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Pollen stigma

Juannan Zhou, Elizabeth A Zimmer, Charles B Fenster, Michele R Dudash
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Nursery pollination systems can range from obligate to facultative. In a system where generalists provide substantial pollination service, an important question is whether the cost of seed predation outweighs the benefit provided by the nursery pollinator to cause the plant to evolve toward more generalized pollination. Using a facultative system native to North America, we tested whether nursery pollinator vs. strictly mutualistic generalists affect mating-system parameters of the host plant and explored the implications for long-term coevolution...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Daisuke Tsugama, Shenkui Liu, Kaien Fujino, Tetsuo Takano
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric protein complex conserved among eukaryotes. The B subunit of PP2A determines the substrate specificity of the PP2A holoenzyme, and is classified into the B, B', B″ and B‴ families. Arabidopsis thaliana has two isoforms of the B-family subunit (ATBA and ATBB). A double knockout of their genes is lethal, but which developmental process is primarily impaired by the double knockout is unclear. Identifying such a process helps understand PP2A-mediated signaling more deeply...
September 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Madeline A E Peters, Arthur E Weis
Coexpression of genes in plant sporophytes and gametophytes allows correlated gametic and sporophytic selection. Theory predicts that, under outcrossing, an allele conferring greater pollen competitive ability should fix within a population unless antagonistic pleiotropy with the sporophyte stage is strong. However, under strong selfing, pollen competitiveness is immaterial as superior and inferior competitors are deposited on opposite stigmas, producing assortative competition. Because many plant species have mixed-mating systems, selfing should be critical in the spread and maintenance of pollen-expressed genes affecting competitiveness...
September 8, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
A L Teixido, M O Duarte, I Ballego-Campos, D Sanín, J S Cunha, C S Oliveira, F A O Silveira
Long-lived flowers increase pollen transfer rates, but these entail high water and carbon maintenance costs. The retention of pollinated and reward-free old flowers enhances pollinator visitation to young receptive flowers by increasing floral display size. This mechanism is associated with acropetal inflorescences or changes in flower colour and openness, but the retention of unchanging solitary flowers remains overlooked. We examined pollination-dependent variation in floral longevity and determined stigmatic receptivity, pollen viability and pollen removal rates among flower ages in Kielmeyera regalis, a Neotropical savanna shrub...
September 5, 2018: Plant Biology
Gerardo Arceo-Gómez, Conchita Alonso, Tia-Lynn Ashman, Victor Parra-Tabla
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: There is growing interest in understanding plant-plant interactions via pollen transfer at the community level. Studies on the structure and spatial variability of pollen transfer networks have been valuable to this understanding. However, there is high variability in the intensity of sampling used to characterize pollen transfer interactions, which could influence network structure. To date, there is no knowledge of how sampling effort influences the richness of pollen on stigmas and thereby transfer interactions observed, nor how this may vary across species and study sites...
September 2018: American Journal of Botany
Daniela Farinelli, Catherine Breton, Georgios Koubouris, Franco Famiani, Pierre Villemur, André Bervillé
This study was carried out to examine the validity of previous studies on the intercompatibility of olive and to compare the approach and techniques used for proposing the diallelic self-incompatibility system and the sporophytic self-incompatibility system. Analysis of the literature indicates that the mating system of the olive tree is a controversial issue and requires further studies to clearly and fully comprehend it. All possible approaches should be used to maximize reliability of the final conclusions on the olive mating system...
September 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Xianping Fang, Ya Xin, Zheliang Sheng, Hui Liu, Aili Jiang, Fang Wang, Jian Yang, Xiaojun Xi, Qian Zha, Liqing Zhang, Liangying Dai, Chengqi Yan, Jianping Chen
The various post-translational modifications of plant proteins have important regulatory roles in development. We therefore examined various modified proteins from strawberry stigmata and found that succinylation of lysine residues was the most abundant type of modification. We then subjected proteins from strawberry stigmata to an efficient enrichment method for succinylated peptides and identified 200 uniquely succinylated lysines in 116 proteins. A bioinformatics analysis revealed that these proteins are involved in important biological processes, including stress responses, vesicular transport, and energy metabolism...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yunfei Jiang, Rachid Lahlali, Chithra Karunakaran, Thomas D Warkentin, Arthur R Davis, Rosalind A Bueckert
Field pea (Pisum sativum), a major grain legume crop, is autogamous and adapted to temperate climates. The objectives of this study were to investigate effects of high temperature stress on stamen chemical composition, anther dehiscence, pollen viability, pollen interactions with pistil and ovules, and ovule growth and viability. Two cultivars ("CDC Golden" and "CDC Sage") were exposed to 24/18°C (day/night) continually or to 35/18°C for 4 or 7 days. Heat stress altered stamen chemical composition, with lipid composition of "CDC Sage" being more stable compared with "CDC Golden...
August 22, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Yun-Peng Song, Zhi-Huan Huang, Shuang-Quan Huang
Pollen grains can be dispersed singly or variously aggregated in groups. Whether the evolution of pollen aggregation is driven by the pollinator remains unexplored. We hypothesize that an extensive pollen aggregation is favored under a scarcity of pollinators. Variation in pollen aggregation by viscin threads in 13 Rhododendron species was measured as it is related to pollen removal in a visit. Visitation rates of functional pollinator groups that vary in their grooming behavior were investigated in each species...
August 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Anna L Johnson, Tia-Lynn Ashman
Pollination is known to be sensitive to environmental change but we lack direct estimates of how quantity and quality of pollen transferred between plant species shifts along disturbance gradients. This limits our understanding of how species compositional change impacts pollen receipt per species and structure of pollen transfer networks. We constructed pollen transfer networks along a plant invasion gradient in the Hawaiian dry tropical forest ecosystem. Flowers and stigmas were collected from both native and introduced plants, pollen was identified and enumerated and floral traits were measured...
August 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Nidhi Sehgal, Saurabh Singh
The sporophytic system of self-incompatibility is a widespread genetic phenomenon in plant species, promoting out-breeding and maintaining genetic diversity. This phenomenon is of commercial importance in hybrid breeding of Brassicaceae crops and is controlled by single S locus with multiple S haplotypes. The molecular genetic studies of Brassica ' S ' locus has revealed the presence of three tightly linked loci viz. S-receptor kinase ( SRK ), S-locus cysteine-rich protein/S-locus protein 11 ( SCR / SP11 ), and S-locus glycoprotein ( SLG )...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Wei Liu, Maosong Pei, Anning Zhang
Peach (Prunus persica L.) generally exhibits self-pollination, however, they can also be pollinated by other varieties of pollen. Here we found two varieties that are different from other peaches: 'Daifei' and 'Liuyefeitao'. 'Daifei' produces less pollen, which needs artificial pollination, honeybee pollination, and the fruit setting depends on other varieties of peach pollen. 'Liuyefeitao' exhibits strictly self-pollination, hence pollen from other species is rejected. To explore the mechanism of this phenomenon, we performed a high-throughput sequencing of the stigma (including style) of 'Daifei' and 'Liuyefeitao' to explain the rejection mechanism of other varieties of pollen of 'Liuyefeitao' peach...
2018: PloS One
Roberto Sáyago, Mauricio Quesada, Ramiro Aguilar, Lorena Ashworth, Martha Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Silvana Martén-Rodríguez
Fragmentation of natural habitats generally has negative effects on the reproductive success of many plant species; however, little is known about epiphytic plants. We assessed the impact of forest fragmentation on plant-pollinator interactions and female reproductive success in two epiphytic Tillandsia species with contrasting life history strategies (polycarpic and monocarpic) in Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico, over three consecutive years. Hummingbirds were the major pollinators of both species and pollinator visitation rates were similar between habitat conditions...
August 2018: AoB Plants
Shou-Hong Zhu, Fei Xue, Yan-Jun Li, Feng Liu, Xin-Yu Zhang, Lan-Jie Zhao, Yu-Qiang Sun, Qian-Hao Zhu, Jie Sun
Cytoplasmic linker-associated proteins (CLASPs) are microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) involved in regulation of dynamics of microtubules (MTs) that play an important role in plant growth and development. In this study, we identified cotton CLASP genes and investigated the function of GhCLASP2 . GhCLASP2 was mainly expressed in stem and developing fibers, especially in fibers of the secondary cell wall deposition stage. Ectopic expression of GhCLASP2 in Arabidopsis increased the branching number of leaf trichomes and rescued the defective phenotypes of clasp-1 ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Federico Roda, Robin Hopkins
Selection to prevent interspecific mating can cause an increase or a decrease in self-pollination in sympatric populations. Characterizing the geographical variation in self and interspecific incompatibilities within a species can reveal if and how the evolution of self and interspecific mate choice are linked. We used controlled pollinations to characterize the variation in self and interspecific incompatibility across 29 populations of Phlox drummondii. We evaluated seed set from these pollinations and described the developmental timing of variation in pollen-pistil compatibility...
July 11, 2018: New Phytologist
Anne-Charlotte Marsollier, Gwyneth Ingram
Plant cells are enclosed in cell walls that weld them together, meaning that cells rarely change neighbours. Nonetheless, invasive growth events play critical roles in plant development and are often key hubs for the integration of environmental and/or developmental signalling. Here we review cellular processes involved in three such events: lateral root emergence, pollen tube growth through stigma and style tissues, and embryo expansion through the endosperm (Figures 1-3). We consider processes such as regulation of water fluxes and cell turgor (driving growth), cell wall modifications (e...
July 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
James D Thomson, Hannah F Fung, Jane E Ogilvie
Background and Aims: If two plant species share pollinators, it has been proposed that the interaction between them may range from competitive to facilitative, depending on the way in which they intermingle. In particular, the presence of a rewarding plant species may increase the rate of pollinator visitation to a less rewarding species in its vicinity, but the beneficial increase in visitation may be counteracted by a detrimental increase in heterospecific pollen transfer. We assessed this trade-off using bumble-bees foraging over a gradual spatial transition between two plant species in an indoor cage experiment...
June 27, 2018: Annals of Botany
Helin Tan, Jiahuan Zhang, Xiao Qi, Wenxue Ye, Xingchun Wang, Xiaoe Xiang
In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome and metabolite profile of the style to explore the essential metabolites and specific genes for pollen tube growth of B. napus in vivo. For sexual reproduction of flowering plants, pollen must germinate on the stigma and the pollen tube must grow through the style to deliver the sperm nuclei to the female gametophyte cells. During this process, the rapidly growing pollen tube can cover substantial distances. Despite the clear requirements for energy and cellular building blocks in this process, few studies have examined the role of metabolism in the style for pollen tube elongation...
July 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
D K Smith, J F Harper, I S Wallace
Putative protein O-fucosyltransferases (POFTs) represent a large family of Glycosyl Transferase family 65 domain-containing proteins in land plants, with at least 39 proposed members in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome alone. We recently identified a member of this family, AtOFT1 (At3g05320), in which loss-of-function mutants display impaired sexual reproduction that was linked to a defective male gamete. Specifically, oft1 mutant pollen tubes are ineffective at penetrating the stigma-style interface leading to a drastic reduction in seed set and a nearly 2000-fold reduction in pollen transmission...
2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Rodrigo Medel, Catalina González-Browne, Daniela Salazar, Pedro Ferrer, Mildred Ehrenfeld
G. L. Stebbins' most effective pollinator principle states that when pollinators are not limiting, plants are expected to specialize and adapt to the most abundant and effective pollinator species available. In this study, we quantify the effectiveness of bees, hummingbirds and hawkmoths in a Chilean population of Erythranthe lutea (Phrymaceae), and examine whether flower traits are subject to pollinator-mediated selection by the most effective pollinator species during two consecutive years. Unlike most species in the pollinator community, the visitation rate of the recently arrived Bombus terrestris did not change substantially between years, which together with its high and stable pollen delivery to flower stigmas made this species the most important in the pollinator assemblage, followed by the solitary bee Centris nigerrima Flower traits were under significant selection in the direction expected for short-tongue bees, suggesting that E...
June 2018: Biology Letters
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