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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810615/detecting-serum-and-urine-metabolic-profile-changes-of-ccl4-liver-fibrosis-in-rats-at-12-weeks-based-on-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#1
Jiarong Gao, Xiu-Juan Qin, Hui Jiang, Jin-Feng Chen, Ting Wang, Ting Zhang, Shuang-Zhi Xu, Jun-Mei Song
Liver fibrosis is caused by liver injury induced by a number of chronic liver diseases, including schistosome infection, hepatitis infection, metabolic disease, alcoholism and cholestasis. The tissue damage occurring after injury or inflammation of the liver is a reversible lesion; however, liver fibrosis has become a worldwide problem and poses a threat to human health. The development of an effective drug for the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis is ongoing and uses information from different occurrences of liver fibrosis...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810230/a-novel-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-method-for-the-determination-of-underivatized-amino-acids-in-alimentary-supplements
#2
Thomas Themelis, Roberto Gotti, Rita Gatti
Amino acids playing important roles in metabolic processes are often included in dietary supplements whose use has largely expanded over the last 20 years not only in patients with particular deficiencies, but also in athletes and even common people that want to enrich their regular daily diet. In the present study, a bare silica Kinetex core-shell 2.6μm HILIC column was used for separation of some important hydrophilic amino acids and amino acids-like molecules i.e., aspartic acid, creatine, carnitine, arginine and the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), by optimizing the chromatographic conditions for their determination in complex alimentary supplements...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807823/dietary-supplementation-with-acetyl-l-carnitine-counteracts-age-related-alterations-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-dynamics-and-antioxidant-defenses-in-brain-of-old-rats
#3
Luigi Nicassio, Flavio Fracasso, Giuseppe Sirago, Clara Musicco, Anna Picca, Emanuele Marzetti, Riccardo Calvani, Palmiro Cantatore, Maria Nicola Gadaleta, Vito Pesce
We previously reported the ability of dietary supplementation with acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) to prevent age-related decreases of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and liver of old rats. Here, we investigate the effects of ALCAR supplementation in cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum of old rats by analyzing several parameters linked to mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial dynamics and antioxidant defenses. We measured the level of the coactivators PGC-1α and PGC-1β and of the factors regulating mitochondrial biogenesis, finding an age-related decrease of PGC-1β, whereas PGC-1α level was unvaried...
August 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807550/decreased-gene-expression-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-3-in-the-atrium-of-patients-with-new-onset-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-cardiac-perioperative-phase
#4
Yasushige Shingu, Takashi Yokota, Shingo Takada, Haruki Niwano, Tomonori Ooka, Hiroki Katoh, Tsuyoshi Tachibana, Suguru Kubota, Yoshiro Matsui
BACKGROUND: Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) frequently occurs after cardiac surgery. However, the mechanisms of POAF have not been fully elucidated. We aimed to examine whether pre-operative atrial gene expression related to cardiac metabolism is changed in patients with POAF. METHODS: Right atrial tissue was obtained during surgery from 38 patients who underwent cardiac surgery from 2013 to 2015. Atrial expression levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the following genes: glucose transporter type 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, fatty acid translocase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B, and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3)...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807226/liver-metabolomics-study-reveals-protective-function-of-phyllanthus-urinaria-against-ccl4-induced-liver-injury
#5
Qing Guo, Qian-Qian Zhang, Jia-Qing Chen, Wei Zhang, Hong-Cong Qiu, Zun-Jian Zhang, Bu-Ming Liu, Feng-Guo Xu
Phyllanthus Urinaria L. (PUL) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat hepatic and renal disorders. However, the mechanism of its hepatoprotective action is not fully understood. In the present study, blood biochemical indexes and liver histopathological changes were used to estimate the extent of hepatic injury. GC/MS and LC/MS-based untargeted metabolomics were used in combination to characterize the potential biomarkers associated with the protective activity of PUL against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats...
July 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804438/green-tea-extract-induces-genes-related-to-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-and-limits-weight-gain-in-high-energy-diet-fed-rat
#6
Li-Han Chen, Yi-Wen Chien, Chung-Tiang Liang, Ching-Hung Chan, Meng-Han Fan, Hui-Yu Huang
Background: A wealth of research has reported on the anti-obesity effects of green tea extract (GTE). Although browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been reported to attenuate obesity, no study has disclosed the effects of GTE on browning in Sprague Dawley rats. Objectives: The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of GTE on anti-obesity and browning, and their underlying mechanisms. Methods: Four groups of rats (n=10/group) were used including a normal diet with vehicle treatment, and a high-energy diet (HED) with vehicle or GTE by oral gavage at 77...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803762/apigenin-protects-against-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice-by-regulating-hepatic-cyp2e1-mediated-oxidative-stress-and-ppar%C3%AE-mediated-lipogenic-gene-expression
#7
Feng Wang, Jin-Cheng Liu, Rui-Jun Zhou, Xi Zhao, Mei Liu, Hua Ye, Mei-Lin Xie
Alcohol is a major cause of liver injury, and there are currently no ideal pharmacological reagents that can prevent or reverse this disease. Apigenin is one of the most common flavonoids present in numerous plants and has many beneficial effects. But whether or not apigenin may protect against alcohol-induced liver injury remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect and potential mechanisms. The experimental mice were given 56% erguotou wine or simultaneously given apigenin 150-300 mg/kg by gavage for 30 days...
August 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802113/l-carnitine-enhances-oocyte-maturation-and-improves-in%C3%A2-vitro-development-of-embryos-in-dromedary-camels-camelus-dromedaries
#8
Mohamed Fathi, K H El-Shahat
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine (LC) addition during either IVM or IVC on the developmental potential of camel oocytes. In Experiment 1; camel oocytes were matured in the absence (control) or presence of different concentrations of LC (0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, 0.75 mg and 1 mg/ml) for 30 h followed by in vitro fertilization and culture up to blastocyst stage. Our results demonstrated that oocytes treated with 0.5 mg/ml LC showed higher (P < 0.05) rates of maturation (74...
August 4, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801073/newborn-screening-for-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-ii-deficiency-using-c16-c18-1-c2-evaluation-of-additional-indices-for-adequate-sensitivity-and-lower-false-positivity
#9
Go Tajima, Keiichi Hara, Miyuki Tsumura, Reiko Kagawa, Satoshi Okada, Nobuo Sakura, Shinsuke Maruyama, Atsuko Noguchi, Tomonari Awaya, Mika Ishige, Nobuyuki Ishige, Ikuma Musha, Sayaka Ajihara, Akira Ohtake, Etsuo Naito, Yusuke Hamada, Tomotaka Kono, Tomoko Asada, Hideo Sasai, Toshiyuki Fukao, Ryoji Fujiki, Osamu Ohara, Ryosuke Bo, Kenji Yamada, Hironori Kobayashi, Yuki Hasegawa, Seiji Yamaguchi, Masaki Takayanagi, Ikue Hata, Yosuke Shigematsu, Masao Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II deficiency is one of the most common forms of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorder (FAOD). However, newborn screening (NBS) for this potentially fatal disease has not been established partly because reliable indices are not available. METHODS: We diagnosed CPT II deficiency in a 7-month-old boy presenting with hypoglycemic encephalopathy, which apparently had been missed in the NBS using C16 and C18:1 concentrations as indices...
July 31, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791854/l-carnitine-treatment-of-insulin-resistance-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Ying Xu, Wenjie Jiang, Guochang Chen, Wenjiao Zhu, Weiliang Ding, Zhijun Ge, Yongfei Tan, Tieliang Ma, Guoxing Cui
BACKGROUND: L-carnitine has been used for several years as an adjuvant therapy in oxidative stress, blood sugar, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), anemia, etc. However, the efficacy of L-carnitine treating insulin resistance (IR) remains controversial. Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) is widely used in the clinical evaluation of patients with IR. OBJECTIVES: A meta-analysis, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), was performed to assess the effect of L-carnitine on HOMA-IR patients...
March 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791846/serum-carnitine-and-acyl-carnitine-in-patients-with-meningitis-due-to-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-infection
#11
Alina Kępka, Roman M Janas, Sławomir A Pancewicz, Renata Świerzbińska
BACKGROUND: Hard ticks are the main vectors of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Free carnitine (FC) and acylcarnitines (AC) have the basic role in β-oxidation as well as the modulation of immune and nervous system. Homeostasis of carnitines in the TBE patients was not studied so far. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate FC and AC serum concentrations in patients with meningitis due to TBEV infection before and after 14 ± 3 days of treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed in 14 patients aged 48 ± 29 years that were divided a posteriori (based on their FC level before and after treatment) into 2 subgroups: 1-8 and 9-14...
March 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774846/inhibited-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-impairs-stress-resistance-ability-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#12
Han Pan, Ling-Yu Li, Jia-Min Li, Wei-Li Wang, Samwel Mchele Limbu, Pascal Degrace, Dong-Liang Li, Zhen-Yu Du
Energy metabolism plays important roles in stress resistance and immunity in mammals, however, such functions have not been established in fish. In the present study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was fed with mildronate, an inhibitor of mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation, for six weeks subsequently challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and ammonia nitrogen exposure. Mildronate treatment reduced significantly l-carnitine concentration and mitochondrial FA β-oxidation efficiency, while it increased lipid accumulation in liver...
July 31, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774370/-recurrent-anorexia-and-pigmentation-of-skin-for-more-than-two-months-in-an-infant
#13
Zhang-Qian Zheng, Bing-Bing Wu, Miao-Ying Zhang, Wei Lu, Fei-Hong Luo
A 2-month-old boy presented with adrenal insufficiency, impaired liver function, hypertriglyceridemia, significantly elevated creatine kinase and electrolyte disturbance. Microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis test showed a pathogenic 8.7 Mb deletion in the short arm of chromosome X (Xp21.3 - p21.1) and confirmed the diagnosis of complex glycerol kinase deficiency (cGKD). He was treated with hydrocortisone, coenzyme Q10 and L-carnitine and was subsequently followed up for 4 years. His serum cortisol levels returned to normal one week later after treatment, but the serum creatine kinase, triglyceride and aminotransferase levels were progressively increased along with mental retardation and decreased muscular strength...
August 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774367/-myocardial-protective-effect-of-l-carnitine-in-children-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-caused-by-coxsackie-a16-virus
#14
Ya-Jie Cui, Chun-Lan Song, Fang Chen, Peng Li, Yi-Bing Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the myocardial protective effect of L-carnitine in children with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by Coxsackie A16 virus and possible mechanisms. METHODS: A total of 60 HFMD children with abnormal myocardial enzyme after Coxsackie A16 virus infection were enrolled and randomly divided into L-carnitine group and fructose-1,6-diphosphate group (fructose group), with 30 children in each group. The two groups were given L-carnitine or fructose diphosphate in addition to antiviral and heat clearance treatment...
August 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772033/associations-between-acylcarnitine-to-free-carnitine-ratio-and-adverse-prognosis-in-heart-failure-patients-with-reduced-or-preserved-ejection-fraction
#15
Akiomi Yoshihisa, Shunsuke Watanabe, Tetsuro Yokokawa, Tomofumi Misaka, Takamasa Sato, Satoshi Suzuki, Masayoshi Oikawa, Atsushi Kobayashi, Yasuchika Takeishi
AIMS: The failing heart is accompanied by disturbed energy metabolism with mitochondrial dysfunction. Carnitine transports fatty acids into mitochondria for β-oxidation. Decreased myocardial carnitine levels accompanied by increased plasma carnitine levels in heart failure (HF) have been reported. The plasma acylcarnitine to free carnitine ratio (AC/FC) is recognized as a marker of carnitine deficiency. We aimed to investigate the impact of the AC/FC on HF prognosis, taking into consideration differences between HF patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and those with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)...
August 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771840/influence-of-l-carnitine-and-l-arginine-on-protein-synthesis-and-maturation-of-the-semitendinosus-muscle-of-lightweight-piglets
#16
J G Madsen, E Seoni, M Kreuzer, P Silacci, G Bee
Lightweight (LW) piglets from large litters display impaired growth performance compared with heavier littermates. This study investigated the growth performance and muscle development of early-weaned LW piglets (birthweight <1.2 kg) from large litters (17.3 ± 3.0 total born per litter), fed ad libitum a milk replacer supplemented with either l-carnitine (CAR) or l-arginine (ARG) from day 7 to day 28 of age. In total, 36 female and entire male Swiss Large White piglets, weaned on day 7 of age, were artificially reared in pairs in rescue decks...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770317/mitochondrial-h-atp-synthase-in-human-skeletal-muscle-contribution-to-dyslipidaemia-and-insulin-resistance
#17
Laura Formentini, Alexander J Ryan, Manuel Gálvez-Santisteban, Leslie Carter, Pam Taub, John D Lapek, David J Gonzalez, Francisco Villarreal, Theodore P Ciaraldi, José M Cuezva, Robert R Henry
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Mitochondria are important regulators of the metabolic phenotype in type 2 diabetes. A key factor in mitochondrial physiology is the H(+)-ATP synthase. The expression and activity of its physiological inhibitor, ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1), controls tissue homeostasis, metabolic reprogramming and signalling. We aimed to characterise the putative role of IF1 in mediating skeletal muscle metabolism in obesity and diabetes. METHODS: We examined the 'mitochondrial signature' of obesity and type 2 diabetes in a cohort of 100 metabolically characterised human skeletal muscle biopsy samples...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768996/functional-expression-of-organic-ion-transporters-in-astrocytes-and-their-potential-as-a-drug-target-in-the-treatment-of-central-nervous-system-diseases
#18
Tomomi Furihata, Naohiko Anzai
It has become widely acknowledged that astrocytes play essential roles in maintaining physiological central nervous system (CNS) activities. Astrocytes fulfill their roles partly through the manipulation of their plasma membrane transporter functions, and therefore these transporters have been regarded as promising drug targets for various CNS diseases. A representative example is excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), which works as a critical regulator of excitatory signal transduction through its glutamate uptake activity at the tripartite synapse...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768995/physiological-roles-of-carnitine-organic-cation-transporter-octn1-slc22a4-in-neural-cells
#19
Noritaka Nakamichi, Yukio Kato
Dysfunction in neurotransmission mediated by neurotransmitters causes various neurological disorders. Therefore, receptors and reuptake transporters of neurotransmitters have been focused on as a therapeutic target in neurological disorders. These membrane proteins have high affinity for a specific neurotransmitter and are highly expressed on synaptic membranes. In contrast, xenobiotic transporters have relatively lower affinity for neurotransmitters but widely recognize various organic cations and/or anions and are also expressed in brain neurons...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768106/development-of-high-capacity-enterosorbents-for-aflatoxin-b1-and-other-hazardous-chemicals
#20
Meichen Wang, Cody R Maki, Youjun Deng, Yanan Tian, Timothy D Phillips
Previously, a calcium montmorillonite clay (NovaSil) included in diet of animals has been shown to bind aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) and reduce the symptoms of aflatoxicosis. To investigate and improve the capacity and efficacy of clay-based materials as aflatoxin sorbents, we developed and tested calcium and sodium montmorillonite clays amended with nutrients including L-carnitine and choline. Also we determined the sorption of AfB1 by isothermal analysis and tested the ability of these amended sorbents to protect adult hydra from AfB1 toxicity...
August 2, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
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