chemoradiotherapy is important for treating malignancies. However, radiation-induced toxicities develop as chemoradiotherapy-related complications. Various agents reduce or prevent toxicities, but there are no standard treatments. Polaprezinc (PZ), a chelating compound used for gastric ulcers, has antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects. Although few studies have evaluated PZ and radiation-induced normal tissue damage, several clinical studies have shown the efficacy of PZ for oral mucositis, esophagitis, proctitis and taste alterations during and after radiotherapy...
August 3, 2018: Future Oncology
Caitlin Yee, Katie Wang, Rashi Asthana, Leah Drost, Henry Lam, Justin Lee, Danny Vesprini, Eric Leung, Carlo DeAngelis, Edward Chow
Radiation dermatitis is a common side effect of radiotherapy. Radiation dermatitis has been investigated for decades, and many approaches have been proposed to limit its incidence and severity. The purpose of the present systematic review was to summarize the approaches and findings of studies testing various methods for management of radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients. Medline, Cochrane, and Embase were searched for studies pertaining to radiation-induced skin toxicity in breast cancer patients...
July 4, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
Alicia Zamarrón, Silvia Lorrio, Salvador González, Ángeles Juarranz
Sun overexposure leads to higher risk of photoaging and skin cancer. The contribution of infrared (IR) and visible light (VIS) radiation is currently being taken into account in their pathogenesis. Erythema, hyperpigmentation, genotoxicity or the increase of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression are some of the effects induced by these types of radiation. Extracts of various botanicals endowed with antioxidant activity are emerging as new photoprotective compounds. A natural extract from Polypodium leucotomos (Fernblock® , FB) has antioxidant and photoprotective properties and exhibits a strong anti-aging effect...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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