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Victoria Whitelock, Eric Robinson
It is well established that the satiety providing effects of food can influence meal size and a disparate area of research suggests that memory regarding recent eating informs food intake. Here we examined whether remembered meal satisfaction (encompassing memory for meal liking and satiety) can be manipulated in the laboratory and whether this influences later food intake. Participants ( N = 128, body mass index mean = 23.46kg/m², standard deviation = 4.70) consumed a fixed lunch and then rehearsed the satisfying or dissatisfying aspects of the meal, or a neutral experience (control), in order to manipulate memory for meal satisfaction...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Jessica Sänger
By means of event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study intended to extend previous findings on how the different processing stages of attentional selection are altered by the participants' motivational state depending on their saturation level. Forty-four normal-weight (mean BMI: 21.34, SD = 1.54), healthy participants aged between 19 and 34 years were assigned to a condition of hunger or satiety. While participants performed a central oddball task, task-irrelevant pictures (food vs. neutral) were presented unilaterally (either left or right from fixation) or bilaterally...
November 30, 2018: Appetite
Janet McNally, Siobhan Hugh-Jones, Samantha Caton, Carel Vereijken, Hugo Weenen, Marion M Hetherington
Infant gaze serves as a measure of attention to food cues in adults and children and may play a role in signalling infant hunger and satiation. Maternal responsiveness to infant satiation cues, including gaze, supports healthy appetite development and may reduce obesity risk. However, mothers often experience difficulty in interpreting feeding cues, and there have been few attempts to study cues systematically. This study aimed to develop a reliable coding scheme for categorising and tracking infant gaze behaviours during complementary feeding (CF)...
November 28, 2018: Appetite
Rebecca Kelsey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Timothy R Koch, Timothy R Shope, Michael Camilleri
The worldwide rise in the prevalence of obesity supports the need for an increased interaction between ongoing clinical research in the allied fields of gastrointestinal medicine/surgery and diabetes mellitus. There have been a number of clinically-relevant advances in diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome emanating from gastroenterological research. Gastric emptying is a significant factor in the development of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. However, it is not the only mechanism whereby such symptoms occur in patients with diabetes...
November 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
Michael Crossley, Kevin Staras, György Kemenes
Hunger state can substantially alter the perceived value of a stimulus, even to the extent that the same sensory cue can trigger antagonistic behaviors. How the nervous system uses these graded perceptual shifts to select between opposed motor patterns remains enigmatic. Here, we challenged food-deprived and satiated Lymnaea to choose between two mutually exclusive behaviors, ingestion or egestion, produced by the same feeding central pattern generator. Decoding the underlying neural circuit reveals that the activity of central dopaminergic interneurons defines hunger state and drives network reconfiguration, biasing satiated animals toward the rejection of stimuli deemed palatable by food-deprived ones...
November 2018: Science Advances
Keyne Charlot, Alexandra Malgoyre, Cyprien Bourrilhon
The Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ) assesses, among other components, food preference (FP) using a procedure that requires both time and concentration. Its use may therefore be difficult in a complex protocol. In this article, we assessed the suitability of two shorter versions: 1) the LFPQ-S2 , using two instead of four foods per group, and 2) the food preference questionnaire (FPQ-S16 ), using the 16 same foods as the LFPQ, displayed simultaneously, that have to be ranked in order of preference...
November 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
David A Wiss, Nicole Avena, Pedro Rada
The obesity epidemic has been widely publicized in the media worldwide. Investigators at all levels have been looking for factors that have contributed to the development of this epidemic. Two major theories have been proposed: (1) sedentary lifestyle and (2) variety and ease of inexpensive palatable foods. In the present review, we analyze how nutrients like sugar that are often used to make foods more appealing could also lead to habituation and even in some cases addiction thereby uniquely contributing to the obesity epidemic...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
E D Pereira, R M Dantas, G M F Andrade-Franzé, L A De Luca, J V Menani, C A F Andrade
Excessive salt intake has been associated with the development or worsening of chronic diseases such as hypertension and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have a typical increased sodium preference. Estrogens reduce sodium appetite, but we do not know whether such effect relates to alterations in sodium palatability. Here we evaluated the influence of ovarian hormones on orofacial motor responses, an index of palatability, to intra-oral infusion of 0.3 M NaCl (IO-NaCl). Adult female SHR and normotensive Holtzman rats (HTZ) were used...
November 17, 2018: Appetite
Claudia G Liberini, Rinzin Lhamo, Misgana Ghidewon, Tyler Ling, Nina Juntereal, Jack Chen, Anh Cao, Lauren M Stein, Matthew R Hayes
AIMS: Maternal and early-postnatal consumption of high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFSD) dramatically alters the offspring phenotype, predisposing the progeny to have reduced sensitivity to satiation signals, increased body weight, and blood glucose impairments. Recent therapeutics for treating adult obesity have focused on targeting the glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) system. Here, we examine whether the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide could be used in juvenile male and female rats as an anti-obesity/diabetic pharmaceutical to prevent not only adolescent obesity/ hyperglycemia, but also prevent early-adult onset obesity...
November 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Yongguo Li, Katharina Schnabl, Sarah-Madeleine Gabler, Monja Willershäuser, Josefine Reber, Angelos Karlas, Sanna Laurila, Minna Lahesmaa, Mueez U Din, Andrea Bast-Habersbrunner, Kirsi A Virtanen, Tobias Fromme, Florian Bolze, Libbey S O'Farrell, Jorge Alsina-Fernandez, Tamer Coskun, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Pirjo Nuutila, Martin Klingenspor
The molecular mediator and functional significance of meal-associated brown fat (BAT) thermogenesis remains elusive. Here, we identified the gut hormone secretin as a non-sympathetic BAT activator mediating prandial thermogenesis, which consequentially induces satiation, thereby establishing a gut-secretin-BAT-brain axis in mammals with a physiological role of prandial thermogenesis in the control of satiation. Mechanistically, meal-associated rise in circulating secretin activates BAT thermogenesis by stimulating lipolysis upon binding to secretin receptors in brown adipocytes, which is sensed in the brain and promotes satiation...
November 8, 2018: Cell
Elena A Günter, Daria S Khramova, Pavel A Markov, Oxana V Popeyko, Anatoliy K Melekhin, Vladislav S Beloserov, Ekaterina A Martinson, Sergey G Litvinets, Sergey V Popov
Gel microparticles were prepared from pectins of campion (SVCgel) and duckweed (LMCgel) callus cultures, as well as from commercial apple pectin (APgel) by emulsion dehydration techniques with successive ionotropic gelation. The morphology and swelling behavior of the microparticles were determined after successive incubation in simulated gastric (SGF), intestinal (SIF), and colonic (SCF) fluids. Both SVCgel and LMCgel microparticles were found to swell in SGF and SIF gradually, and at oral administration decreased food intake by laboratory mice during the first 5 h of free-feeding...
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Vance L Albaugh, Babak Banan, Joseph Antoun, Yanhua Xiong, Yan Guo, Jie Ping, Muhammed Alikhan, Blake Austin Clements, Naji N Abumrad, Charles Robb Flynn
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bile diversion to the ileum (GB-IL) has strikingly similar metabolic and satiating effects to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in rodent obesity models. The metabolic benefits of these procedures are thought to be mediated by increased bile acids, though parallel changes in body weight and other confounding variables limits this interpretation. METHODS: Global G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 null (Tgr5-/- ) and intestinal-specific farnesoid X receptor null (FxrΔ/E ) mice on high-fat diet as well as wild-type C57BL/6 and glucagon-like polypeptide 1 receptor deficient (Glp-1r-/- ) mice on chow diet were characterized following bile diversion to the ileum (GB-IL)...
November 13, 2018: Gastroenterology
Tracey M Robertson, Abdulrahman Z Alzaabi, M Denise Robertson, Barbara A Fielding
Potatoes have been an affordable, staple part of the diet for many hundreds of years. Recently however, there has been a decline in consumption, perhaps influenced by erroneous reports of being an unhealthy food. This review provides an overview of the nutritional value of potatoes and examines the evidence for associations between potato consumption and non-communicable diseases. Potatoes are an important source of micronutrients, such as vitamin C, vitamin B6, potassium, folate, and iron and contribute a significant amount of fibre to the diet...
November 14, 2018: Nutrients
Zhuoshi Zhang, Bernard J Venn, John Monro, Suman Mishra
The satiating capacity of carbohydrate staples eaten alone is dependent upon the energy density of the food but relative satiety when starchy staples are incorporated into mixed meals is uncertain. Our aim was to assess the satiating effects of three carbohydrate staples; jasmine rice, penne pasta, and Agria potato, each consumed within a standard mixed meal. Cooked portions of each staple containing 45 g carbohydrate were combined with 200 g of meat sauce and 200 g of mixed vegetables in three mixed meals...
November 12, 2018: Nutrients
Han Hee Lee, Hye Kyung Jung, Myung Gyu Choi
Functional dyspepsia is a disease, in which there is no organic lesion but chronic and repetitive postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain, and epigastric burning. Functional dyspepsia is not life-threatening but its symptoms are relapsing and remitting and persist over a lifetime, limiting the social life and reducing the quality of life. Therefore, the treatment for acute relapsing period may help improve the short-term symptoms. Continuous medication may be needed to improve the long-term symptoms...
October 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Michael Camilleri
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review examines the hormonal regulation of gastric emptying, a topic of increasing relevance, given the fact that medications that are analogs of some of these hormones or act as agonists at the hormonal receptors, are used in clinical practice for optimizing metabolic control in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and in obesity. FINDINGS: The major effects on gastric emptying result from actions of incretins, particularly gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine, the duodenal and pancreatic hormones, motilin, glucagon, and amylin, and the gastric orexigenic hormones, ghrelin and motilin...
November 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Jenny M Daggett, Verity J Brown, Caroline H Brennan
As a model organism, zebrafish have much to offer neuroscientific research and they are increasingly being used in behavioral neuroscience, for example to study the genetics of learning and memory. As fish are often considered "less clever" than mammals, it is important to understand how they learn and to establish optimal testing conditions. In this study, we compared the efficacy of food reinforcement and social stimuli in supporting Pavlovian conditioning, Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer, and acquisition of a two-alternative forced choice visual discrimination...
November 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Jie Wang, Xu-Fang Liang, Shan He, Jiao Li, Kang Huang, Yan-Peng Zhang, Dong Huang
Background: Previous studies in teleost have demonstrated the adaptive strategy to maintain hepatic lipid homeostasis within certain limit. The excess of fat-intake could induce abnormal lipid deposition in liver but not adipose tissue. However, the molecular mechanism between the impaired lipid homeostasis and the aggravated lipid deposition in liver has not been elucidated well in fish. Methods: Four isonitrogenous diets with different fat levels (2, 7, 12 and 17%) were formulated, named L2, L7, L12 and L17 respectively, and fed Chinese perch (44...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Joo Sun Choi
The defective satiation signaling may contribute to the etiology of obesity. We investigated how dietary modification during maternal (pregnancy and lactation) and post-weaning affects obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and hypothalamic appetite responses in offspring in adulthood. Pregnant female SD rats were randomly allocated to either maternal high-fat diet (43% energy from fat) or control diet (12% energy from fat) until the end of suckling. After weaning for additional 4 weeks, half of the offsprings were continuously fed the same diet as the dam (C-C and H-H groups); the remainder received the counterpart diet (C-H and H-C groups)...
October 2018: Clinical Nutrition Research
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