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Cong Xie, Xuyi Wang, Richard L Young, Michael Horowitz, Christopher K Rayner, Tongzhi Wu
The gastrointestinal tract stores ingested nutrients in the stomach which are then delivered to the small intestine at a controlled rate to optimize their digestion and absorption. The interaction of nutrients with the small and large intestine generates feedback that slows gastric emptying, induces satiation, and reduces postprandial glycemic excursions. The mechanisms underlying these nutrient-gut interactions are complex; it has only recently been appreciated that the gut has the capacity to detect intraluminal contents in much the same way as the tongue, via activation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors, and that ensuing signaling mechanisms modulate the release of an array of gut hormones that influence gastrointestinal motility, appetite and glycemia...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Shoji Naoe, Takashi Masaki, Shoko Sakai
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In animal-dispersed plants, seed dispersal patterns of the same species in the same habitat can greatly differ among individuals and temporally. Many studies have revealed the pervasive effects of spatial variation in fruit abundance on seed dispersal of individual plants. By contrast, very few studies have investigated the temporal variation in seed dispersal. METHODS: We investigated the effects of conspecific and community-level fruit abundance on fruit removal rate and seed dispersal distance of six bird-dispersed woody species in a Japanese temperate forest for 3 yr...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Julie A Mennella, Loma Inamdar, Naomi Pressman, Joan I Schall, Mia A Papas, Dale Schoeller, Virginia A Stallings, Jillian C Trabulsi
Background: Millions of infants are fed breast milk substitutes, and the type of infant formula can impact weight gain patterns. Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine the direct impact of 2 types of infant formula (cow milk formula, CMF; extensively protein hydrolyzed formula, EHF) on growth and energy balance. Design: A racially diverse group of formula-fed infants (n = 113) were randomly assigned to either CMF or EHF from the age of 0...
October 5, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Russ Best, Benjamin Barwick, Alice Best, Nicolas Berger, Claire Harrison, Matthew Wright, Julie Sparrow
Ultra-endurance running provides numerous physiological, psychological, and nutritional challenges to the athlete and supporting practitioners. We describe the changes in physiological status, psychological condition, and nutritional intake over the course of two 100-mile running races, with differing outcomes: non-completion and completion. Athlete perception of pain, freshness, and motivation differed between events, independent of rating of perceived exertion. Our data suggest that the integration of multiple sensations (freshness, motivation, hunger, pain, and thirst) produce performance...
October 4, 2018: Sports
Pere Morell, Amparo Tárrega, Edward Allen Foegeding, Susana Fiszman
Understanding how oral processing is altered in response to changes in the composition and mechanical properties of food provides useful information to design food with improved satiating capacity which is largely influenced by oral exposure. In turn, this information deepens the knowledge about the physiology of texture perception. Six yogurts were formulated with different amounts of protein and protein sources and addition of apple cubes: control (C), extra skimmed milk powder-added (MP), whey protein isolate-added (WPI), and whey protein microgels-added (WPM)...
October 17, 2018: Food & Function
Lori M Zeltser
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons regulate energy balance and mediate the effects of some classes of anti-obesity therapeutics. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, D'Agostino et al. (2018) demonstrate that a small and often overlooked population of POMC neurons in the brainstem contributes to satiation induced by the FDA-approved drug lorcaserin.
October 2, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Marie K Holt, James E Richards, Daniel R Cook, Daniel I Brierley, Diana L Williams, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Stefan Trapp
Centrally administered glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) supresses food intake. Here we demonstrate that GLP-1-producing (PPG) neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) are the predominant source of endogenous GLP-1 within the brain. Selective ablation of NTS PPG neurons by viral expression of diphtheria toxin subunit A (DTA) substantially reduced active GLP-1 concentrations in brain and spinal cord. Contrary to expectations, this loss of central GLP-1 had no significant effect on ad libitum feeding of mice, affecting neither daily chow intake nor body weight or glucose tolerance...
October 2, 2018: Diabetes
Juliet Mubaiwa, Vincenzo Fogliano, Cathrine Chidewe, Evert Jan Bakker, Anita R Linnemann
Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous legume crop, cultivated by subsistence farmers throughout sub-Saharan countries. Research findings indicate that the crop has great nutritional and agronomic potential, but it remains scientifically neglected. A baseline study was conducted in seven districts in semi-arid regions of rural Zimbabwe to gather knowledge on current production and utilization of bambara groundnut, assess its role in providing sustainable food and nutrition security for rural populations and determine priorities for follow-up research...
2018: PloS One
Noa Hazut, Kayla Rapps, Donald A Kristt, Abraham J Susswein, Aron Weller
Nitric Oxide (NO) and its precursor l-arginine were found to inhibit feeding in rats with a low motivation to eat, as they do in Aplysia. In rats that are relatively satiated, treatment with an NO blocker increased feeding, and treatment with an NO donor or with either of 2 doses of l-arginine inhibited feeding. NO and l-arginine modulated several parameters of feeding, such as the total duration of appetitive behaviors, the time spent feeding, the quantity of food eaten and the number of feeding bouts. The inhibitory effect of l-arginine on feeding could not be attributed to changes in locomotion...
September 29, 2018: Appetite
Jan Tack, Michael Camilleri
Functional dyspepsia (FD) and gastroparesis are frequent causes of upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain or burning, upper abdominal bloating, bothersome belching, nausea and vomiting. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are heterogeneous and involved mechanisms such as abnormal gastric motility (accommodation, emptying), visceral hypersensitivity, low grade mucosal inflammation and cellular changes in enteric nerves, muscle or interstitial cells of Cajal...
September 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Akshay Rao, Friederike Range, Kerstin Kadletz, Kurt Kotrschal, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
Food preferences may be driven by a species' ecology. Closely related species such as dogs and wolves may have evolved preferences for different foods owing to their differing foraging styles. Wolves have been shown to be more persistent in problem-solving experiments and more risk-prone in a foraging task. A possible element affecting these (and other) results is a potential wolf-dog difference in food preferences. To address this possibility, we tested similarly raised and kept dogs and wolves in two different food choice tasks, a classic two-choice task and a multiple-choice paradigm...
2018: PloS One
David Planes-Muñoz, Rubén López-Nicolás, Carlos A González-Bermúdez, Gaspar Ros-Berruezo, Carmen Frontela-Saseta
Plant extract activity can be modified by the digestion process. In order to assess the satiety effect of green tea and turmeric extracts, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process was performed and the STC-1 cell line was used. The enteroendocrine cell line was incubated (for 30, 60 and 120 minutes) with the digested and non-digested extracts measuring the secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The release of satiety hormones by the STC-1 cells showed similar or higher results for plant extracts compared to the positive controls reported as satiatogenic (proteins and short chain fatty acids)...
October 17, 2018: Food & Function
Jing Lv, Jianhong Li, Chao Wang, Peng Zhao, Yanju Bi, Xin Zhang, Ran Yi, Xiang Li, Jun Bao
This study investigated behavioral and physiological responses of suckling calves to either positive or negative situations. Twelve healthy female suckling Holstein calves at approximately 30 days of age were randomly selected and allocated to two groups: a) a positive situation (POS) group that received a feed reward and b) a negative situation (NEG) group that experienced food frustration. Behavior, heart rate (HR), and immune parameters were measured during the emotion-inducing periods and analyzed via ANOVA...
September 10, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Michał Bogdziewicz, Shealyn Marino, Raul Bonal, Rafał Zwolak, Michael A Steele
The predator satiation hypothesis posits that masting helps plants escape seed predation through starvation of predators in lean years, followed by satiation of predators in mast years. Importantly, successful satiation requires sufficiently delayed bottom-up effects of seed availability on seed consumers. However, some seed consumers may be capable of quick aggregative and reproductive responses to masting, which may jeopardize positive density dependence of seed survival. We used a 17-yr data set on seed production and insect (Curculio weevils) infestation of three North American oaks species (northern red Quercus rubra, white Q...
September 4, 2018: Ecology
Piriyah Sinclair, Donal J Brennan, Carel W le Roux
Metabolic surgery is the best treatment for long-term weight loss maintenance and comorbidity control. Metabolic operations were originally intended to change anatomy to alter behaviour, but we now understand that the anatomical changes can modulate physiology to change behaviour. They are no longer considered only mechanically restrictive and/or malabsorptive procedures; rather, they are considered metabolic procedures involving complex physiological changes, whereby gut adaptation influences signalling pathways in several other organs, including the liver and the brain, regulating hunger, satiation, satiety, body weight, glucose metabolism and immune functions...
October 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
H K Ruddock, M Field, A Jones, C A Hardman
Food-related attentional bias (AB) varies both between individuals (i.e. trait differences) and within individuals (i.e. state differences), as a function of a food's momentary incentive value. People with self-perceived food addiction (SPFA) find food particularly rewarding and may therefore demonstrate increased AB to food-related cues, relative to those who do not perceive themselves as food addicts. However, these trait differences may interact with state factors, such as hunger and the perceived availability of food, to differentially affect AB to food-cues...
August 29, 2018: Appetite
Andrew Warrilow, Duane Mellor, Andrew McKune, Kate Pumpa
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Humans appear to have innate energy regulation mechanisms that manifest in sensations of satiation during a meal and satiety post ingestion. Interactions between these mechanisms and the macronutrient profile of their contemporary food environment could be responsible for the dysregulation of this mechanism, resulting in a higher energy intake. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the impact of dietary fibre and fat both in isolation and combination on satiation and satiety...
August 30, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Molly Spencer, Amalie Kurzer, Cesar Cienfuegos, Jean-Xavier Guinard
Negative health and environmental implications call for a shift from the traditional Western diet to a healthier, more sustainable diet; a suggested method for implementing such a shift is the consumption of more plant protein and less animal protein. This research tested the Flexitarian Flip™ with student consumers (n = 150) in a full meal-sized mixed dish (burrito bowls) in the dining venue context, by partially replacing meat (two-thirds replacement) with legumes and vegetables. Hedonic, satisfaction, and satiation measures were collected for three versions of a burrito bowl recipe: HM Mild (high meat control, with mild salsa), LM Mild (low meat, with mild salsa) and LM Spicy (low meat, with spicy salsa)...
August 28, 2018: Appetite
Ana Carolina Ariza, Tania G Sánchez-Pimienta, Juan A Rivera
OBJECTIVE: Describir el papel de la percepción del gusto como factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de obesidad en niños. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ulos científicos publicados en PubMed entre el 1 de enero de 2011 y el 20 de marzo de 2016 para el tema sobrepeso y obesidad en niños de entre 0 y 12 años. Los algoritmos utilizados fueron (Obesity OR Overweight) AND Taste perception, Satiation, Satiety response, Appetite, Appetite regulation, Habituation, Taste receptors [MeSH] y PROP phenotype...
July 2018: Salud Pública de México
Sonya Duffy, Thomas A Lutz, Christina Neuner Boyle
The pancreatic hormone amylin is released from beta cells following nutrient ingestion and contributes to the control of body weight and glucose homeostasis. Amylin reduces food intake by activating neurons in the area postrema (AP). Amylin was also shown to synergize with the adipokine, leptin, with combination therapy producing greater weight loss and food intake reduction than either hormone alone. While amylin and leptin were initially thought to interact downstream of the AP in the hypothalamus, recent findings show that the two hormones can act on the same AP neurons, suggesting a more direct relationship...
August 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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