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radiation-induced cancer

Margaret S Robertson, Susan S Hayashi, Miranda L Camet, Kathryn Trinkaus, Jennifer Henry, Robert J Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Ototoxicity is a significant complication of cisplatin treatment. Hearing loss can be symmetric or asymmetric, and may decline after therapy. This study examined the risks of asymmetric and late-onset hearing loss (LOHL) in cisplatin-treated pediatric patients with cancer. METHODS: A retrospective review of 993 patients' medical and audiological charts from August 1990 to March 2015 was conducted using stringent criteria to characterize patients with asymmetric hearing loss (AHL) or LOHL...
October 18, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Moss Bruton Joe, Pauline T Truong
The abscopal effect is a rare phenomenon in the treatment of metastatic cancer where tumor regression occurs distant from the irradiated volume. It is thought that local radiation induces immunogenic cell death by systemically enhancing the host's antitumor immune system. We present a rare case of the abscopal effect in esophageal adenocarcinoma. After palliative radiation therapy to the primary tumor and adjacent lymph nodes, a complete response was observed not only in the irradiated tissues, but also in non-irradiated metastatic lymph nodes...
August 2, 2018: Curēus
Yanzhe Gao, Jordan Kardos, Yang Yang, Tigist Y Tamir, Elizabeth Mutter-Rottmayer, Bernard Weissman, Michael B Major, William Y Kim, Cyrus Vaziri
The Cancer/Testes (CT) Antigen HORMAD1 is germ cell-restricted and plays developmental roles in generation and processing of meiotic DNA Double Strand Breaks (DSB). Many tumors aberrantly overexpress HORMAD1 yet the potential impact of this CT antigen on cancer biology is unclear. We tested a potential role of HORMAD1 in genome maintenance in lung adenocarcinoma cells. We show that HORMAD1 re-distributes to nuclear foci and co-localizes with the DSB marker γH2AX in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapeutic agents...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fei Chen, Qilai Long, Da Fu, Dexiang Zhu, Yan Ji, Liu Han, Boyi Zhang, Qixia Xu, Bingjie Liu, Yan Li, Shanshan Wu, Chen Yang, Min Qian, Jianmin Xu, Suling Liu, Liu Cao, Y Eugene Chin, Eric W-F Lam, Jean-Philippe Coppé, Yu Sun
Chemotherapy and radiation not only trigger cancer cell apoptosis but also damage stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment (TME), inducing a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) characterized by chronic secretion of diverse soluble factors. Here we report serine protease inhibitor Kazal type I (SPINK1), a SASP factor produced in human stromal cells after genotoxic treatment. DNA damage causes SPINK1 expression by engaging NF-κB and C/EBP, while paracrine SPINK1 promotes cancer cell aggressiveness particularly chemoresistance...
October 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Matteo Trimarchi, Giacomo Bertazzoni, Mario Bussi
PURPOSE: Sigmund Freud, the father of modern psychoanalysis, suffered from what was considered to be a malignant tumour spreading from the back of his palate. He underwent numerous surgical interventions and radiation therapy over the course of 16 years. Such a long survival casts a shadow of doubt on the diagnosis of oral cancer that was given to Freud. METHODS: The book "Freud: Living and Dying", in which the personal physician of Freud described in detail his patient's fight with oral cancer, was reviewed...
October 17, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
A Brzozowska, R Mlak, P Gołębiowski, T Małecka-Massalska
BACKGROUND: Apart from surgery, the methods of treatment of HNC are radiotherapy (RTH) and/or chemotherapy (CRTH/CHT). One of the most frequent and serious complications of RTH is oral mucositis (OM). There is a strict correlation between the inflammation and the status of hydration. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in hydration, occurring in the course of RTH, measured by means of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and to analyze them in correlation with the intensification of OM in HNC patients...
October 16, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Marlon R Veldwijk, Petra Seibold, Akke Botma, Irmgard Helmbold, Elena Sperk, Frank A Giordano, Nicole Gürth, Anne-Katrin Kirchner, Sabine Behrens, Frederik Wenz, Jenny Chang-Claude, Carsten Herskind
PURPOSE: Radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis (RILA) has been suggested as a predictive assay for adverse late reactions after radiotherapy. Thus low RILA values of T-lymphocyte subpopulations have been associated with increased risk for various endpoints at 2-3 years follow-up. The purpose was to test if such associations persist for specific endpoints (subcutaneous fibrosis, telangiectasia) in breast cancer patients with at least 10 years follow-up. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 272 female patients who had received breast-conserving therapy within the German ISE study were included (median follow-up: 11...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Richard J Lobb, Gregory M Jacobson, Ray T Cursons, Michael B Jameson
Selenium, a trace element with anticancer properties, can reduce harmful toxicities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy without compromising efficacy. However, the dose-response relationship in normal versus malignant human cells is unclear. We evaluated how methylseleninic acid (MSA) modulates the toxicity and efficacy of chemotherapy and radiation on malignant and non-malignant human mononuclear blood cells in vitro. We specifically investigated its effects on endoplasmic reticulum stress induction, intracellular glutathione concentration, DNA damage and viability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and THP1 monocytic leukaemia cells in response to radiation, cytosine arabinoside or doxorubicin chemotherapy...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christopher Parker, Valerie Lewington, Neal Shore, Clemens Kratochwil, Moshe Levy, Ola Lindén, Walter Noordzij, Jae Park, Fred Saad
Importance: Targeted alpha therapy attempts to deliver systemic radiation selectively to cancer cells while minimizing systemic toxic effects and may lead to additional treatment options for many cancer types. Observations: Theoretically, the high-energy emission of short-range alpha particles causes complex double-stranded DNA breaks, eliciting cell death. No known resistance mechanism to alpha particles has been reported or scientifically established. The short-range emission of alpha particle radiation confines its cytotoxic effect to cancerous lesions and the surrounding tumor microenvironment while limiting toxic effects to noncancerous tissues...
September 20, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Rebecca Ahlin, Fei Sjöberg, Cecilia Bull, Gunnar Steineck, Maria Hedelin
Preclinical studies indicate that an optimal diet during pelvic radiotherapy may be able to prevent radiation-induced survivorship diseases that diminish cancer survivors' intestinal health. We do not yet know what this optimal diet might be because scientific studies needed to determine what dietary advice might best be given to patients during treatment. Oncology clinics in Sweden were contacted to determine the nature of dietary advice given to gynaecological and prostate cancer patients at each clinic before, during and after radiotherapy...
October 9, 2018: Läkartidningen
Rasha A AbuMousa, Umair Baig, Mohammed A Gondal, Mohamad S AlSalhi, Fulwah Yahya Alqahtani, Sultan Akhtar, Fadilah Sfouq Aleanizy, Mohamed A Dastageer
Chemotherapy, the most commonly used therapeutic method for cancer, has the inherent constraint of low bioavailability. A number of physical cancer therapeutic treatments like radiation, ultrasound, photo-acoustic/photo thermal, microwave therapies are based on locating the afflicted sites with the help of imaging, but the serious drawbacks of these treatment options are that they damage the neighboring normal tissues and/or induce undesired cancer metastasis. In addition, these methods of treatment are very expensive and not in the reach of a common man especially in the developing countries...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mahsa Fallah, Yue Shen, Jessica Brodén, Assar Bäckman, Bertil Lundskog, Michael Johansson, Michael Blomquist, Kui Liu, Malgorzata Wilczynska, Tor Ny
Skin damage caused by radiation therapy (radiodermatitis) is a severe side effect of radiotherapy in cancer patients, and there is currently a lack of effective strategies to prevent or treat such skin damage. In this work, we show with several lines of evidence that plasminogen, a pro-inflammatory factor, is key for the development of radiodermatitis. After skin irradiation in wild-type (plg+/+) mice, the plasminogen level increased in the irradiated area, leading to severe skin damage such as ulcer formation...
October 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Leila Family, Yanli Li, Lie Hong Chen, John H Page, Zandra K Klippel, Chun Chao
Background: Previously identified patient-level risk factors for chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN) indicate several potential underlying pathogenic mechanisms, including bone marrow suppression, impaired neutrophil function, or disturbances of barrier function. This study evaluated whether additional clinical characteristics related to these pathogenic mechanisms were risk factors for FN. Patients and Methods: The study population included patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or breast, lung, colorectal, ovarian, or gastric cancer between 2000 and 2009 at Kaiser Permanente Southern California and treated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy...
October 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Amirhossein Bahreyni, Elnaz Ghorbani, Hamid Fuji, Mikhail Ryzhikov, Majid Khazaei, Marjan Erfani, Amir Avan, Seyed M Hassanian, Kayhan Azadmanesh
Brain tumors are the most common form of solid tumors in children and is presently a serious therapeutic challenge worldwide. Traditional treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy was shown to be unsuccessful in targeting brain tumor cancer stem cells (CSCs), leading to recurrent, treatment-resistant secondary malignancies. Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) is an effective antitumor therapeutic strategy which offers a novel, targeted approach for eradicating pediatric brain tumor CSCs by utilizing mechanisms of cell killing that differ from conventional therapies...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Yoshiaki Sato, Hironori Yoshino, Yuka Kazama, Ikuo Kashiwakura
Retinoic acid‑inducible gene‑I‑like receptors (RLRs) serve an important role in antiviral immune responses. Recent studies demonstrated that RLR activation exerts antitumor activity by inducing an anticancer immune response and apoptosis in various cancer cells. The authors' recent study demonstrated that the cytotoxic effects of the RLR agonist Poly(I:C)‑HMW/LyoVec™ [Poly(I:C)‑HMW] in human non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were enhanced by cotreatment with ionizing radiation (IR). Furthermore, cotreatment with Poly(I:C)‑HMW and IR effectively induced cell death, including apoptosis, in a caspase‑dependent manner...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Amit Maity, Rosemarie Mick, Alexander C Huang, Sangeeth M George, Michael D Farwell, John N Lukens, Abigail T Berman, Tara C Mitchell, Josh Bauml, Lynn M Schuchter, Mark O'Hara, Lilie L Lin, Angela Demichele, John P Christodouleas, Naomi B Haas, Dana M Patsch, Stephen M Hahn, Andy J Minn, E John Wherry, Robert H Vonderheide
BACKGROUND: We conducted a phase I trial evaluating pembrolizumab+hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) for patients with metastatic cancers. METHODS: There were two strata (12 patients each): (i) NSCLC/melanoma progressing on prior anti-PD-1 therapy, (ii) other cancer types; anti-PD-1-naive. Patients received 6 cycles of pembrolizumab, starting 1 week before HFRT. Patients had ≥2 lesions; only one was irradiated (8 Gy × 3 for first half; 17 Gy × 1 for second half in each stratum) and the other(s) followed for response...
October 15, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Keywan Mortezaee, Nasser Hashemi Goradel, Peyman Amini, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa, Masoud Najafi, Bagher Farhood
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is a treatment modality for cancer. For better therapeutic efficiency, it could be used in combination with surgery, chemotherapy or immunotherapy. In addition to its beneficial therapeutic effects, exposure to radiation leads to several toxic effects on normal tissues. Also, it may induce some changes in genomic expression of tumor cells, thereby increasing the resistance of tumor cells. These changes lead to the appearance of some acute reactions in irradiated organs, increased risk of carcinogenesis, and reduction in the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy...
October 10, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Camila Helena Ferreira Cuelho, Geórgia de Assis Dias Alves, Marina Ortiz Lovatto, Iuri França Bonilha, Fernanda Barbisan, Ivana Beatrice Manica da Cruz, Sara Marchesan Oliveira, Roselei Fachinetto, Gizele Scotti do Canto, Melânia Palermo Manfron
Ultraviolet B radiation represents 10% of the total UV radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, being the primary responsible for the biological effects related to skin cancer and photoaging. Ilex Paraguariensis A. St. Hil., known as Yerba mate (YM), is a native tree of South America whose polyphenols in its leaves are described to exhibit photochemoprotective effect and are employed in the treatment of cancer. Additionally, the polyphenols are used to prevent lipid peroxidation and reduce the UV-induced damage, which ultimately decreases the oxidative stress...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Sara R Martins-Neves, Anne-Marie Cleton-Jansen, Célia M F Gomes
The development of local recurrence and metastatic disease most probably attributable to the intrinsic or acquired resistance of tumor cells to standard therapy, still constitute the major clinical problem preventing the cure of cancer patients. Despite progress in the research of new therapeutic targets and compounds, resistant cells displaying stem-like properties seem to play a leading role in therapeutic failures and to be the culprit cells responsible for associated tumor recurrence. A whole new plethora of research studies suggest that drug-tolerant cancer stem cells may be induced by conventional cancer chemotherapeutics such as doxorubicin, cisplatinum and ionizing radiation...
October 11, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Valentin Demidov, Xiao Zhao, Olga Demidova, Hilary Y M Pang, Costel Flueraru, Fei-Fei Liu, I Alex Vitkin
Radiation therapy (RT) is widely and effectively used for cancer treatment but can also cause deleterious side effects, such as a late-toxicity complication called radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Accurate diagnosis of RIF requires analysis of histological sections to assess extracellular matrix infiltration. This is invasive, prone to sampling limitations, and thus rarely used; instead, current practice relies on subjective clinical surrogates, including visual observation, palpation, and patient symptomatology questionnaires...
October 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
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