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Cardiovascular consequences of metabolic syndrome

Thomas Jensen, Amanda Wieland, Melanie Cree-Green, Kristen Nadeau, Shelby Sullivan
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is quickly emerging as a global epidemic in parallel with the rise in obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome. NAFLD, once seen simply as a passive consequence of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), has been found to interact with other features of MetS to exacerbate insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. NAFLD is also becoming the top indication for liver transplant and an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment of this disorder is limited mainly to lifestyle modifications to promote weight loss along with consideration for off-label use of certain medications, but recent progression in clinical trials means more effective treatments are on the horizon...
November 29, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Danielle N Kling, Evon M DeBose-Scarlett, Leandro D Teixeira, Salvador A Gezan, Graciela L Lorca, Claudio F Gonzalez
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the underlying cause of some devastating diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These diseases have been associated with over-activation of the mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. This study utilizes a high fat diet (HFD) to induce MetS and to dissect the effects of a beneficial bacterium, L. johnsonii N6.2, and natural phenolics on mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) expression compared to a reduced energy density diet (REDD). HFD significantly elevated MetS markers in males, as noted through an increase in weight, glucose levels, and triglyceride levels...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Cristina Perez
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children is defined as a "disorder of breathing during sleep characterized by prolonged partial upper airway obstruction [hypopnea] and/or intermittent complete obstruction (obstructive apnea) that disrupts normal ventilation during sleep and normal sleep patterns." OSAS is both prevalent and underdiagnosed in children. OSAS has harmful central nervous system, cardiovascular, and metabolic consequences, which can include an inability to concentrate in school, poor academic performance, behavioral problems, cardiovascular effects, and poor growth and development...
November 2018: General Dentistry
Ákos Nádasdi, Anikó Somogyi, Péter Igaz, Gábor Firneisz
The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a common metabolic disease affects nearly one third of the population in the developed countries. The significance of the NAFLD is due to its spectrum disease (simple steatosis → NASH [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis] ± fibrosis → cirrhosis → HCC [hepatocellular carcinome]) character; its association with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance; and its complications both as a consequence of the direct progression of the liver disease and also related to the additional target organ damage due to the progression of the metabolic disease (cardiovascular, renal)...
November 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Rodrigo Yokota, Fernanda Aparecida Ronchi, Fernanda Barrinha Fernandes, Zaira Palomino Jara, Rodolfo Mattar Rosa, Ana Paula de Oliveira Leite, Patricia Fiorino, Vera Farah, Nilberto Robson Falcão do Nascimento, Manassés C Fonteles, Dulce Elena Casarini
Overconsumption of fructose leads to metabolic syndrome as a result of hypertension, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, the renal function of animals submitted to high fructose intake was analyzed from weaning to adulthood using in vivo and ex vivo methods, being compared with a normal control group. We investigated in ex vivo model of the role of the renin Angiotensin system (RAS) in the kidney. The use of perfused kidney from animals submitted to 8-week fructose treatment showed that high fructose intake caused metabolic and cardiovascular alterations that were consistent with other studies...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Gilberto Perpiñan, Erika Severeyn, Sara Wong, Miguel Altuve
This paper focuses on the effect of a sudden increase of plasma glucose concentration in the cardiac autonomic modulation using time-domain and frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) measures. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, measured each 30 min during an oral glucose tolerance test, and [Formula: see text] (mean of the RR interval), SDNN (standard deviation of normal-to-normal heartbeats), rMSSD (root-mean-square of successive differences between normal heartbeats), TP (total spectral power), LF and HF (power of the low- and high-frequency bands), LF norm and HF norm (LF and HF in normalized units), and LF/HF ratio of the HRV signal, obtained from 5-min-long ECG recordings during each phase of the test, were analyzed for subjects with the metabolic syndrome, marathon runners, and a control group...
October 22, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Zobair M Younossi, Giulio Marchesini, Helena Pinto-Cortez, Salvatore Petta
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 25% of the global adult population with a range of 13.5% in Africa and 31.8% in the Middle East. NAFLD is closely associated with a constellation of metabolic comorbidities which include: obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, and hypercholesteremia. In fact, the increasing number of metabolic comorbidities not only increase the prevalence of NAFLD but also places patients at higher risk for progressive liver disease. As such, NAFLD is presently among the top etiologies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and an indication for liver transplantation...
October 17, 2018: Transplantation
Antonino Crinò, Danilo Fintini, Sarah Bocchini, Graziano Grugni
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex multisystem disorder due to the absent expression of the paternally active genes in the PWS critical region on chromosome 15 (15q11.2-q13). The syndrome is considered the most common genetic cause of obesity, occurring in 1:10,000-1:30,000 live births. Its main characteristics include neonatal hypotonia, poor feeding, and lack of appetite in infancy, followed by weight gain, lack of satiety, and uncontrolled appetite, frequently after the age of 2-3 years. The clinical picture includes short stature, multiple endocrine abnormalities (hypogonadism, growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis dysfunction, hypothyroidism, central adrenal insufficiency), dysmorphic features, scoliosis, osteoporosis, mental retardation, and behavioral and psychiatric problems...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
D Thomas, F Paillard, J M Lecerf, F Carré
The behavioral goals of the coronary patient require active management by the cardiologist. Every smoker must be clearly informed about the cardiovascular consequences of smoking and the major benefits of smoking cessation. The only advice to "quit smoking" is not enough. Validated "treatments" (cognitive-behavioral therapy, nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, bupropion) must be used, with a precise strategy and prolonged follow-up. All drugs assistance can be prescribed in coronary patients and nicotine replacement therapy can even be used just after a myocardial infarction...
October 9, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Daniel Kopf, Walter Hewer
BACKGROUND: Aged patients with severe mental illness (SMI) suffer from a high risk for functional impairment and a high load of somatic comorbidities. Until now, there has been a lack of systematic studies on this patient population in later life. This review summarizes the most significant somatic comorbidities and discusses the consequences for the medical care of this elderly group of patients. METHODS: A selective narrative review based on PubMed research and observations in clinical practice...
November 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Ladislav Stepanek, Dagmar Horakova, Marie Nakladalova, Lubica Cibickova, David Karasek, Josef Zadrazil
Prediabetes is a glucose metabolism disorder considered as a distinct nosological entity which strongly predicts the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This nosological entity itself is a serious condition indicating an increased risk of atherosclerotic and oncological complications. In patients with prediabetes, other components of metabolic syndrome are usually present, such as arterial hypertension, obesity or dyslipidaemia, further increasing an individual's risk of morbidity and mortality. Prediabetes is a long-developing disorder which offers enough time for early diagnosis and intervention; it may even be reversible...
September 24, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Anna Nadulska, Grzegorz Opielak, Dominik Szwajgier, Jacek Bogucki
In people with metabolic syndrome, obesity and diseases of the cardiovascular system are more often observed. At the basis of the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, chronic inflammation plays a significant role. One of the markers of this process is C-reactive protein (CRP) - one of the indicators of the acute phase of inflammation. The role of other biochemical parameters in obesity has been less well understood. AIM: The aim of the study is to assess the correlation of selected factors of inflammation in obese people and the relevant anthropometric parameters...
September 21, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Revathy Carnagarin, Vance B Matthews, Lakshini Y Herat, Jan K Ho, Markus P Schlaich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiometabolic disorders such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes are increasingly common and associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The mechanisms driving these developments are incompletely understood but likely to include autonomic dysregulation. The latest evidence for such a role is briefly reviewed here. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings highlight the relevance of autonomic regulation in glucose metabolism and identify sympathetic activation, in concert with parasympathetic withdrawal, as a major contributor to the development of metabolic disorders and an important mediator of the associated adverse cardiovascular consequences...
September 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Aaron I Vinik, Carolina Casellini, Henri K Parson, Sheri R Colberg, Marie-Laure Nevoret
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance manifesting as cardiac autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic population is an important predictor of cardiovascular events. Symptoms and signs of ANS dysfunction, such as resting heart rate elevations, diminished blood pressure responses to standing, and altered time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability in response to deep breathing, standing, and the Valsalva maneuver, should be elicited from all patients with diabetes and prediabetes. With the recognition of the presence of ANS imbalance or for its prevention, a rigorous regime should be implemented with lifestyle modification, physical activity, and cautious use of medications that lower blood glucose...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Y Meng, A Eirin, X-Y Zhu, H Tang, L J Hickson, A Lerman, A J van Wijnen, L O Lerman
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) constitute an important repair system, but may be impaired by exposure to cardiovascular risk factors. Consequently, adipose tissue-derived MSCs from pigs with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) show decreased vitality. A growing number of microRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized as key modulators of senescence, but their role in regulating senescence in MSC in MetS is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that MetS upregulates in MSC expression of miRNAs that can serve as post-transcriptional regulators of senescence-associated (SA) genes...
October 2018: Cell Transplantation
Diane M Libert, Amy S Nowacki, Marvin R Natowicz
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a construct used to separate "healthy" from "unhealthy" obese patients, and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. There is controversy over whether obese "metabolically well" persons have a higher morbidity and mortality than lean counterparts, suggesting that MS criteria do not completely describe physiologic risk factors or consequences of obesity. We hypothesized that metabolomic analysis of plasma would distinguish obese individuals with and without MS and T2D along a spectrum of obesity-associated metabolic derangements, supporting metabolomic analysis as a tool for a more detailed assessment of metabolic wellness than currently used MS criteria...
2018: PeerJ
Sezcan Mumusoglu, Bulent Okan Yildiz
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises individual components including central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension and it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The menopause per se increases the incidence of MetS in aging women. The effect(s) of menopause on individual components of MetS include: i) increasing central obesity with changes in the fat tissue distribution, ii) potential increase in insulin resistance, iii) changes in serum lipid concentrations, which seem to be associated with increasing weight rather than menopause itself, and, iv) an association between menopause and hypertension, although available data are inconclusive...
September 3, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Corinne Lejus, Gilles Orliaguet, Frederique Servin, Christophe Dadure, Fabrice Michel, Christopher Brasher, Souhayl Dahmani
Obesity has become endemic, even in children. Systemic complications associated with obesity include metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory compromise. These comorbidities require adequate investigation, targeted optimisation, and, if surgery is required, specific management during the peri-operative period. Specific peri-operative strategies should be used for paediatric patients who are overweight or obese to prevent postoperative complications, and optimising the respiratory function during surgery is particularly crucial...
December 2017: The lancet child & adolescent health
Ming-Shyan Lin, Tung-Jung Huang, Yu-Chen Lin, Sui-Whi Jane, Mei-Yen Chen
BACKGROUND: Individuals with disabilities have health needs similar to the general population. Smoking and metabolic syndrome have emerged as major cardiovascular risks that contribute to systemic inflammation and mortality. However, few studies have focused on the association between smoking and cardiometabolic risks in adult men with disabilities. AIMS: This study explored the prevalence of smoking and its association with cardiometabolic risk and associated factors among male adults with disabilities...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Anne Tournadre, Gaelle Vial, Frédéric Capel, Martin Soubrier, Yves Boirie
Sarcopenia is defined as a combination of low muscle mass with low muscle function. The term was first used to designate the loss of muscle mass and performance associated with aging. Now, recognized causes of sarcopenia also include chronic disease, a physically inactive lifestyle, loss of mobility, and malnutrition. Sarcopenia should be differentiated from cachexia, which is characterized not only by low muscle mass but also by weight loss and anorexia. Sarcopenia results from complex and interdependent pathophysiological mechanisms that include aging, physical inactivity, neuromuscular compromise, resistance to postprandial anabolism, insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, endocrine factors, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation...
August 8, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
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