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Pollen stigma

Anna L Johnson, Tia-Lynn Ashman
Pollination is known to be sensitive to environmental change but we lack direct estimates of how quantity and quality of pollen transferred between plant species shifts along disturbance gradients. This limits our understanding of how species compositional change impacts pollen receipt per species and structure of pollen transfer networks. We constructed pollen transfer networks along a plant invasion gradient in the Hawaiian dry tropical forest ecosystem. Flowers and stigmas were collected from both native and introduced plants, pollen was identified and enumerated and floral traits were measured...
August 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Nidhi Sehgal, Saurabh Singh
The sporophytic system of self-incompatibility is a widespread genetic phenomenon in plant species, promoting out-breeding and maintaining genetic diversity. This phenomenon is of commercial importance in hybrid breeding of Brassicaceae crops and is controlled by single S locus with multiple S haplotypes. The molecular genetic studies of Brassica ' S ' locus has revealed the presence of three tightly linked loci viz. S-receptor kinase ( SRK ), S-locus cysteine-rich protein/S-locus protein 11 ( SCR / SP11 ), and S-locus glycoprotein ( SLG )...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Wei Liu, Maosong Pei, Anning Zhang
Peach (Prunus persica L.) generally exhibits self-pollination, however, they can also be pollinated by other varieties of pollen. Here we found two varieties that are different from other peaches: 'Daifei' and 'Liuyefeitao'. 'Daifei' produces less pollen, which needs artificial pollination, honeybee pollination, and the fruit setting depends on other varieties of peach pollen. 'Liuyefeitao' exhibits strictly self-pollination, hence pollen from other species is rejected. To explore the mechanism of this phenomenon, we performed a high-throughput sequencing of the stigma (including style) of 'Daifei' and 'Liuyefeitao' to explain the rejection mechanism of other varieties of pollen of 'Liuyefeitao' peach...
2018: PloS One
Roberto Sáyago, Mauricio Quesada, Ramiro Aguilar, Lorena Ashworth, Martha Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Silvana Martén-Rodríguez
Fragmentation of natural habitats generally has negative effects on the reproductive success of many plant species; however, little is known about epiphytic plants. We assessed the impact of forest fragmentation on plant-pollinator interactions and female reproductive success in two epiphytic Tillandsia species with contrasting life history strategies (polycarpic and monocarpic) in Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico, over three consecutive years. Hummingbirds were the major pollinators of both species and pollinator visitation rates were similar between habitat conditions...
August 2018: AoB Plants
Shou-Hong Zhu, Fei Xue, Yan-Jun Li, Feng Liu, Xin-Yu Zhang, Lan-Jie Zhao, Yu-Qiang Sun, Qian-Hao Zhu, Jie Sun
Cytoplasmic linker-associated proteins (CLASPs) are microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) involved in regulation of dynamics of microtubules (MTs) that play an important role in plant growth and development. In this study, we identified cotton CLASP genes and investigated the function of GhCLASP2 . GhCLASP2 was mainly expressed in stem and developing fibers, especially in fibers of the secondary cell wall deposition stage. Ectopic expression of GhCLASP2 in Arabidopsis increased the branching number of leaf trichomes and rescued the defective phenotypes of clasp-1 ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Federico Roda, Robin Hopkins
Selection to prevent interspecific mating can cause an increase or a decrease in self-pollination in sympatric populations. Characterizing the geographical variation in self and interspecific incompatibilities within a species can reveal if and how the evolution of self and interspecific mate choice are linked. We used controlled pollinations to characterize the variation in self and interspecific incompatibility across 29 populations of Phlox drummondii. We evaluated seed set from these pollinations and described the developmental timing of variation in pollen-pistil compatibility...
July 11, 2018: New Phytologist
Anne-Charlotte Marsollier, Gwyneth Ingram
Plant cells are enclosed in cell walls that weld them together, meaning that cells rarely change neighbours. Nonetheless, invasive growth events play critical roles in plant development and are often key hubs for the integration of environmental and/or developmental signalling. Here we review cellular processes involved in three such events: lateral root emergence, pollen tube growth through stigma and style tissues, and embryo expansion through the endosperm (Figures 1-3). We consider processes such as regulation of water fluxes and cell turgor (driving growth), cell wall modifications (e...
July 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
James D Thomson, Hannah F Fung, Jane E Ogilvie
Background and Aims: If two plant species share pollinators, it has been proposed that the interaction between them may range from competitive to facilitative, depending on the way in which they intermingle. In particular, the presence of a rewarding plant species may increase the rate of pollinator visitation to a less rewarding species in its vicinity, but the beneficial increase in visitation may be counteracted by a detrimental increase in heterospecific pollen transfer. We assessed this trade-off using bumble-bees foraging over a gradual spatial transition between two plant species in an indoor cage experiment...
June 27, 2018: Annals of Botany
Helin Tan, Jiahuan Zhang, Xiao Qi, Wenxue Ye, Xingchun Wang, Xiaoe Xiang
In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome and metabolite profile of the style to explore the essential metabolites and specific genes for pollen tube growth of B. napus in vivo. For sexual reproduction of flowering plants, pollen must germinate on the stigma and the pollen tube must grow through the style to deliver the sperm nuclei to the female gametophyte cells. During this process, the rapidly growing pollen tube can cover substantial distances. Despite the clear requirements for energy and cellular building blocks in this process, few studies have examined the role of metabolism in the style for pollen tube elongation...
July 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
D K Smith, J F Harper, I S Wallace
Putative protein O-fucosyltransferases (POFTs) represent a large family of Glycosyl Transferase family 65 domain-containing proteins in land plants, with at least 39 proposed members in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome alone. We recently identified a member of this family, AtOFT1 (At3g05320), in which loss-of-function mutants display impaired sexual reproduction that was linked to a defective male gamete. Specifically, oft1 mutant pollen tubes are ineffective at penetrating the stigma-style interface leading to a drastic reduction in seed set and a nearly 2000-fold reduction in pollen transmission...
June 25, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Rodrigo Medel, Catalina González-Browne, Daniela Salazar, Pedro Ferrer, Mildred Ehrenfeld
G. L. Stebbins' most effective pollinator principle states that when pollinators are not limiting, plants are expected to specialize and adapt to the most abundant and effective pollinator species available. In this study, we quantify the effectiveness of bees, hummingbirds and hawkmoths in a Chilean population of Erythranthe lutea (Phrymaceae), and examine whether flower traits are subject to pollinator-mediated selection by the most effective pollinator species during two consecutive years. Unlike most species in the pollinator community, the visitation rate of the recently arrived Bombus terrestris did not change substantially between years, which together with its high and stable pollen delivery to flower stigmas made this species the most important in the pollinator assemblage, followed by the solitary bee Centris nigerrima Flower traits were under significant selection in the direction expected for short-tongue bees, suggesting that E...
June 2018: Biology Letters
Ze-Yu Tong, Xiang-Ping Wang, Ling-Yun Wu, Shuang-Quan Huang
Backgrounds and Aims: Gain or loss of floral nectar, an innovation in floral traits, has occurred in diverse lineages of flowering plants, but the causes of reverse transitions (gain of nectar) remain unclear. Phylogenetic studies show multiple gains and losses of floral nectar in the species-rich genus Pedicularis. Here we explore how experimental addition of nectar to a supposedly nectarless species, P. dichotoma, influences pollinator foraging behaviour. Methods : The liquid (nectar) at the base of the corolla tube in P...
June 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Yong Yang, Zhiquan Liu, Tong Zhang, Guilong Zhou, Zhiqiang Duan, Bing Li, Shengwei Dou, Xiaomei Liang, Jinxing Tu, Jinxiong Shen, Bin Yi, Tingdong Fu, Cheng Dai, Chaozhi Ma
Self-incompatibility (SI) in plants genetically prevents self-fertilization to promote outcrossing and genetic diversity. Its hybrids in Brassica have been widely cultivated due to the propagation of SI lines by spraying a salt solution. We demonstrated that suppression of Brassica napus SI from edible salt solution treatment was ascribed to sodium chloride and independent of S haplotypes, but it did not obviously change the expression of SI - related genes. Using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique, we identified 885 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) in Brassica napus stigmas of un-pollinated (UP), pollinated with compatible pollen (PC), pollinated with incompatible pollen (PI), and pollinated with incompatible pollen after edible salt solution treatment (NA)...
June 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhen Gao, Anna Daneva, Yuliya Salanenka, Matthias Van Durme, Marlies Huysmans, Zongcheng Lin, Freya De Winter, Steffen Vanneste, Mansour Karimi, Jan Van de Velde, Klaas Vandepoele, Davy Van de Walle, Koen Dewettinck, Bart N Lambrecht, Moritz K Nowack
Flowers have a species-specific functional life span that determines the time window in which pollination, fertilization and seed set can occur. The stigma tissue plays a key role in flower receptivity by intercepting pollen and initiating pollen tube growth toward the ovary. In this article, we show that a developmentally controlled cell death programme terminates the functional life span of stigma cells in Arabidopsis. We identified the leaf senescence regulator ORESARA1 (also known as ANAC092) and the previously uncharacterized KIRA1 (also known as ANAC074) as partially redundant transcription factors that modulate stigma longevity by controlling the expression of programmed cell death-associated genes...
June 2018: Nature Plants
Elinor M Lichtenberg, Rebecca E Irwin, Judith L Bronstein
Many mutualisms are taken advantage of by organisms that take rewards from their partners but provide no benefit in return. In the absence of traits that limit exploitation, facultative exploiters (partners that can either exploit or cooperate) are widely predicted by mutualism theory to choose an exploitative strategy, potentially threatening mutualism stability. However, it is unknown whether facultative exploiters choose to exploit, and, if so, make this choice because it is the most beneficial strategy for them...
May 25, 2018: Ecology
Gerardo Arceo-Gómez, Mohammad I Jameel, Tia-Lynn Ashman
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Studies on the effects of heterospecific pollen (HP) transfer have been focused mainly on insect-pollinated species, despite evidence of insect visitation to wind-pollinated species and transfer of their pollen onto stigmas of insect-pollinated plants. Thus, the potential consequences of HP transfer from wind-pollinated species remain largely unknown. Furthermore, accumulation of pesticide residues in pollen of wind-pollinated crops has been documented, but its potential effects on wild plant species via HP transfer have not been tested...
May 2018: American Journal of Botany
Xian-Feng Jiang, Xing-Fu Zhu, Qing-Jun Li
Distyly is a widespread floral polymorphism characterized by the flowers within a population showing reciprocal placement of the anthers and stigma. Darwin hypothesizes that distyly evolves to promote precise pollen transfer between morphs. Primula chungensis exhibits two types of anther heights, and these two types of anthers show pollen of two different size classes. To understand whether the stigma could capture more pollen grains from the anthers of the pollen donor as the separation between the stigma of pollen receiver and the anther of pollen donor decreased, the present research assessed the source of the pollen load in a series of open-pollinated flowers with continuous variation of style lengths...
June 2018: AoB Plants
Anna F Edlund, Katrina Olsen, Christian Mendoza, Jing Wang, Trudyann Buckley, Mai Nguyen, Brooke Callahan, Heather A Owen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Despite attempts to degrade the sporopollenin in pollen walls, this material has withstood a hundred years of experimental treatments and thousands of years of environmental attack in insects and soil. We present evidence that sporopollenin, nonetheless, locally degrades only minutes after pollination in Arabidopsis thaliana flowers, and describe here a two-part pollen germination mechanism in A. thaliana involving both chemical weakening of the exine wall and swelling of the underlying intine...
August 2017: American Journal of Botany
Masaya Yamamoto, Takeshi Nishio, June B Nasrallah
Internalization of plasma membrane (PM)-localized ligand-activated receptor kinases and their trafficking to sorting endosomes have traditionally been viewed as functioning primarily in the down-regulation of receptor signaling, but are now considered to be also essential for signaling by some receptors. A major mechanism for internalization of PM proteins is clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). CME is mediated by the Adaptor Protein Complex 2 (AP2), which is involved in interaction of the AP2 μ-adaptin subunit with a tyrosine-based Yxxϕ motif located in the cytoplasmic domain of the cargo protein...
July 2, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Ling Li, Bo Liu, Xiaomei Deng, Hainan Zhao, Hongyan Li, Shilai Xing, Della D Fetzer, Mengya Li, Mikhail E Nasrallah, June B Nasrallah, Pei Liu
The evolutionary concurrence of intraspecies self-incompatibility (SI) and explosive angiosperm radiation in the Cretaceous have led to the hypothesis that SI was one of the predominant drivers of rapid speciation in angiosperms. Interspecies unilateral incompatibility (UI) usually occurs when pollen from a self-compatible (SC) species is rejected by the pistils of a SI species, while the reciprocal pollination is compatible (UC). Although this SI × SC type UI is most prevalent and viewed as a prezygotic isolation barrier to promote incipient speciation of angiosperms, comparative evidence to support such a role is lacking...
June 2018: Molecular Ecology
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