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Mark F McCarty, James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio
Background: Glutathione is a key scavenging antioxidant that opposes the proinflammatory signaling of hydrogen peroxide. Boosting cellular glutathione levels may have broad utility in the prevention and treatment of disorders driven by oxidative stress. Supplemental N-acetylcysteine has been employed for this purpose. Could supplemental glycine likewise promote glutathione synthesis? Methods: We conducted a review of the pertinent literature using PubMed. Results: Tissue glycine levels are lower than the glutathione synthase Michaelis constant (Km ) for glycine...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Luke MacMillan, Garrett Tingley, Sara K Young, Kathy A Clow, Edward W Randell, Margaret E Brosnan, John T Brosnan
Background: Formate is produced in mitochondria via the catabolism of serine, glycine, dimethylglycine, and sarcosine. Formate produced by mitochondria may be incorporated into the cytosolic folate pool where it can be used for important biosynthetic reactions. Previous studies from our lab have shown that cobalamin deficiency results in increased plasma formate concentrations. Objective: Our goal was to determine the basis for elevated formate in vitamin B-12 deficiency...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Fatemeh Safa Shams Abyaneh, Mahboube Eslami Moghadam, Adeleh Divsalar, Davood Ajloo, Moyaed Hosaini Sadr
Methylglycine, also known sarcosine, is dramatically used in drug molecules and its metal complexes can interact to DNA and also do cleavage. Hence, to study the influence of methylglycine ligand on biological behavior of metal complexes, two water-soluble platinum (II) complexes with the formula cis-[Pt(NH3 )2 (CH3 -gly)]NO3 and cis-[Pt(NH2 -CH3 )2 (CH3 -gly)]NO3 (where CH3 -gly is methylglycine) have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods, molar conductivity measurements, and elemental analyzes...
March 8, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Xin-Yuan Jiang, Ling Zhang, Yi-Li Liu, Xiao-Dong Yu, Yan-Yu Liang, Peng Qu, Wei-Wei Zhao, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
In this study, on the basis of hierarchical CuInS2 -based heterostructure, a novel cathodic photoelectrochemical (PEC) enzymatic bioanalysis of the sarcosine detection was reported. Specifically, heterostructured CuInS2 /NiO/ITO photocathode was prepared and sarcosine oxidases (SOx) were integrated for the construction of the enzymatic biosensor. In the bioanalysis, the O2 -dependent suppression of the cathodic photocurrent can be observed due to the competition between the as-fabricated O2 -sensitive photocathode and the SOx-catalytic event toward O2 reduction...
February 15, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Katerina Duskova, Stepan Vesely, Joana DO Carmo Silva, Natalia Cernei, Ondrej Zitka, Zbynek Heger, Vojtech Adam, Klara Havlova, Marek Babjuk
BACKGROUND: Insufficient specificity and invasiveness of currently used diagnostic methods raises the need for new markers of urological tumors. The aim of this study was to find a link between the urinary excretion of amino acids and the presence of urological tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using ion-exchange chromatography, we tested urine samples of patients with prostate cancer (n=30), urinary bladder cancer (n=28), renal cell carcinoma (n=16) and healthy volunteers (control group; n=21)...
March 2018: In Vivo
Francis Berthias, Belkis Maatoug, Gary L Glish, Fathi Moussa, Philippe Maitre
Due to their central role in biochemical processes, fast separation and identification of amino acids (AA) is of importance in many areas of the biomedical field including the diagnosis and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism and biomarker discovery. Due to the large number of AA together with their isomers and isobars, common methods of AA analysis are tedious and time-consuming because they include a chromatographic separation step requiring pre- or post-column derivatization. Here, we propose a rapid method of separation and identification of sarcosine, a biomarker candidate of prostate cancer, from isomers using differential ion mobility spectrometry (DIMS) interfaced with a tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) instrument...
February 21, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Ioline D Henter, Rafael Teixeira de Sousa, Carlos A Zarate
Both preclinical and clinical studies have implicated glutamatergic system dysfunction in the pathophysiology of mood disorders such as bipolar depression and major depressive disorder. In particular, rapid reductions in depressive symptoms have been noted in response to subanesthetic doses of the glutamatergic modulator ketamine in subjects with major depressive disorder or bipolar depression. These results have prompted the repurposing or development of other glutamatergic modulators, both as monotherapy or adjunctive to other therapies...
February 20, 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Emmanuel S Burgos, Ryan O Walters, Derek M Huffman, David Shechter
Methyltransferases use S -adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to deposit methyl marks. Many of these epigenetic 'writers' are associated with gene regulation. As cancer etiology is highly correlated with misregulated methylation patterns, methyltransferases are emerging therapeutic targets. Successful assignment of methyltransferases' roles within intricate biological networks relies on (1) the access to enzyme mechanistic insights and (2) the efficient screening of chemical probes against these targets. To characterize methyltransferases in vitro and in vivo , we report a highly-sensitive one-step deaminase-linked continuous assay where the S -adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) enzyme-product is rapidly and quantitatively catabolized to S -inosyl-l-homocysteine (SIH)...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Arushi Prakash, Marcel D Baer, Christopher J Mundy, Jim Pfaendtner
Peptoids are peptide-mimetic biopolymers that are easy-to-synthesize and adaptable for use in drugs, chemical scaffolds, and coatings. However, there is insufficient information about their structural preferences and interactions with the environment in various applications. We conducted a study to understand the fundamental differences between peptides and peptoids using molecular dynamics simulations with semi-empirical (PM6) and empirical (AMBER) potentials, in conjunction with metadynamics enhanced sampling...
February 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Yinzhu Wang, Si-Yuan Ji, Heng-Yu Xu, Wei Zhao, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
A selective excitation of [Ir(df-ppy)2(pic)] and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ through tuning electrode potential is reported in this work. Bidirectional color change from blue-green to red could be observed along with increase and decrease of the potential, which was ascribed to the dual-potential excitation property of [Ir(df-ppy)2(pic)]. Similar to three-electrode system, selective excitation of ECL could be achieved at the anode of bipolar electrode (BPE). Both increase and decrease of the faradic reactions at the cathode of the BPE could induce ECL reporting color at the other pole switched from blue-green to red...
February 8, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Dominik Strzelecki, Małgorzata Urban-Kowalczyk, Adam Wysokiński
OBJECTIVE: Augmentation of sarcosine, a natural inhibitor of the glycine transporter type I, normalizes glutamatergic neurotransmission, having beneficial impact on primary negative symptoms in schizophrenia and may also influence immune system and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels. AIM: Finding a relationship between initial IL-6 serum concentrations or its changes and severity of symptoms as a result of sarcosine addition to stable antipsychotic treatment. METHOD: Fifity-eight individuals with schizophrenia with predominantly negative symptoms completed a 6-month randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled prospective study...
February 7, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Qingbiao Xu, Zhixuan Liu, Hongyun Liu, Fengqi Zhao, Xinbei Huang, Yueming Wu, Jianxin Liu
Background: It is well known that peptides play a vital role in the nutrition and health of dairy cows. Bovine oligopeptide transporter 1 (bPepT1) is involved in the peptide transport process in the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cows. However, little information is known in the characteristics of bPepT1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize bPepT1 functionally using a mammalian cell expression system. The uptake of radiolabeled dipeptide glycyl-sarcosine ([3H]-Gly-Sar) into the bPepT1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells was measured at various pH and substrate concentrations and with or without 15 other small peptides that contained Met or Lys...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Kensuke Kurihara, Motoki Ueda, Isao Hara, Eiichi Ozeki, Kaori Togashi, Shunsaku Kimura
Polymeric micelle of the A₃B-type lactosome comprising (poly(sarcosine))₃-b-poly(l-lactic acid) was labeled with 111In. The 111In-labeled A₃B-type lactosome was administered to the model mice bearing meningeal dissemination and bone metastasis at mandible. With single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, the meningeal dissemination was identified successfully by 111In-labeled A₃B-type lactosome, which was superior to 201TlCl in regard of the imaging contrast. The 111In-labeled A₃B-type lactosome was also potential in imaging selectively of bone metastasis at mandible, whilst a nonspecific imaging of the whole bone was obtained by the SPECT imaging using 99mTc-HMDP...
January 31, 2018: Nanomaterials
H J Rogier Hoenders, Agna A Bartels-Velthuis, Nina K Vollbehr, Richard Bruggeman, Henderikus Knegtering, Joop T V M de Jong
Patients with psychotic disorders regularly use natural medicines, although it is unclear whether these are effective and safe. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of evidence for improved outcomes by natural medicines. A systematic literature search was performed through Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane until May 2015. In 110 randomized controlled trials, evidence was found for glycine, sarcosine, N-acetylcysteine, some Chinese and ayurvedic herbs, ginkgo biloba, estradiol, and vitamin B6 to improve psychotic symptoms when added to antipsychotics...
February 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Elsa Ghirardini, Simon L Wadle, Vanessa Augustin, Jasmin Becker, Sina Brill, Julia Hammerich, Gerald Seifert, Jonathan Stephan
Neuronal inhibition is mediated by glycine and/or GABA. Inferior colliculus (IC) neurons receive glycinergic and GABAergic inputs, whereas inhibition in hippocampus (HC) predominantly relies on GABA. Astrocytes heterogeneously express neurotransmitter transporters and are expected to adapt to the local requirements regarding neurotransmitter homeostasis. Here we analyzed the expression of inhibitory neurotransmitter transporters in IC and HC astrocytes using whole-cell patch-clamp and single-cell reverse transcription-PCR...
January 25, 2018: Molecular Brain
Ling Lin, Lina Sun, Farman Ali, Zhuang Guo, Liang Zhang, Wenxiong Lin, Xiangmin Lin
In Gram-negative bacteria, the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) perform a crucial role in antibiotic resistance, but it is largely unknown how they behave in response to antibiotic stress. In this study, we treated Aeromonas hydrophila with two different doses of oxytetracycline (OXY) to induce antibiotic stress. Proteins were isolated from sarcosine-insoluble fractions and quantitatively examined by using tandem mass tag labeling-based mass spectrometry to identify differentially expressed proteins. As a result, we identified 125 differential proteins in the 5 μg/ml OXY treatment group, including 20 OMPs, and 150 proteins from the 10 μg/ml OXY group, including 22 OMPs...
January 22, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Matthew S MacLennan, Miranda G M Kok, Laiel Soliman, Alan So, Antonio Hurtado-Coll, David D Y Chen
Targeted and untargeted analyses of the sub-5 kDa urine metabolome of genitourinary cancer patients (prostate and/or bladder) were performed without chemical derivatization using capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS). For targeted analysis, endogenous levels of sarcosine and 5 other amino acid metabolites implicated in the progression of prostate cancer were quantified in four patients and in a pooled urine sample from healthy volunteers. An untargeted analysis (m/z 50 to 850) of patient urine was performed using the same CE-ESI-MS system identifying over 400 distinct molecular features per patient...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Paul H Yancey, Ben Speers-Roesch, Sheila Atchinson, James D Reist, Andrew R Majewski, Jason R Treberg
Accumulation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) by deep-sea animals is proposed to protect proteins against the destabilizing effects of high hydrostatic pressure (the piezolyte hypothesis). Chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimaeras) provide a unique test of this hypothesis because shallow-living species have elevated TMAO levels to counteract the destabilizing effects of high urea levels accumulated for osmoregulation. Limited interspecific studies of chondrichthyans reveal that increasing depth correlates with decreased urea and increased TMAO levels, suggesting a dynamic balance between destabilizing forces on proteins (high urea, hydrostatic pressure) and TMAO to counteract these forces...
March 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
A S Axambayeva, L R Zhaparova, Zh S Shagyrova, E M Ramankulov, A V Shustov
Tyrosinases catalyze oxidation of phenols with a formation of biphenols, quinones, and highly polymerized melanins. Tyrosinases have prospects for industrial use to remove phenols, also in biosensors, in bioorganic synthesis, and for a production of biocompatible adhesives (medical glues). Despite growing fields of potential applications, a selection of commercially available tyrosinases are currently limited to a single enzyme which is isolated from fruiting bodies of mushrooms. This article describes a preparation of recombinant tyrosinase from a bacterium Verrucomicrobium spinosum using a heterologous expression in Escherichia coli...
January 6, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Mahshid Hamzehloueian, Zakieh Davari
The molecular mechanism of the [3+2] cycloaddition (32CA) reaction of an azomethine ylide, generated in situ from isatin and sarcosine, with benzo-imidazol-2-yl-3-phenylacrylonitrile have been theoretically studied by using DFT at the B3LYP and M06-2X levels of theory. This reaction takes place through an asynchronous one-step mechanism. Analysis of the global electron density transfer (GEDT) indicates that this 32CA has a polar character. The regiochemistry of this reaction was investigated using Parr functions analysis, as well as HSAB principle and potential energy surface analysis, where the results are in agreement with the experimental observations...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
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