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Battsetseg Batchuluun, Dana Al Rijjal, Kacey J Prentice, Judith A Eversley, Elena Burdett, Haneesha Mohan, Alpana Bhattacharjee, Erica P Gunderson, Ying Liu, Michael B Wheeler
Specific circulating metabolites have emerged as important risk factors for the development of diabetes. The acylcarnitines (acylCs) are a family of metabolites known to be elevated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and linked to peripheral insulin resistance. However, the effect of acylCs on pancreatic β-cell function is not well understood. Here, we profiled circulating acylCs in two diabetes cohorts: 1 ) women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 2 ) women with recent GDM who later developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), new-onset T2D, or returned to normoglycemia within a 2-year follow-up period...
May 2018: Diabetes
Jill J Leckey, Nolan J Hoffman, Evelyn B Parr, Brooke L Devlin, Adam J Trewin, Nigel K Stepto, James P Morton, Louise M Burke, John A Hawley
High-fat, low-carbohydrate (CHO) diets increase whole-body rates of fat oxidation and down-regulate CHO metabolism. We measured substrate utilization and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration to determine whether these adaptations are driven by high fat or low CHO availability. In a randomized crossover design, 8 male cyclists consumed 5 d of a high-CHO diet [>70% energy intake (EI)], followed by 5 d of either an isoenergetic high-fat (HFAT; >65% EI) or high-protein diet (HPRO; >65% EI) with CHO intake clamped at <20% EI...
January 17, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jian-Zhong Li, Hui Qu, Jian Wu, Fan Zhang, Zhi-Bo Jia, Jian-Yong Sun, Bo Lv, Yue Kang, Shu-Lin Jiang, Kai Kang
Adipose-tissue derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC)-based therapy is a promising option for patients with atherosclerotic conditions, including coronary artery disease. However, the potential differences in the metabolic characteristics between bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and ADSCs have remained to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to compare the metabolic profiles of BMSCs and ADSCs via liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. BMSCs and ADSCs obtained from elderly coronary heart disease patients were cultured, and after three passages, supernatants of each cell type were collected and systematically analysed...
January 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
F Han, L S Han, W J Ji, T Chen, F Xu, Y Wang, J Ye, W J Qiu, H W Zhang, Y Z Jiang, C Hou, X F Gu
Objective: To investigate the value of amniotic fluid metabolite detection by mass spectrometry combined with gene mutation analysis in the prenatal diagnosis of glutaric acidemia type Ⅰ (GA-Ⅰ). Method: From January 2009 to December 2016, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Genetic, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine carried out prenatal diagnosis for 24 cases of pregnant women with GA-Ⅰproband. 24 pregnant women without organic acidemia proband for conventional prenatal diagnosis at the same period were used as the control group...
July 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Paul E Minkler, Maria S K Stoll, Stephen T Ingalls, Charles L Hoppel
While selectively quantifying acylcarnitines in thousands of patient samples using UHPLC-MS/MS, we have occasionally observed unidentified branched-chain C8 acylcarnitines. Such observations are not possible using tandem MS methods, which generate pseudo-quantitative acylcarnitine "profiles". Since these "profiles" select for mass alone, they cannot distinguish authentic signal from isobaric and isomeric interferences. For example, some of the samples containing branched-chain C8 acylcarnitines were, in fact, expanded newborn screening false positive "profiles" for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD)...
April 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Michel van Schaardenburgh, Martin Wohlwend, Øivind Rognmo, Erney J R Mattsson
PURPOSE: Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease...
2016: PloS One
Kristi Bentler, Shaohui Zhai, Sara A Elsbecker, Georgianne L Arnold, Barbara K Burton, Jerry Vockley, Cynthia A Cameron, Sally J Hiner, Mathew J Edick, Susan A Berry
INTRODUCTION: There is limited understanding of relationships between genotype, phenotype and other conditions contributing to health in neonates with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) identified through newborn screening. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of comprehensive data from a cohort of 221 newborn-screened subjects identified as affected with MCADD in the Inborn Errors of Metabolism - Information System (IBEM-IS), a long term follow-up database of the Inborn Errors of Metabolism Collaborative, was performed...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, Cristiane Cecatto, Janaína Camacho da Silva, Alessandro Wajner, Kálita Dos Santos Godoy, Rafael Teixeira Ribeiro, Moacir Wajner
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of octanoic (OA), decanoic (DA) and cis-4-decenoic (cDA) acids, as well as by their carnitine by-products. Untreated patients present episodic encephalopathic crises and biochemical liver alterations, whose pathophysiology is poorly known. We investigated the effects of OA, DA, cDA, octanoylcarnitine (OC) and decanoylcarnitine (DC) on critical mitochondrial functions in rat brain and liver. DA and cDA increased resting respiration and diminished ADP- and CCCP-stimulated respiration and complexes II-III and IV activities in both tissues...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Peter Schönfeld, Georg Reiser
According to recent reports, systemic treatment of rats with methylpalmoxirate (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibitor) decreased peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain tissue. This was taken as evidence of mitochondrial β-oxidation in brain, thereby contradicting long-standing paradigms of cerebral metabolism, which claim that β-oxidation of activated fatty acids has minor importance for brain energy homeostasis. We addressed this controversy. Our experiments are the first direct experimental analysis of this question...
March 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Edward Ojuka, Brittany Andrew, Nicole Bezuidenhout, Siddiqah George, Gerald Maarman, Hlengiwe P Madlala, Amy Mendham, Prisca Ofure Osiki
Oxidation of fatty acids is a major source of energy in the heart, liver, and skeletal muscle. It can be measured accurately using respirometry in isolated mitochondria, intact cells, and permeabilized cells or tissues. This technique directly measures the rate of oxygen consumption or flux at various respiratory states when appropriate substrates, uncouplers, and inhibitors are used. Acylcarnitines such as palmitoylcarnitine or octanoylcarnitine are the commonly used substrates. The β-oxidation pathway is prone to feedforward inhibition resulting from accumulation of short-chain acyl-CoA and depletion of CoA, but inclusion of malate or carnitine prevents accumulation of these intermediaries and CoA depletion...
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Roanna S George, Stuart J Moat
BACKGROUND: The analysis of dried blood spots has been used routinely for newborn screening since the early 1970s, and the number of disorders screened has expanded substantially in recent years. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding minimum blood spot quality acceptance criteria for sample analysis. METHODS: Blood pools were spiked with phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, methionine, octanoylcarnitine, decanoylcarnitine, isovalerylcarnitine, glutarylcarnitine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and immunoreactive trypsinogen to concentrations at the analytical cutoffs used in UK screening protocols...
March 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Gwendolyn Gramer, Gisela Haege, Junmin Fang-Hoffmann, Georg F Hoffmann, Claus R Bartram, Katrin Hinderhofer, Peter Burgard, Martin Lindner
BACKGROUND: Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is included in many newborn screening programmes worldwide. In addition to the prevalent mutation c.985A>G in the ACADM gene, potentially mild mutations like c.199T>C are frequently found in screening cohorts. There is ongoing discussion whether this mutation is associated with a clinical phenotype. METHODS: In 37 MCADD patients detected by newborn screening, biochemical phenotype (octanoylcarnitine (C8), ratios of C8 to acetylcarnitine (C2), decanoylcarnitine (C10) and dodecanoylcarnitine (C12) at screening and confirmation) and clinical phenotype (inpatient emergency treatment, metabolic decompensations, clinical assessments, psychometric tests) were assessed in relation to genotype...
2015: JIMD Reports
Minjoo Kim, Saem Jung, Sang-Hyun Lee, Jong Ho Lee
Existing data on the association between being overweight and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk in adults are inconsistent. We prospectively and longitudinally investigated the effects of weight on arterial stiffness and plasma metabolites in middle-aged subjects (aged 40-55 years). A group of 59 individuals who remained within the range of overweight during repeated measurements over a 3-year period was compared with a control group of 59 normal weight subjects who were matched for age and gender...
2015: PloS One
Patricia L Hall, Angela Wittenauer, Arthur Hagar
Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a fatty acid oxidation disorder included on newborn screening (NBS) panels in many regions that have expanded to using tandem mass spectrometry for acylcarnitine screening. False positive (FP) screening results for MCAD deficiency have previously been linked to very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and those who are heterozygous for the common mutation, p.K324E. Previous studies have identified these causes of FP screens by sequencing residual dried blood spots...
December 2014: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Ulla Plenge, Signe Helbo, Marianne Kristensen, Peter Riis Andersen, Angela Fago, Bo Belhage, Flemming Dela, Jørn Wulff Helge
The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration and angiogenesis. Recombinant erythropoietin was administered by subcutaneous injections (5000 IU) in six healthy male volunteers (aged 21 ± 2 years; fat mass 18.5 ± 2.3%) over 8 weeks. The participants performed two graded cycle ergometer exercise tests before and after the intervention where VO2max and maximal fat oxidation were measured...
2015: Journal of Sports Sciences
Valerie Walker, Graham A Mills
Production of 2-pentanone, a methylketone, is increased in fasting ketotic humans. Its origin is unknown. We hypothesised that it is formed via β -oxidation of hexanoic acid by the peroxisomal pathway proposed for methylketone-producing fungi and yeasts. We used Penicillium roqueforti cultured on fat (margarine) to investigate 2-pentanone production. Headspace gas of incubates of the mould with a range of substrates was analysed using solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Consistent with the proposed pathway, 2-pentanone was formed from hexanoic acid, hexanoyl-CoA, hexanoylcarnitine, and ethyl-3-oxohexanoic acid but not from ethylhexanoic, 2-ethylhexanoic, octanoic, or myristic acids, octanoylcarnitine, or pentane...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
I Kancirova, M Jasova, M Murarikova, S Carnicka, Z Sumbalova, O Ulicna, O Vancova, I Waczulikova, A Ziegelhoffer, M Ferko
INTRODUCTION: Myocardium heavily depends on the oxidative generation of energy that requires involvement of functional mitochondria. These organelles were recently shown to participate also in the mechanisms of cardioprotection induced by ischemic preconditioning. Based on the previous findings of increased myocardial resistance to ischemia, it could be assumed that mitochondria and functional alterations in the respiratory chain might also be involved in the mechanisms of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIP)...
July 15, 2014: Cardiovascular Research
Evagelia C Laiakis, Tytus D Mak, Sebastien Anizan, Sally A Amundson, Christopher A Barker, Suzanne L Wolden, David J Brenner, Albert J Fornace
The emergence of the threat of radiological terrorism and other radiological incidents has led to the need for development of fast, accurate and noninvasive methods for detection of radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to extend radiation metabolomic biomarker discovery to humans, as previous studies have focused on mice. Urine was collected from patients undergoing total body irradiation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 4-6 h postirradiation (a single dose of 1...
April 2014: Radiation Research
Manuel Mai, Anke Tönjes, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Georg Martin Fiedler, Alexander Benedikt Leichtle
OBJECTIVE: The role of mitochondrial function in the complex pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not yet completely understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of short-, medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines as markers of mitochondrial function in volunteers with normal, impaired or diabetic glucose control. METHODS: Based on a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, 1019 studied subjects were divided into a group with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 636), isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG; n = 184), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 87) or type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 112)...
2013: PloS One
Réjane Morand, Massimiliano Donzelli, Manuel Haschke, Stephan Krähenbühl
Carnitine is an amino acid derivative that plays a key role in energy metabolism. Endogenous carnitine is found in its free form or esterified with acyl groups of several chain lengths. Quantification of carnitine and acylcarnitines is of particular interest for screening for research and metabolic disorders. We developed a method with online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to quantify carnitine and three acylcarnitines with different polarity (acetylcarnitine, octanoylcarnitine, and palmitoylcarnitine)...
November 2013: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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