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Wenya Chen, Tohru Hira, Shingo Nakajima, Hiroshi Hara
The study was aimed to compare the satiating effect of various protein hydrolysates in rats and examine the underlying mechanism associated with the satiety hormones. Food intake and portal satiety hormone levels were measured in rats. Enteroendocrine cell-lines were employed to study the direct effect of protein hydrolysates on gut hormone secretions. The results showed that oral preload of wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH) suppressed food intake greater and longer than other hydrolysates. The portal peptide-YY levels in WGH-treated rats at 2 h and 3 h were higher than those in control- and lactalbumin hydrolysate (LAH)-treated rats...
August 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Stephanie J Crowley, Chelsea L Fournier, Charmane I Eastman
We examined phase shifts to bright morning light when sleep was restricted by delaying bedtimes. Adolescents (n = 6) had 10-h sleep/dark opportunities for 6 days. For the next 2 days, half were put to bed 4.5 h later and then allowed to sleep for 5.5 h (evening room light + sleep restriction). The others continued the 10-h sleep opportunities (sleep satiation). Then, sleep schedules were gradually shifted earlier and participants received bright light (90 min, ~6000 lux) after waking for 3 days. As expected, sleep satiation participants advanced (~2 h)...
August 7, 2018: Chronobiology International
Camille E Wendlandt, John U Regus, Kelsey A Gano-Cohen, Amanda C Hollowell, Kenjiro W Quides, Jonathan Y Lyu, Eunice S Adinata, Joel L Sachs
Efficient host control predicts the extirpation of ineffective symbionts, but they are nonetheless widespread in nature. We tested three hypotheses for the maintenance of symbiotic variation in rhizobia that associate with a native legume: partner mismatch between host and symbiont, such that symbiont effectiveness varies with host genotype; resource satiation, whereby extrinsic sources of nutrients relax host control; and variation in host control among host genotypes. We inoculated Acmispon strigosus from six populations with three Bradyrhizobium strains that vary in symbiotic effectiveness on sympatric hosts...
August 6, 2018: New Phytologist
Matthew M Hurley, Mykel R Robble, Grace Callan, SuJean Choi, Robert A Wheeler
Obesity develops, in part, due to frequent overconsumption. Therefore, it is important to identify the regulatory mechanisms that promote eating beyond satiety. Previously, we have demonstrated that an acute microinjection of the neuropeptide PACAP into the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) attenuates palatable food consumption in satiated rats. To better understand the mechanism by which intra-NAcc PACAP selectively blocks palatable food intake, the current work employed a rodent taste reactivity paradigm to assess the impact of PACAP on the hedonic processing of a 1% sucrose solution...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Luana Freese, Audrey Durand, Karine Guillem, Serge H Ahmed
Being under the influence during choice between drug and nondrug options can have a dramatic effect on choice outcomes. When rats face a choice between cocaine and sweet water and are not under the influence, they prefer sweet water. In contrast, when they are under the influence of cocaine, this causes them to shift their choice to cocaine nearly exclusively. Here we sought to characterize the behavioral mechanisms underlying the influence of cocaine on choice. In theory, rats under the influence of cocaine should be in a mixed motivational state, at least temporarily, with both their motivation for cocaine and their motivation for the nondrug option suppressed by the drug satiating and anorexic effects of cocaine, respectively...
July 26, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
L Chen, J J Fang, G Meng, S B Xiao, M Qin, Y Wang
OBJECTIVES: To study the correlation between the movement distance of small intestinal contents and survival time in female SD rat models after one-time satiation, and to evaluate its application value for postmortem interval estimation. METHODS: Adult female SD rats were randomly divided into postprandial groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h after feeding) and control group. The postprandial groups were fed for 1 h, meanwhile control group was kept fasting. All rats were sacrificed at the given time...
June 2018: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Harriët F A Zoon, Suzanne E M de Bruijn, Paul A M Smeets, Cees de Graaf, Ignace M C Janssen, Wendy Schijns, Edo O Aarts, Gerry Jager, Sanne Boesveldt
BACKGROUND: After Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, patients report a shift in food preferences away from high-energy foods. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying this shift in food preferences by assessing changes in neural responses to food pictures and odors before and after RYGB. Additionally, we investigated whether altered neural responsivity was associated with changes in plasma endocannabinoid and ghrelin concentrations...
November 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
José Miguel Aguilera
The concept of food matrix has received much attention lately in reference to its effects on food processing, nutrition and health. However, the term matrix is used vaguely by food and nutrition scientists, often as synonymous of the food itself or its microstructure. This review analyses the concept of food matrix and proposes a classification for the major types of matrices found in foods. The food matrix may be viewed as a physical domain that contains and/or interacts with specific constituents of a food (e...
July 24, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Markus Thamm, Katharina Sturm, Jens Schlossmann, Ricarda Scheiner
Age-dependent division of labor in honeybees was shown to be connected to sensory response thresholds. Foragers, show a higher gustatory responsiveness than nurse bees. It is generally assumed that nutrition-related signaling pathways underlie this behavioral plasticity. Here, one important candidate gene is the foraging gene, which encodes a cGMP dependent protein kinase (PKG). Several roles of members of this enzyme family were analyzed in vertebrates. They own functions in important processes such as growth, secretion, and neuronal adaptation...
July 24, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
F Carbone, J Tack
Sildenafil induces relaxation of smooth muscle cells by blocking PDE5. Dyspepsia is one of sildenafil's most frequently reported adverse events, suggesting its effect on gastric motility. Our aim was to study the effect of sildenafil on gastric accommodation (GA) and gastric emptying (GE) in healthy volunteers (HVs). Methods: Sildenafil (50 mg) or placebo was randomly administered to 16 blinded HVs. After a manometry probe and an infusion catheter were positioned in the proximal stomach, the intragastric pressure (IGP) was measured before and during nutrient drink infusion (ND, 60 ml/min)...
July 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Azadeh Sabetghadam, Agnieszka Grabowiecka-Nowak, Alan Kania, Anna Gugula, Ewa Blasiak, Tomasz Blasiak, Sherie Ma, Andrew L Gundlach, Anna Blasiak
The rat nucleus incertus (NI) contains GABA/peptide-projection neurons responsive to orexin (hypocretin)/orexin receptor-2 (OX2 ) signalling. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin neurons often innervate and influence common target areas. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between these hypothalamic peptidergic systems and rat NI, by investigating the presence of an MCH innervation and MCH receptor-1 (MCH1 ) expression, and neurophysiological and behavioural effects of MCH c.f. orexin-A (OXA), within the NI...
September 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Jennifer R Sadler, Grace E Shearrer, Kyle S Burger
Understanding weight-related differences in functional connectivity provides key insight into neurocognitive factors implicated in obesity. Here, we sampled three groups from human connectome project data: 1) 47 pairs of BMI-discordant twins (n = 94; average BMI-discordancy 6.7 ± 3.1 kg/m2 ), 2) 47 pairs of gender and BMI matched BMI-discordant, unrelated individuals, and 3) 47 pairs of BMI-similar twins, to test for body mass dependent differences in between network functional connectivity. Across BMI discordant samples, three networks appeared to be highly sensitive to weight status; specifically, a network comprised of gustatory processing regions, a visual processing network, and the default mode network (DMN)...
June 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Mohammed Nazim Uddin, Fakir M Amirul Islam, Abdullah Al Mahmud
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate, adapt and validate the Kessler 10-item questionnaire (K10) for measuring psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Narail district, Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 2425 adults of age 18-90 years was recruited. OUTCOME MEASURE: Validation of the K10 was the major outcome. Sociodemographic factors were measured to assess if the K10 needed adjustment for factors such as age or gender...
June 30, 2018: BMJ Open
N Tang, J Hao, X Zhang, Y B Wu, S Y Wang, J W Qi, Z Z Tian, B Wang, H Chen, D F Chen, Z Q Li
Apela identified from zebrafish Danio rerio for the first time in 2013 is a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the apelin receptor. To study the role of apela in regulating fish feeding, the complementary (c)DNA sequence of apela of Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii was cloned for the first time. The apela cDNA fragment of 836 bp was obtained by cloning. The open reading frame (ORF) of apela was 165 bp encoding a 54 amino acid, including 22 amino acids signal peptide and two proteolytic sites. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that A...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Marlou P Lasschuijt, Monica Mars, Cees de Graaf, Paul A M Smeets
Oro-sensory exposure (OSE) to food plays an important role in the regulation of food intake. One proposed underlying mechanism is the occurrence of cephalic phase responses (CPRs). CPRs include the pre-digestive endocrine responses induced by food-related sensory input. Yet, whether OSE duration or sweetness intensity affects CPRs is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the independent and interactive effects of oro-sensory duration (chewing) and stimulation intensity (sweetness) on endocrine CPRs and satiation...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Hyesoo Youn, Colleen Kirkhart, Justine Chia, Kristin Scott
Octopamine regulates feeding behavioral responses in Drosophila melanogaster, however the molecular and circuit mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of a subset of octopaminergic neurons, the OA-VPM4 cluster, in sucrose acceptance behavior. Thermogenetic activation of Gal4 lines containing OA-VPM4 promoted proboscis extension to sucrose, while optogenetic inactivation reduced extension. Anatomically, the presynaptic terminals of OA-VPM4 are in close proximity to the axons of sugar-responsive gustatory sensory neurons...
2018: PloS One
H F A Zoon, S E M de Bruijn, G Jager, P A M Smeets, C de Graaf, I M C Janssen, W Schijns, L Deden, S Boesveldt
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is a highly effective weight-loss intervention that often reduces preference and intake of high-energy foods. Research into the neural mechanisms behind this shift has mainly focused on reward processing of food cues. However, the ability to successfully control food intake and thereby weight-loss also depends on inhibitory control capacity. We investigated whether RYGB leads to alterations in neural inhibitory control in response to food cues...
June 23, 2018: Biological Psychology
Renee Korczak, Joanne L Slavin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention through reduction of body weight and control of appetite, however, not all fibers are created equally, and characteristics of fiber such as viscosity, fermentability and solubility may affect appetite differently. RECENT FINDINGS: Although early studies supported that fructan fibers, including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and oligofructose affected satiety, more recent studies are less supportive...
June 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Philip J Ryan
Fluid satiation, or quenching of thirst, is a critical homeostatic signal to stop drinking; however, its underlying neurocircuitry is not well characterized. Cutting-edge genetically encoded tools and techniques are now enabling researchers to pinpoint discrete neuronal populations that control fluid satiation, revealing that hindbrain regions, such as the nucleus of the solitary tract, area postrema, and parabrachial nucleus, primarily inhibit fluid intake. By contrast, forebrain regions such as the lamina terminalis, primarily stimulate thirst and fluid intake...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
Wilrike J Pasman, Henk F J Hendriks, Mans M Minekus, Rianne A F de Ligt, Maarten J Scholtes-Timmerman, Nard D S Clabbers, Nynke M Leonards, Jodee Johnson, Susann Bellmann
BACKGROUND: Appetite regulating properties of foods are usually investigated under laboratory conditions, whereas in real life, foods are consumed under at home conditions. The objective of this study was to compare the acute effects of breakfasts when tested in a laboratory condition and in an at home condition. Appetite regulating properties of two bread breakfasts and two cereal breakfasts were also compared. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this randomized cross-over trial balanced for laboratory and at home test conditions, thirty-two women consumed five breakfasts, i...
October 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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