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Plant cell death

Claudia Escano-Calderón, Neta Rotem, Raviv Harris, David Vela-Corcía, Maggie Levy
Many types of yeasts have been studied in the last few years as potential biocontrol agents against different phytopathogenic fungi. Their ability to control plant diseases is mainly through combined modes of action. Among them, antibiosis, competition for nutrients and niches, induction of systemic resistance in plants and mycoparasitism have been the most studied. In previous work, we have established that the epiphytic yeast Pseudozyma aphidis inhibits Botrytis cinerea through induced resistance and antibiosis...
December 10, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Marijn Knip, Manon Ms Richard, Lisa Oskam, Hylco T D van Engelen, Thomas Aalders, Frank L W Takken
Intracellular NLR (nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat)-type immune receptors are a fundamental aspect of plant immune systems. As infection occurs at foci, activation of immune responses is typically non-uniform and non-synchronized, hampering the systematic dissection of their cellular effects and determining their phasing. We investigated the Potato NLR Rx1 using the CESSNA (Controlled Expression of effectors for Synchronized and Systemic NLR Activation) platform. CESSNA mediated Potato Virus X coat protein (CP) expression allowed monitoring of Rx1-mediated immune responses in a quantitative, and reproducible manner...
December 8, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Jiajun Nie, Zhiyuan Yin, Zhengpeng Li, Yuxing Wu, Lili Huang
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are conserved molecules which are crucial for normal life cycle of microorganisms. However, the diversity of microbial PAMPs is little known. During screening of cell death-inducing factors from the necrotrophic fungus Valsa mali, we identified a novel PAMP VmE02 that is widely spread in oomycetes and fungi. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression or infiltration of recombinant protein produced by Escherichia coli was performed to assay elicitor activity of tested proteins...
December 11, 2018: New Phytologist
Rui Cheng, Luping Gong, Zhengzheng Li, Yun-Kuan Liang
Arabidopsis BIG (AtBIG) gene encodes an enormous protein that is required for auxin transport. Loss of AtBIG function not only profoundly changes plant architecture but also alters plant adaptability to environmental stimuli. A putative homolog of AtBIG exists in the rice genome, but no function has been ascribed to it. In this study, we focus on the characterization of the gene structure and function of OsBIG. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis shows that the homologs of OsBIG have high amino acid conservation in several domains across species...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Wagner D Vital, Heron F V Torquato, Larissa de Oliveira Passos Jesus, Wagner Alves de Souza Judice, Maria Fátima das G F da Silva, Tiago Rodrigues, Giselle Zenker Justo, Thiago A M Veiga, Edgar J Paredes-Gamero
Several molecules extracted from natural products exhibit different biological activities, such as ion channel modulation, activation of signaling pathways, and anti-inflammatory or antitumor activity. In this study, we tested the antitumor ability of natural compounds extracted from the Raputia praetermissa plant. Among the compounds tested, an alkaloid, here called compound S4 (4-Deoxyraputindole C), showed antitumor effects against human tumor lineages. Compound S4 was the most active against Raji, a lymphoma lineage, promoting cell death with characteristics that including membrane permeabilization, dissipation of the mitochondrial potential, increased superoxide production, and lysosomal membrane permeabilization...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Stephanie Andrade, Maria João Ramalho, Maria do Carmo Pereira, Joana A Loureiro
Resveratrol (RES) is a natural polyphenolic non-flavonoid compound present in grapes, mulberries, peanuts, rhubarb and in several other plants. Numerous health effects have been related with its intake, such as anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and brain protective effects. The neuroprotective effects of RES in neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases, are related to the protection of neurons against oxidative damage and toxicity, and to the prevention of apoptotic neuronal death...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kai Bi, Tao Chen, Zhangchao He, Zhixiao Gao, Ying Zhao, Yanping Fu, Jiasen Cheng, Jiatao Xie, Daohong Jiang
BACKGROUND: The eukaryotic unicellular protist Plasmodiophora brassicae is an endocellular parasite of cruciferous plants. In host cortical cells, this protist develops a unicellular structure that is termed the plasmodium. The plasmodium is actually a multinucleated cell, which subsequently splits and forms resting spores. The mechanism for the growth of this endocellular parasite in host cell is unclear. RESULTS: Here, combining de novo genome sequence and transcriptome analysis of strain ZJ-1, we identified top five significant enriched KEGG pathways of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), namely translation, cell growth and death, cell communication, cell motility and cancers...
December 6, 2018: BMC Genomics
Anindya Sundar Ray, Nikhilesh Joardar, Suprabhat Mukherjee, Chowdhury Habibur Rahaman, Santi P Sinha Babu
Development of antifilarial drug from the natural sources is considered as one of the most efficacious, safe, and affordable approaches. In this study, we report the antifilarial activity of a leguminous plant Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) Thouars. The polyphenol-rich ethanolic extract obtained from the stem part of the plant C. scarabaeoides (EECs) was found to be efficient in killing the filarial nematode Setaria cervi in all the three developmental stages viz. oocytes, microfilariae (Mf) and adults with LD50 values of 2...
2018: PloS One
Ebtesam S Al-Sheddi, Nida N Farshori, Mai M Al-Oqail, Shaza M Al-Massarani, Quaiser Saquib, Rizwan Wahab, Javed Musarrat, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Maqsood A Siddiqui
In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using aqueous extract of Nepeta deflersiana plant. The prepared AgNPs (ND-AgNPs) were examined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The results obtained from various characterizations revealed that average size of synthesized AgNPs was 33 nm and in face-centered-cubic structure...
2018: Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Samir A Salama, Hany H Arab, Ibrahim A Maghrabi
Gentamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is widely employed for controlling Gram negative bacterial infections including that caused by the antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas species. The clinical use of gentamycin is substantially limited by its side effects particularly acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of the current study was to investigate the protective effect of the plant flavonoid troxerutin (150 mg kg-1 day-1 for 15 days) against gentamycin-induced AKI using Wistar rats as an experimental mammalian model...
December 4, 2018: Food & Function
Evan W McConnell, Philip Berg, Timothy J Westlake, Katherine M Wilson, George V Popescu, Leslie M Hicks, Sorina C Popescu
A surge in the accumulation of oxidants generates shifts in the cellular redox potential during early stages of plant infection with pathogens and activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI). The redoxome, defined as the proteome-wide oxidative modifications of proteins caused by oxidants, has a well-known impact on stress responses in metazoans. However, the identity of proteins and the residues sensitive to oxidation during the plant immune response remain largely unknown. Previous studies of the thimet oligopeptidases TOP1 and TOP2 placed them in the SA-dependent branch of ETI, with a current model wherein TOPs sustain interconnected organellar and cytosolic pathways that modulate the oxidative burst and development of cell death...
December 3, 2018: Plant Physiology
X Wang, M Nachliely, J S Harrison, M Danilenko, G P Studzinski
Standard therapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is rarely curative, and several suggested improvements have had little success so far. We have reported that in an in vitro model of a potential therapeutic regimen for AML, the activity of cytarabine (AraC) is enhanced by a sequential treatment with a combination of the vitamin D2 analog Doxercalciferol (D2) and the plant-derived antioxidant carnosic acid (CA) Importantly, the enhancement occurred selectively in patient-derived AML blasts, but not in the normal bone marrow cells...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
P S Pavithra, Alka Mehta, Rama S Verma
The increasing incidence of cutaneous malignancies signifies the need for multiple treatment options. Several available reviews have emphasized the potential role of various botanical extracts and naturally occurring compounds as anti-skin-cancer agents. Few studies relate to the role of chemoprevention and therapeutic activity of essential oils (EOs) and EO components. The present review summarizes an overview of chemopreventive, anti-melanoma and anti-nonmelanoma activities of EOs from various plants and EO components in in vitro and in vivo models with special emphasis on skin cancer...
November 30, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Vinita Tiwari, Anjali A Karande
The plant toxin, abrin, a type-II ribosome inactivating protein, is extremely lethal, the human fatal dose being ~1 μg/kg body weight. Abrin has been classified as an agent for bioterrorism, which is of concern. Conversely, the high toxic property of abrin has been employed in generating immunotoxins, whereas its toxin moiety is conjugated to cell surface marker-specific antibodies for cell-targeted killing. Different cell types exhibit variable levels of sensitivity to abrin toxicity; therefore, adequate knowledge of the molecular mechanism that governs the activity of the protein would be a safeguard...
December 2, 2018: IUBMB Life
Ji Young Hwang, Jung Hwa Park, Min Jae Kim, Woo Jean Kim, Ki-Tae Ha, Byung Tae Choi, Seo-Yeon Lee, Hwa Kyoung Shin
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor, which remains incurable. Plant extracts are a potential source of potent anticancer medicines. In this study, we investigated the effect of isolinderalactone from Lindera aggregata on tumor growth using U-87 human glioblastoma cells. Treatment with isolinderalactone inhibited cell viability and promoted apoptotic cell death. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of isolinderalactone significantly inhibited tumor growth in a human GBM xenograft mouse model...
November 29, 2018: Cancer Letters
Ji Hoon Song, Song-Yi Kim, Gwi Seo Hwang, Youn-Sub Kim, Hyun Young Kim, Ki Sung Kang
Excessive glutamate level induces neuronal death in acute brain injuries and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Natural compounds from medicinal and food plants have been attracting interest as a treatment for neurological disorders. Sanguiin H-11 (SH-11), a hydrolysable ellagitannin, inhibits neutrophil movement and nitric oxide -production. However, its neuroprotective effect has not been studied. Therefore, the present study examined the protective effect of SH-11 from Sanguisorbae radix and its mechanism against glutamate-induced death in HT22 cells...
November 22, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Xiao-Hong Zhang, Jiao Wu, Ji-Guang Huang, Li-Juan Zhou
Berberine is a naturally occurring plant secondary metabolite with allelopathic and cytotoxic properties. We investigated the cytotoxic effects of berberine against tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells. We found that berberine inhibited tobacco BY-2 cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner and the potency of berberine was comparable to the traditional herbicide glyphosate. Meanwhile, the in vivo test revealed that the herbicidal activity of berberine was also comparable to that of glyphosate. Further mechanism studies for the cytotoxicity demonstrated that berberine at concentrations of 40 μg/mL and 80 μg/mL induced cell death by causing mitochondrial membrane depolarization, irregular nuclei and chromatin condensation but not leading to significant apoptosis...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Hui Liu, Yongxuan Wei, Zhi Deng, Hong Yang, Longjun Dai, Dejun Li
Tapping panel dryness (TPD) causes a significant reduction in the latex yield of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). It is reported that TPD is a typical programmed cell death (PCD) process. Although PCD plays a vital role in TPD occurrence, there is a lack of detailed and systematic study. Metacaspases are key regulators of diverse PCD in plants. Based on our previous result that HbMC1 was associated with TPD, we further elucidate the roles of HbMC1 on rubber tree TPD in this study. HbMC1 was up-regulated by TPD-inducing factors including wounding, ethephon and H2O2...
November 29, 2018: Tree Physiology
Ning Xie, Na Geng, Dong Zhou, Yuliang Xu, Kangping Liu, Yongxia Liu, Jianzhu Liu
Anthocyanin is a natural plant pigment that acts as an antioxidant and scavenges free radicals. This study aimed to investigate the potential protective role of nightshade anthocyanin (NA), a natural flavonoid compound, against the arsanilic acid (ASA)-induced cell death of DF-1 cells. DF-1 cells were initially exposed to ASA, and then NA was applied to the treated cells. Cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and apoptosis were examined. Results showed that NA inhibited the ASA-induced decrease in cell viability, increase in ROS, and loss of MMP in DF-1 cells...
November 28, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Sandeep B Subramanya, Balaji Venkataraman, Mohamed Fizur Nagoor Meeran, Sameer N Goyal, Chandragouda R Patil, Shreesh Ojha
Acetaminophen (APAP), which is also known as paracetamol or N -acetyl- p -aminophenol is a safe and potent drug for fever, pain and inflammation when used at its normal therapeutic doses. It is available as over-the-counter drug and used by all the age groups. The overdose results in acute liver failure that often requires liver transplantation. Current clinical therapy for APAP-induced liver toxicity is the administration of N -acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a sulphydryl compound an approved drug which acts by replenishing cellular glutathione (GSH) stores in the liver...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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