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Yuetao Liu, Wenqian Xu, GuoHong Wang, Xuemei Qin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Huangqi Jianzhong Tang (HQJZ), a celebrated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is commonly used for treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) in China. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to screen out the material basis of HQJZ against CAG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CAG rat model was constructed by alternant administrations of ammonia solution and sodium deoxycholate, and the hunger disorder method. Body weight, biochemical indexes and histopathological exam were used to evaluate the efficacy of HQJZ...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Khalid Shahin, Kim D Thompson, Neil F Inglis, Kevin Mclean, Jose Gustavo Ramirez-Paredes, Sean J Monaghan, Rowena Hoare, Michael Fontaine, Matthijs Metselaar, Alexandra Adams
AIMS: The aims of the current study were to characterise the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) STIR-GUS-F2f7, and identify proteins recognised by sera from tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (L) that survived experimental challenge with Fno. METHODS AND RESULTS: The composition of the OMPs of a virulent strain of Fno (STIR-GUS- F2f7), isolated from diseased red Nile tilapia in UK, was examined. The sarcosine-insoluble OMP fraction was screened with tilapia hyper-immune sera by western blot analysis following separation of the proteins by 1D SDS-PAGE...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Junior Gonzales, Naga Venkata Satya Dinesh Kumar Bhupathiraju, Daniel Hart, Man Yuen, Maria Pia Sifuentes, Bleron Samarxhiu, Mark Maranan, Naxhije Berisha, James Batteas, Charles Michael Drain
Chlorins have unique photophysical properties that are exploited in diverse biological and materials applications. De novo chlorin synthesis with specific exocyclic motifs can be challenging and many are not stable to photobleaching and/or oxidation. A facile approach to a stable synthetic chlorin with a fused N-methyl pyrrolidine uses cyclo addition of a sarcosine-based azomethine ylide on 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin (TPPF20) is reported, but this approach has limitations. We report the synthesis of stable chlorin scaffolds starting with TPPF20 using a new glycine-based N-(hydroxymethyl)-N-methelenemethanideaminium ylide...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Hai He, Christian Edlich Muth, Steffen N Lindner, Arren Bar-Even
The ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) cycle is a highly efficient route for the assimilation of reduced one-carbon compounds. Despite considerable research, the RuMP cycle has not been fully implemented in model biotechnological organisms such as Escherichia coli, mainly since the heterologous establishment of the pathway requires addressing multiple challenges: sufficient formaldehyde production, efficient formaldehyde assimilation, and sufficient regeneration of the formaldehyde acceptor - ribulose 5-phosphate...
May 14, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Meng Wang, Lihui Zou, Jing Liang, Xin Wang, Dalei Zhang, Yuan Fang, Junhua Zhang, Fei Xiao, Ming Liu
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the urinary sarcosine/creatinine ratio in the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer, using a sarcosine oxidase assay. MATERIAL AND METHODS Urine samples were obtained from 203 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 209 patients with prostate cancer. Levels of urinary sarcosine were measured using the sarcosine oxidase method. The urinary sarcosine/creatinine ratios were compared between the group of patients with BPH and the patients with prostate cancer...
May 9, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Federico M Flores, Rosa M Torres Sánchez, Maria Dos Santos Afonso
The most worldwide used herbicide is glyphosate, phosphonomethylglycine (PMG). Consequently, a significant amount of PMG, its metabolites (sarcosine, SAR, and aminomethylphosphonic acid, AMPA) and the degradation product, methylphosphonic acid (MPA), reaches the soil, which acts as final sink. Because clays are one of the most reactive components of soils, expansive clays such as montmorillonite (Mt) are used to retain agriculture contaminants with some success. In this work, as a preliminary step for the evaluation of the risk that PMG, SAR, AMPA, and MPA occurrence could have on the environment, their adsorption on Mt surface was performed...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
John P Gleeson, Jesús M Frías, Sinéad M Ryan, David J Brayden
The tripeptides, Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) and Leu-Lys-Pro (LKP), inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) resulting in lowered blood pressure. Our hypothesis was that the medium chain fatty acid permeation enhancer, sodium caprate (C10 ), may prevent the decrease in permeability of the tripeptides when PepT1 is inhibited by glycyl-sarcosine (Gly-Sar), a situation that may occur in the presence of food hydrolysates. Using Caco-2 monolayers and isolated rat jejunal tissue, the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp ) of [3 H]-IPP and [3 H]-LKP were assessed in the presence of Gly-Sar with and without C10 ...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Na-Na Sun, Bing Yan
A novel luminescent probe based on a Tb3+/Cu2+ heterometallic metal-organic framework (MOF) was first designed for beamed monitoring of urinary sarcosine, a differential metabolite that can indicate the progression of prostate cancer (PCa). The fluorescent probe presented high selectivity towards sarcosine in urine. It also displayed good sensitivity with a comparatively low detection limit and a fast response to sarcosine within 5 min. Moreover, such high selectivity and sensitivity towards sarcosine is not subject to interference from other coexisting species in urine...
April 19, 2018: Analyst
Hakuto Kageyama, Yoshito Tanaka, Teruhiro Takabe
Betaine (trimethylglycine) is an important compatible solute that accumulates in response to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity. Biosynthetic pathways of betaine have been extensively studied, but it remains to be clarified on algae. A diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana CCMP1335 is an important component of marine ecosystems. Here we show that the genome sequence of Thalassiosira suggests the presence of two biosynthetic pathways for betaine, via three step methylation of glycine and via two step oxidation of choline...
March 30, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Vinay Narwal, Parveen Kumar, Pooja Joon, C S Pundir
An amperometric sarcosine biosensor was fabricated based on covalent immobilization of sarcosine oxidase (SarOx) onto the nanocomposite of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNT)/chitosan (CHIT) and copper nanoparticles (CuNPs), electrodeposited on gold (Au) electrode. The SarOx/CHIT/CuNPs/c-MWCNT/Au electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The enzyme electrode exhibited optimum current within 2 s at a potential of 0...
June 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Tiziana Cappello, Alessia Giannetto, Vincenzo Parrino, Giuseppe De Marco, Angela Mauceri, Maria Maisano
Seafood is a valuable component of human diet because of its nutritional properties. The Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus is a scombroid fish highly appreciated as seafood worldwide. Being a top pelagic predator, concerns have been raised over human health risks due to its consumption. Therefore, herein it was comprehensively evaluated the health status and potential metabolite shifts between sexes of bluefin tuna from the Mediterranean Sea, proved to bioaccumulate environmental obesogens, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at hepatic level...
March 27, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Dalibor Pacik, Mariana Plevova, Lucie Urbanova, Zuzana Lackova, Vladislav Strmiska, Alois Necas, Zbynek Heger, Vojtech Adam
The hypothesis that dogs can detect malignant tumours through the identification of specific molecules is nearly 30 years old. To date, several reports have described the successful detection of distinct types of cancer. However, is still a lack of data regarding the specific molecules that can be recognized by a dog's olfactory apparatus. Hence, we performed a study with artificially prepared, well-characterized urinary specimens that were enriched with sarcosine, a widely reported urinary biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa)...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mark F McCarty, James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio
Background: Glutathione is a key scavenging antioxidant that opposes the proinflammatory signaling of hydrogen peroxide. Boosting cellular glutathione levels may have broad utility in the prevention and treatment of disorders driven by oxidative stress. Supplemental N-acetylcysteine has been employed for this purpose. Could supplemental glycine likewise promote glutathione synthesis? Methods: We conducted a review of the pertinent literature using PubMed. Results: Tissue glycine levels are lower than the glutathione synthase Michaelis constant (Km ) for glycine...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Luke MacMillan, Garrett Tingley, Sara K Young, Kathy A Clow, Edward W Randell, Margaret E Brosnan, John T Brosnan
Background: Formate is produced in mitochondria via the catabolism of serine, glycine, dimethylglycine, and sarcosine. Formate produced by mitochondria may be incorporated into the cytosolic folate pool where it can be used for important biosynthetic reactions. Previous studies from our lab have shown that cobalamin deficiency results in increased plasma formate concentrations. Objective: Our goal was to determine the basis for elevated formate in vitamin B-12 deficiency...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Fatemeh Safa Shams Abyaneh, Mahboube Eslami Moghadam, Adeleh Divsalar, Davood Ajloo, Moyaed Hosaini Sadr
Methylglycine, also known sarcosine, is dramatically used in drug molecules and its metal complexes can interact to DNA and also do cleavage. Hence, to study the influence of methylglycine ligand on biological behavior of metal complexes, two water-soluble platinum (II) complexes with the formula cis-[Pt(NH3 )2 (CH3 -gly)]NO3 and cis-[Pt(NH2 -CH3 )2 (CH3 -gly)]NO3 (where CH3 -gly is methylglycine) have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods, molar conductivity measurements, and elemental analyzes...
March 8, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Xin-Yuan Jiang, Ling Zhang, Yi-Li Liu, Xiao-Dong Yu, Yan-Yu Liang, Peng Qu, Wei-Wei Zhao, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
In this study, on the basis of hierarchical CuInS2 -based heterostructure, a novel cathodic photoelectrochemical (PEC) enzymatic bioanalysis of the sarcosine detection was reported. Specifically, heterostructured CuInS2 /NiO/ITO photocathode was prepared and sarcosine oxidases (SOx) were integrated for the construction of the enzymatic biosensor. In the bioanalysis, the O2 -dependent suppression of the cathodic photocurrent can be observed due to the competition between the as-fabricated O2 -sensitive photocathode and the SOx-catalytic event toward O2 reduction...
June 1, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Katerina Duskova, Stepan Vesely, Joana DO Carmo Silva, Natalia Cernei, Ondrej Zitka, Zbynek Heger, Vojtech Adam, Klara Havlova, Marek Babjuk
BACKGROUND: Insufficient specificity and invasiveness of currently used diagnostic methods raises the need for new markers of urological tumors. The aim of this study was to find a link between the urinary excretion of amino acids and the presence of urological tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using ion-exchange chromatography, we tested urine samples of patients with prostate cancer (n=30), urinary bladder cancer (n=28), renal cell carcinoma (n=16) and healthy volunteers (control group; n=21)...
March 2018: In Vivo
Francis Berthias, Belkis Maatoug, Gary L Glish, Fathi Moussa, Philippe Maitre
Due to their central role in biochemical processes, fast separation and identification of amino acids (AA) is of importance in many areas of the biomedical field including the diagnosis and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism and biomarker discovery. Due to the large number of AA together with their isomers and isobars, common methods of AA analysis are tedious and time-consuming because they include a chromatographic separation step requiring pre- or post-column derivatization. Here, we propose a rapid method of separation and identification of sarcosine, a biomarker candidate of prostate cancer, from isomers using differential ion mobility spectrometry (DIMS) interfaced with a tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) instrument...
April 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Ioline D Henter, Rafael Teixeira de Sousa, Carlos A Zarate
Both preclinical and clinical studies have implicated glutamatergic system dysfunction in the pathophysiology of mood disorders such as bipolar depression and major depressive disorder. In particular, rapid reductions in depressive symptoms have been noted in response to subanesthetic doses of the glutamatergic modulator ketamine in subjects with major depressive disorder or bipolar depression. These results have prompted the repurposing or development of other glutamatergic modulators, both as monotherapy or adjunctive to other therapies...
February 20, 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Emmanuel S Burgos, Ryan O Walters, Derek M Huffman, David Shechter
Methyltransferases use S -adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to deposit methyl marks. Many of these epigenetic 'writers' are associated with gene regulation. As cancer etiology is highly correlated with misregulated methylation patterns, methyltransferases are emerging therapeutic targets. Successful assignment of methyltransferases' roles within intricate biological networks relies on (1) the access to enzyme mechanistic insights and (2) the efficient screening of chemical probes against these targets. To characterize methyltransferases in vitro and in vivo , we report a highly-sensitive one-step deaminase-linked continuous assay where the S -adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) enzyme-product is rapidly and quantitatively catabolized to S -inosyl-l-homocysteine (SIH)...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
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