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"Adenosine" AND "Emergency"

Zhen Wang, Gang Han, Qinghong Liu, Wenyuan Zhang, Jinshan Wang
Brain‑type glycogen phosphorylase (PYGB) is an enzyme that metabolizes glycogen, whose function is to provide energy for an organism in an emergency state. The present study purposed to investigate the role and mechanism of PYGB silencing on the growth and apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. A cell counting kit‑8 assay and flow cytometry were performed to determine the cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, respectively. Colorimetry was performed to analyze the activity of caspase‑3...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Minna Lahesmaa, Vesa Oikonen, Semi Helin, Pauliina Luoto, Mueez U Din, Alexander Pfeifer, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi A Virtanen
PURPOSE: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a potential target to combat obesity and diabetes, but novel strategies to activate BAT are needed. Adenosine and A2A receptor (A2AR) agonism activate BAT in rodents, and endogenous adenosine is released locally in BAT as a by-product of noradrenaline, but physiological data from humans is lacking. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of exogenous adenosine on human BAT perfusion, and to determine the density of A2ARs in human BAT in vivo for the first time, using PET/CT imaging...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Katarzyna Roszek, Magdalena Wujak
Extracellular purines, principally adenosine triphosphate and adenosine, are among the oldest evolutionary and widespread chemical messengers. The integrative view of purinergic signaling as a multistage coordinated cascade involves the participation of nucleotides/nucleosides, their receptors, enzymes metabolizing extracellular nucleosides and nucleotides as well as several membrane transporters taking part in the release and/or uptake of these molecules. In view of the emerging data, it is evident and widely accepted that an extensive network of diverse enzymatic activities exists in the extracellular space...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Cole E Ziegler, David M Painter, Joseph B Borawski, Raymond J Kim, Han W Kim, Alexander T Limkakeng
BACKGROUND: Stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has become increasingly used in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with symptoms concerning for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We hypothesized that CMR detects a number of alternative diagnoses (diagnoses other than ACS that could explain symptoms) and incidental findings in patients presenting to the ED for potential ACS. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled adult patients who presented to an academic ED from 2011 to 2015 for possible ACS and subsequently had an adenosine stress perfusion CMR as part of their diagnostic evaluation...
September 2018: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Tomasz Przygodzki, Nina Wolska, Marcin Talar, Dawid Polak, Magdalena Gapinska, Cezary Watala
INTRODUCTION: Thrombus formation in vitro in flow conditions and its visualization and quantification with the use of microscopy are widely utilized to evaluate activity of compounds with a potential antithrombotic activity. Visualization and quantification of thrombi can be performed with the use of wide-field or confocal microscopy. Acquiring reliable numerical data from wide-field microscopy images of objects which have a complex three-dimensional structure is strongly influenced by the methods used for image analysis...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Krishna Kumar Mohanan Nair, Narayanan Namboodiri, Hiren Kevadiya, Ajitkumar Valaparambil
A 25 year old lady presented with palpitation to the emergency department. Her pulse rate was 210 beats per minute. She was hemodynamically stable with a blood pressure of 100/60 mm Hg. 12 lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded during the presentation (Fig. 1) and rhythm strip (Fig. 2A) during administration of IV adenosine. What is the likely diagnosis?
July 2018: Journal of Electrocardiology
Dechun Huang, Hongliang Qian, Haishi Qiao, Wei Chen, Jan Feijen, Zhiyuan Zhong
INTRODUCTION: Bioresponsive nanogels with a crosslinked three-dimensional structure and an aqueous environment that undergo physical or chemical changes including swelling and dissociation in response to biological signals such as mild acidity, hyperthermia, enzymes, reducing agents, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) present in tumor microenvironments or inside cancer cells have emerged as an appealing platform for targeted drug delivery and cancer therapy...
July 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
P Netsch, S Elvers-Hornung, S Uhlig, H Klüter, V Huck, F Kirschhöfer, G Brenner-Weiß, K Janetzko, H Solz, P Wuchter, P Bugert, K Bieback
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising cell therapy candidates. Clinical application is considered safe. However, minor side effects have included thromboembolism and instant blood-mediated inflammatory reactions suggesting an effect of MSC infusion on hemostasis. Previous studies focusing on plasmatic coagulation as a secondary hemostasis step detected both procoagulatory and anticoagulatory activities of MSCs. We now focus on primary hemostasis and analyzed whether MSCs can promote or inhibit platelet activation...
July 4, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Seyeon Park, Seunghyun Ahn, Yujeong Shin, Yoonjung Yang, Chang H Yeom
There is an ongoing interest in cellular antioxidants and oxidants as well as cellular mechanisms underlying their effects. Several reports suggest that vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) functions as a pro-oxidant with selective toxicity against specific types of tumor cells. In addition, reduced glutathione plays an emerging role in reducing oxidative stress due to xenobiotic toxins such as metals and oxidants associated with diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. High-dose intravenous vitamin C and intravenous glutathione have been used as complementary, alternative, and adjuvant medicines...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Nithin Ramesh Iyer, Adrianus W G J Oomen, Raymond W Sy
A 53-year-old man presented with chest pain, palpitations and presyncope, without history of overt cardiac disease. The patient was alert. His heart rate was 206 beats per minute, and his blood pressure was 100/50 mm Hg. An intravenous bolus of amiodarone 150 mg was administered in the emergency department. His ECGs preamiodarone and postamiodarone are shown in figure 1. Echocardiography showed low-normal left ventricular systolic function.Figure 1(A) ECG of index arrhythmia. (B) ECG following amiodarone...
2018: Heart Asia
Jong-Gil Park, Se-Jin Jeong, Jinha Yu, Gyudong Kim, Lak Shin Jeong, Goo Taeg Oh
Cardiovascular diseases arising from atherosclerosis are the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Lipid-lowering agents have been developed in order to treat hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is increasing, indicating a need to identify novel therapeutic targets and develop new treatment agents. Adenosine receptors (ARs) are emerging as therapeutic targets in asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, ischemia, and inflammatory diseases...
June 25, 2018: BMB Reports
Daniele Andreini, Saima Mushtaq, Gianluca Pontone, Edoardo Conte, Jeroen Sonck, Carlos Collet, Marco Guglielmo, Andrea Baggiano, Daniela Trabattoni, Stefano Galli, Piero Montorsi, Cristina Ferrari, Franco Fabbiocchi, Stefano De Martini, Andrea Annoni, Maria Elisabetta Mancini, Alberto Formenti, Marco Magatelli, Marta Resta, Elisa Consiglio, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Cesare Fiorentini, Antonio L Bartorelli, Mauro Pepi
BACKGROUND: Recent studies demonstrated a significant improvement in the diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for the evaluation of in-stent restenosis (ISR). However, coronary stent assessment is still challenging, especially because of beam-hardening artifacts due to metallic stent struts and high atherosclerotic burden of non-stented segments. Adenosine-stress myocardial perfusion assessed by CT (CTP) recently demonstrated to be a feasible and accurate tool for evaluating the functional significance of coronary stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD)...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Inês Monteiro, Selena Vigano, Mohamed Faouzi, Isabelle Treilleux, Olivier Michielin, Christine Ménétrier-Caux, Christophe Caux, Pedro Romero, Laurence de Leval
Background: CD73 is an ectoenzyme involved in the production of adenosine. It exerts immunosuppressive and protumoral roles and has emerged as a potential immuno-oncology target. Results: CD73 expression was detected in TC in 54% of melanoma metastases, involving < 50% TC in the majority of the cases, with variable intensity. CD73 expression was significantly associated with a lower Breslow's depth of the primary lesion and was more frequent in patients having received prior non-surgical therapies...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Marçal Pastor-Anglada, Sandra Pérez-Torras
Since human Nucleoside Transporters (hNTs) were identified by their activity as transport systems, extensive work has been done to fully characterize them at the molecular and physiological level. Many efforts have been addressed to the identification of their selectivity for natural substrates and nucleoside analogs used to treat several diseases. hNTs belong to two different gene families, SLC28 and SLC29 , encoding human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporters (hCNTs) and human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters (hENTs), respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kunitoshi Shigeyasu, Yoshinaga Okugawa, Shusuke Toden, Jinsei Miyoshi, Yuji Toiyama, Takeshi Nagasaka, Naoki Takahashi, Masato Kusunoki, Tetsuji Takayama, Yasuhide Yamada, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara, Leilei Chen, Ajay Goel
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, a process mediated by adenosine deaminases that act on the RNA (ADAR) gene family, is a recently discovered epigenetic modification dysregulated in human cancers. However, the clinical significance and the functional role of RNA editing in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. We have systematically and comprehensively investigated the significance of the expression status of ADAR1 and of the RNA editing levels of antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1), one of the most frequently edited genes in cancers, in 392 colorectal tissues from multiple independent CRC patient cohorts...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
Shota Shibasaki, Masakazu Shimada
Evolution of cooperation has been one of the most important problems in sociobiology, and many researchers have revealed mechanisms that can facilitate the evolution of cooperation. However, most studies deal only with one cooperative behaviour, even though some organisms perform two or more cooperative behaviours. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum performs two cooperative behaviours in starvation: fruiting body formation and macrocyst formation. Here, we constructed a model that couples these two behaviours, and we found that the two behaviours are maintained because of the emergence of cyclic dominance, although cooperation cannot evolve if only either of the two behaviours is performed...
June 27, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Robert D Leone, Im-Meng Sun, Min-Hee Oh, Im-Hong Sun, Jiayu Wen, Judson Englert, Jonathan D Powell
Adenosine signaling via the A2a receptor (A2aR) is emerging as an important checkpoint of immune responses. The presence of adenosine in the inflammatory milieu or generated by the CD39/CD73 axis on tissues or T regulatory cells serves to regulate immune responses. By nature of the specialized metabolism of cancer cells, adenosine levels are increased in the tumor microenvironment and contribute to tumor immune evasion. To this end, small molecule inhibitors of the A2aR are being pursued clinically to enhance immunotherapy...
June 19, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Mateusz Adamiak, Magda Kucia, William Tse, Janina Ratajczak, Wieslaw Wiktor-Jedrzejczak
Innate immunity plays an important role in orchestrating the immune response, and the complement cascade (ComC) is a major component of this ancient defense system, which is activated by the classical-, alternative-, or mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathways. However, the MBL-dependent ComC-activation pathway has been somewhat underappreciated for many years; recent evidence indicates that it plays a crucial role in regulating the trafficking of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) by promoting their egress from bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood (PB)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Robert D Leone, Leisha A Emens
Immune checkpoint antagonists (CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1) and CAR T-cell therapies generate unparalleled durable responses in several cancers and have firmly established immunotherapy as a new pillar of cancer therapy. To extend the impact of immunotherapy to more patients and a broader range of cancers, targeting additional mechanisms of tumor immune evasion will be critical. Adenosine signaling has emerged as a key metabolic pathway that regulates tumor immunity. Adenosine is an immunosuppressive metabolite produced at high levels within the tumor microenvironment...
June 18, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Håkan Ashina, Henrik Winther Schytz, Messoud Ashina
Over the past three decades, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has emerged as a key molecule. Provocation experiments have demonstrated that intravenous CGRP infusion induces migraine-like attacks in migraine with and without aura patients. In addition, these studies have revealed a heterogeneous CGRP response, i.e., some migraine patients develop migraine-like attacks after CGRP infusion, while others do not. The role of CGRP in human migraine models has pointed to three potential sites of CGRP-induced migraine: (1) vasodilation via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and possibly cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP); (2) activation of trigeminal sensory afferents, and (3) modulation of deep brain structures...
June 13, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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