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Cardiovascular consequences of metabolic syndrome

Anne Tournadre, Gaelle Vial, Frédéric Capel, Martin Soubrier, Yves Boirie
Sarcopenia is defined as a combination of low muscle mass with low muscle function. The term was first used to designate the loss of muscle mass and performance associated with aging. Now, recognized causes of sarcopenia also include chronic disease, a physically inactive lifestyle, loss of mobility, and malnutrition. Sarcopenia should be differentiated from cachexia, which is characterized not only by low muscle mass but also by weight loss and anorexia. Sarcopenia results from complex and interdependent pathophysiological mechanisms that include aging, physical inactivity, neuromuscular compromise, resistance to postprandial anabolism, insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, endocrine factors, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation...
August 8, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Salar Farahvar, Asnat Walfisch, Eyal Sheiner
Established risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) include ethnicity, obesity, and family history of diabetes. Untreated GDM patients have higher rates of maternal and perinatal morbidity. GDM is an independent risk factor for future longer-term risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular morbidity, malignancies, ophthalmic, psychiatric, and renal disease in the mother. Offspring risk long-term adverse health outcomes, including T2DM, subsequent obesity, impacted neurodevelopmental outcome, increased neuropsychiatric morbidity, and ophthalmic disease...
June 5, 2018: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Ana Ligia Gutiérrez-Solis, Sudip Datta Banik, Rosa María Méndez-González
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is closely linked with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. The T2DM is one of the major causes of mortality and public health concern in Mexico. Some studies reported MetS prevalence in different regions from Mexico. However, a systematic report or meta-analysis on MetS prevalence is not available. The aim of this study was to estimate the pooled prevalence of MetS among apparently healthy Mexican adults. METHODS: A systematic review was done of scientific articles published and available from different sources, including MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, LILACS, and SCIELO...
July 31, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Valeria Luzzi, Marco Brunori, Sergio Terranova, Carlo Di Paolo, Gaetano Ierardo, Iole Vozza, Antonella Polimeni
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway collapse during sleep with consequent oxygen desaturations and cardiovascular, neurological, and metabolic impairment. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The authors report the case of a 66-year-old male presenting "metabolic syndrome" (obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, multi-drug treated arterial hypertension), atopy, mouth breathing due to turbinate hypertrophy, and pathological daytime sleepiness...
July 26, 2018: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
Matteo Nardin, Monica Verdoia, Lucia Barbieri, Giuseppe De Luca
Platelets represent one of the main actors involved in pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been proposed as marker of platelet reactivity and thrombotic risk. However, still debated is whether higher MPV constitutes an independent determinant of CAD or just the consequence of an association with several cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS), on MPV and its relationship with angiographically defined CAD...
July 26, 2018: Platelets
Kalyan Goswami, Mahendra Gandhe
The evolution of human from ancient times to modern era has witnessed several environmental and social changes which contributed to genetic and epigenetic makeup of human beings and in turn is responsible for its present phenotype. In the recent past, owing to socioeconomic developmental pressure, a large epidemiologic shift towards non-communicable disease pattern has been noticed in many developing countries including India which resulted into incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in epidemic proportion...
June 30, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Hamide Safarian, Seyed Mahammad Reza Parizadeh, Maryam Saberi-Karimain, Susan Darroudi, Ali Javandoost, Farzaneh Mohammadi, Malihe Moammeri, Gordon A Ferns, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Mohsen Mohebati
Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder with high socioeconomic costs and a high global prevalence. The serum concentrations of some trace elements are higher in people with metabolic syndrome compared to normal individuals. Curcumin is derived from turmeric and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Curcumin may therefore have a potential role in the management of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of curcumin on serum copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and Zn/Cu ratio levels in patients with metabolic syndrome...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Viviana Cancino Q, Enzo Rivera T
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a frequent sleep-related breathing disorder being associated with cardiovascular, metabolic and neurobehavioral consequences. Most patients with OSAS are untreated because they are not timely diagnosed. AIM: to determine the association of sleep symptoms and body mass index in patients with OSAS diagnosed by polysomnography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 144 patients aged 47 ± 14 years (75% males) in whom a polysomnography was done...
April 2018: Revista Médica de Chile
Sergio Garbarino, Egeria Scoditti, Paola Lanteri, Luana Conte, Nicola Magnavita, Domenico M Toraldo
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and prevalent medical condition with major consequences for health and safety. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a common-but not universal-accompanying symptom. The purpose of this literature analysis is to understand whether the presence/absence of EDS is associated with different physiopathologic, prognostic, and therapeutic outcomes in OSA patients. Methods: Articles in English published in PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE between January 2000 and June 2017, focusing on no-EDS OSA patients, were critically reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Bashu Dev Pardhe, Shreena Shakya, Anjeela Bhetwal, Jennifer Mathias, Puspa Raj Khanal, Roshan Pandit, Jyotsna Shakya, Hari Om Joshi, Sujan Babu Marahatta
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is mutually and bidirectionally linked with metabolic syndrome (MetS) of which it is both the cause and the consequences. Worldwide, 6.3 to 33% of the general populations are estimated to suffer from the disease with even higher prevalence in the group sharing metabolic co-morbidities. Hence, this study aims to recognize various risk factors including metabolic components and blood parameters to predict the possible incidence of the disease...
July 6, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Brenda W J H Penninx, Sjors M M Lange
Psychiatric patients have a greater risk of premature mortality, predominantly due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Convincing evidence shows that psychiatric conditions are characterized by an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors including dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. This increased risk is present for a range of psychiatric conditions, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
March 2018: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Akos Koller, Annamaria Szenasi, Gabriella Dornyei, Nora Kovacs, Adam Lelbach, Imre Kovacs
In various metabolic diseases both the coronary circulation and cardiac metabolism are altered. Here we summarize the effects of a condition called hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) - which can develop due to genetic or environmental causes - on the function of coronary microvessels and heart. This metabolic disease is underappreciated, yet even mild or moderate elevation of plasma concentrations of homocystein (Hcy, plasma Hcy >16 M), a sulfur-containing amino acid produced via methionine metabolism) leads to coronary and peripheral artery and even venous vessel diseases, leading to vasomotor dysfunction and increased thrombosis, consequently increased morbidity and mortality...
June 25, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Francesco Ferraù, Márta Korbonits
Cushing's syndrome (CS), including visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes among its many manifestations, is "a model" of metabolic syndrome. Glucocorticoid (GC) excess, through a combination of effects on liver, muscle, adipose tissue and pancreas, increases gluconeogenesis and impairs insulin sensitivity, leading to carbohydrate abnormalities. Dyslipidemia is a common finding in CS as a consequence of GC-related increased lipolysis, lipogenesis and adipogenesis. CS patients experience typical changes in body composition, with fat redistribution resulting in accumulation of visceral adipose tissue...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Monica Centa, Kajsa E Prokopec, Manasa G Garimella, Katrin Habir, Lisa Hofste, Julian M Stark, Albert Dahdah, Chris A Tibbit, Konstantinos A Polyzos, Anton Gisterå, Daniel K Johansson, Nobuyo N Maeda, Göran K Hansson, Daniel F J Ketelhuth, Jonathan M Coquet, Christoph J Binder, Mikael C I Karlsson, Stephen Malin
OBJECTIVE: Dyslipidemia is a component of the metabolic syndrome, an established risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and is also observed in various autoimmune and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, there are limited opportunities to study the impact of acquired dyslipidemia on cardiovascular and immune pathology. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We designed a model system that allows for the conversion to a state of acute hyperlipidemia in adult life, so that the consequences of such a transition could be observed, through conditionally deleting APOE (apolipoprotein E) in the adult mouse...
June 7, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Theodora A Manolis, Antonis A Manolis, Antonis S Manolis
Psychiatric agents are among the most commonly prescribed medications. Despite the advent of newer generation agents, patients receiving them still experience cardiovascular (CV) side effects. However, these agents may have heterogeneous properties, calling for an individualized approach based on efficacy and also on the particular side effect profile of each specific agent. Proarrhythmic effects arising from drug-induced long-QT syndrome and consequent potentially life-threatening polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias in the form of torsade de pointes, the metabolic syndrome contributing to atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes, and drug-induced orthostatic hypotension raise major concerns...
January 1, 2018: Angiology
Kathryn E Ackerman, Bryan Holtzman, Katherine M Cooper, Erin F Flynn, Georgie Bruinvels, Adam S Tenforde, Kristin L Popp, Andrew J Simpkin, Allyson L Parziale
Low energy availability (EA) is suspected to be the underlying cause of both the Female Athlete Triad and the more recently defined syndrome, Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). The International Olympic Committee (IOC) defined RED-S as a syndrome of health and performance impairments resulting from an energy deficit. While the importance of adequate EA is generally accepted, few studies have attempted to understand whether low EA is associated with the health and performance consequences posited by the IOC...
June 2, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Iben Rix, Julie Steen Pedersen, Heidi Storgaard, Lise Lotte Gluud
PURPOSE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects about 25% of the population worldwide. NAFLD may be viewed as the hepatological manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome due to diabetes or obesity have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This narrative review describes cardiometabolic effects of antidiabetic drugs in NAFLD. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed and manually scanned bibliographies in trial databases and reference lists in relevant articles...
May 29, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Louise Lie, Laquita Brown, Terrence E Forrester, Jacob Plange-Rhule, Pascal Bovet, Estelle V Lambert, Brian T Layden, Amy Luke, Lara R Dugas
The greatest burden of cardiovascular disease is now carried by developing countries with cardiometabolic conditions such as metabolic syndrome, obesity and inflammation believed to be the driving force behind this epidemic. Dietary fiber is known to have protective effects against obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Considering the emerging prevalence of these cardiometabolic disease states across the epidemiologic transition, the objective of this study is to explore these associations of dietary fiber with cardiometabolic risk factors in four countries across the epidemiologic transition...
May 16, 2018: Nutrients
Arati Adhe-Rojekar, Mukund Ramchandra Mogarekar, Mohit Vijay Rojekar
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a collection of various interrelated risk factors that appear to have an impact as development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVDs). Epidemic of childhood and adolescent's obesity has increased interest in the metabolic syndrome (MS) due to the potential projection into adulthood. The prevalence of MS in adolescents has been estimated to be 6.7% in young adults and 4.2% in adolescents. We aimed to study the MetS in children and adolescents with respect to metabolic changes...
2018: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Sherry Robertson, Margo Mountjoy
The syndrome of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) is a clinical entity characterized by low energy availability, which can negatively affect the health and performance of both male and female athletes. The underlying mechanism of RED-S is an inadequacy of dietary energy to support optimal health and performance. This syndrome refers to impaired physiological function, including metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, and cardiovascular health, with psychological consequences that can either precede (through restrictive dietary habits) or result from RED-S...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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