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Sarcosine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903454/effects-of-frequently-used-pharmaceutical-excipients-on-the-organic-cation-transporters-1-3-and-peptide-transporters-1-2-stably-expressed-in-mdckii-cells
#1
Marcus Otter, Stefan Oswald, Werner Siegmund, Markus Keiser
There is ample evidence that pharmaceutical excipients, which are supposed to be pharmacologically inactive, have an impact on drug metabolism and efflux transport. So far, little is known whether they also modulate uptake transporter proteins. We have recently shown that commonly used solubilizing agents exert significant effects on the function of organic anion uptake transporting polypeptides. Therefore, we investigated in this study the influence of frequently used pharmaceutical excipients on the transport activity of organic cation transporters OCT1, OCT2 and OCT3 and the peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2...
November 26, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902449/is-n-n-dimethylglycine-n-oxide-a-choline-and-betaine-metabolite
#2
Michael Lever, Christopher J McEntyre, Peter M George, Stephen T Chambers
Choline metabolism is by oxidation to betaine, which is demethylated to N,N-dimethylglycine; dimethylglycine is oxidatively demethylated to sarcosine. This pathway is important for osmoregulation and as a source of methyl groups. We asked whether another metabolite was involved. We synthesized the N-oxide of dimethylglycine (DMGO) by oxidizing dimethylglycine with peracetic acid, and measured DMGO in human plasma and urine by HPLC-MS/MS with positive ion detection, using two chromatography procedures, based on ion exchange and HILIC separations...
November 30, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877876/enhanced-cellular-uptake-of-lactosomes-using-cell-penetrating-peptides
#3
Akiya Akahoshi, Eiji Matsuura, Eiichi Ozeki, Hayato Matsui, Kazunori Watanabe, Takashi Ohtsuki
Polymeric micelles that are composed of synthetic polymers are generally size controllable and can be easily modified for various applications. Lactosomes (A3B-type) are biodegradable polymeric micelles composed of an amphipathic polymer, including three poly(sarcosine) blocks and a poly(l-lactic acid) block. Lactosomes accumulate in tumors in vivo through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, even on frequently administering them. However, lactosomes cannot be efficiently internalized by cells...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866805/detergent-assisted-ultrasonication-aided-in-situ-transesterification-for-biodiesel-production-from-oleaginous-yeast-wet-biomass
#4
Sravan Kumar Yellapu, Rajwinder Kaur, Rajeshwar D Tyagi
In situ transesterification of oleaginous yeast wet biomass for fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) production using acid catalyst, methanol with or without N-Lauroyl sarcosine (N-LS) treatment was performed. The maximum FAMEs yield obtained with or without N-LS treatment in 24h reaction time was 96.1±1.9 and 71±1.4% w/w, respectively. The N-LS treatment of biomass followed by with or without ultrasonication revealed maximum FAMEs yield of 94.3±1.9% and 82.9±1.8% w/w using methanol to lipid molar ratio 360:1 and catalyst concentration 360mM (64μL H2SO4/g lipid) within 5 and 25min reaction time, respectively...
November 9, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830380/recovery-of-pan-genotypic-and-genotype-specific-amino-acid-alterations-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-after-viral-clearance-transition-at-the-crossroad-of-metabolism-and-immunity
#5
Ming-Ling Chang, Mei-Ling Cheng, Su-Wei Chang, Hsiang-Yu Tang, Cheng-Tang Chiu, Chau-Ting Yeh, Ming-Shi Shiao
Recovery of amino acid (AA) metabolism and the associated clinical implications in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with sustained virological response (SVR) following anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy remains elusive. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 222 CHC patients with SVR. Eighty-two age-matched male genotype 1 (G1) and G2 patients underwent paired serum metabolomics analyses with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to examine AAs before and 24 weeks after anti-HCV therapy. Before anti-HCV therapy, G1 patients had a higher HCV RNA level than G2 patients...
November 10, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824899/sarcosine-up-regulates-expression-of-genes-involved-in-cell-cycle-progression-of-metastatic-models-of-prostate-cancer
#6
Zbynek Heger, Miguel Angel Merlos Rodrigo, Petr Michalek, Hana Polanska, Michal Masarik, Vitezslav Vit, Mariana Plevova, Dalibor Pacik, Tomas Eckschlager, Marie Stiborova, Vojtech Adam
The effects of sarcosine on the processes driving prostate cancer (PCa) development remain still unclear. Herein, we show that a supplementation of metastatic PCa cells (androgen independent PC-3 and androgen dependent LNCaP) with sarcosine stimulates cells proliferation in vitro. Similar stimulatory effects were observed also in PCa murine xenografts, in which sarcosine treatment induced a tumor growth and significantly reduced weight of treated mice (p < 0.05). Determination of sarcosine metabolism-related amino acids and enzymes within tumor mass revealed significantly increased glycine, serine and sarcosine concentrations after treatment accompanied with the increased amount of sarcosine dehydrogenase...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816567/efficacy-and-safety-of-adjunctive-bitopertin-versus-placebo-in-patients-with-suboptimally-controlled-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-treated-with-antipsychotics-results-from-three-phase-3-randomised-double-blind-parallel-group-placebo-controlled-multicentre-studies
#7
Dragana Bugarski-Kirola, Nakao Iwata, Snjezana Sameljak, Carol Reid, Thomas Blaettler, Laurie Millar, Tiago Reis Marques, George Garibaldi, Shitij Kapur
BACKGROUND: Many patients with schizophrenia require high doses of medication for their ongoing psychotic symptoms. Glutamate theories and findings from studies showing efficacy of sarcosine, an endogenous, non-selective glycine-reuptake inhibitor mediated by GlyT1, offer an alternative approach. We undertook the SearchLyte trial programme to examine the efficacy of bitopertin, a selective GlyT1-mediated glycine-reuptake inhibitor, as an adjunctive treatment to ongoing antipsychotic treatment...
December 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775977/epidemiology-and-co-reactivity-of-novel-surfactant-allergens-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-study
#8
Katherine R Grey, Jamie L Hanson, Solveig L Hagen, Sara A Hylwa, Erin M Warshaw
BACKGROUND: Surfactants are cleansing agents used in products such as shampoos and soaps. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to identify positivity rates to 3 novel amide-containing surfactants (sodium lauroyl sarcosinate, isostearamidopropyl morpholine lactate, and disodium lauroamphodiacetate) and evaluate co-reactivity with other surfactants in patients with known surfactant sensitivity. METHODS: Previously patch-tested, surfactant-positive patients were identified via chart review and invited to participate...
November 2016: Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771051/enhanced-oral-delivery-of-bisphosphonate-by-novel-absorption-enhancers-improvement-of-intestinal-absorption-of-alendronate-by-n-acyl-amino-acids-and-n-acyl-taurates-and-their-absorption-enhancing-mechanisms
#9
Yuka Nakaya, Mayu Takaya, Yuta Hinatsu, Tammam Alama, Kosuke Kusamori, Hidemasa Katsumi, Toshiyasu Sakane, Akira Yamamoto
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are carbon-substituted pyrophosphate analogs that exhibit a high affinity to hydroxyapatite and specifically inhibit bone resorption. Alendronate sodium (sodium 4-amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate trihydrate) is a typical BP compound in clinical use. BPs have very low bioavailability, typically <1% after their oral administration, and their intestinal absorption is further reduced by co-administered drugs or food. In this study, we examined the effects of N-acyl amino acids and N-acyl taurates on the small intestinal absorption of alendronate...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760404/an-improved-non-denaturing-method-for-the-purification-of-spiralin-the-main-membrane-lipoprotein-of-the-pathogenic-bacteria-spiroplasma-melliferum
#10
Yann Desfougères, Jean-Michel Poitou, Henri Wróblewski, Laure Béven
Spiralin is the most abundant protein of several species of spiroplasmas, helical, motile bacteria pathogenic for arthropods and plants. This amphiphilic protein is anchored to the outer face of the plasma membrane by a lipoylated N-terminal cysteine. Although spiroplasma pathogenicity in mammals is controversial, it was shown that spiralin is highly immunogenic and endowed with immunomodulatory activity. In this paper, we describe a high performance method for the purification of Spiroplasma melliferum spiralin under non-denaturing conditions...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739310/-glycine-n-methyltransferase-and-malignant-diseases-of-the-prostate
#11
Z Heger, T Eckschlager, M Stiborová, V Adam
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) constitutes a heterogeneous group of diseases with high prevalence rates that are still increasing, particularly in western countries. Since 1980, prostate specific antigen (PSA) and other diagnostic approaches have been used for PC screening; however, some of these approaches are often deemed painful and cause invasive damage of tissue. Therefore, molecular approaches to PC diagnosis are attracting increasing attention, potentially providing patients with less stressful situations and providing better diagnoses and even prognostic information...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734207/consecutive-hydrolysis-of-creatinine-using-creatininase-and-creatinase-encapsulated-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-spores
#12
Jun Kong, Zijie Li, Huijie Zhang, Xiao-Dong Gao, Hideki Nakanishi
OBJECTIVES: To achieve consecutive conversion from creatinine to urea and sarcosine using creatininase and creatinase encapsulated in spores of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: Creatininase encapsulated into the spore wall was produced and its specific activity was 3.4 ± 0.4 U/mg. By deletion of OSW2 gene, which causes a mild spore wall defect, the activity was increased to 10.9 ± 0.5 U/mg. Compared with soluble enzymes, spore-encapsulated creatininase was tolerant to environmental stresses; creatininase encapsulated in osw2∆ spores retained more than 90 % of the activity after treatment by SDS or proteinase K...
October 12, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730746/distinct-metabolic-profile-of-inhaled-budesonide-and-salbutamol-in-asthmatic-children-during-acute-exacerbation
#13
Yang Quan-Jun, Zhang Jian-Ping, Zhang Jian-Hua, Han Yong-Long, Xin Bo, Zhang Jing-Xian, Dai Bona, Zhang Yuan, Guo Cheng
Inhaled budesonide and salbutamol represent the most important and frequently used drugs in asthmatic children during acute exacerbation. However, there is still no consensus about their resulting metabolic derangements; thus, the present study was conducted to determine the distinct metabolic profiles of these two drugs. A total of 69 children with asthma during acute exacerbation were included, and their serum and urine were investigated using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A metabolomics analysis was performed using a principal component analysis and orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares using SIMCA-P...
October 12, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723168/immune-activation-with-peptide-assemblies-carrying-lewis-y-tumor-associated-carbohydrate-antigen
#14
Yuji Yamazaki, Naoki Watabe, Hiroaki Obata, Eri Hara, Masashi Ohmae, Shunsaku Kimura
Molecular assemblies varying morphologies in a wide range from spherical micelle, nanosheet, curved sheet, nanotube and vesicle were prepared and loaded with Lewis y (Le(y) ) tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen on the assembly surface. The molecular assemblies were composed of poly(sarcosine)m -block-poly(L-lactic acid)30 (m = 15 or 50, Lactosome), poly(sarcosine)m -block-(D/L-Leu-Aib)n (m = 22 or 30, n = 6 or 8) and their combinations. The molecular assemblies carrying Le(y) on the surface were administered in BALB/c nu/nu mice...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715010/combined-measurement-of-6-fat-soluble-vitamins-and-26-water-soluble-functional-vitamin-markers-and-amino-acids-in-50-%C3%A2%C2%B5l-of-serum-or-plasma-by-high-throughput-mass-spectrometry
#15
Øivind Midttun, Adrian McCann, Ove Aarseth, Marit Krokeide, Gry Kvalheim, Klaus Meyer, Per Magne Ueland
Targeted metabolic profiling characterized by complementary platforms, multiplexing and low volume consumption are increasingly used for studies using biobank material. Using liquid-liquid extraction, we developed a sample workup suitable for quantification of 6 fat- and 26 water-soluble biomarkers. 50μL of serum/plasma was mixed with dithioerythritol, ethanol and isooctane/chloroform. The organic layer was used for analysis of the fat-soluble vitamins all-trans retinol (A), 25-hydroxyvitamin D2, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, α-tocopherol (E), γ-tocopherol (E) and phylloquinone (K1) by LC-MS/MS...
October 7, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687968/a-facile-stereoselective-synthesis-of-dispiro-indeno-pyrrolidine-pyrrolothiazole-thiochroman-hybrids-and-evaluation-of-their-antimycobacterial-anticancer-and-ache-inhibitory-activities
#16
Chelliah Bharkavi, Sundaravel Vivek Kumar, Mohamed Ashraf Ali, Hasnah Osman, Shanmugam Muthusubramanian, Subbu Perumal
A facile stereoselective synthesis of novel dispiro indeno pyrrolidine/pyrrolothiazole-thiochroman hybrids has been achieved by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides, generated in situ from ninhydrin and sarcosine/thiaproline, on a series of 3-benzylidenethiochroman-4-ones. The synthesised compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial, anticancer and AchE inhibition activities. Compound 4l (IC50 1.07μM) has been found to exhibit the most potent antimycobacterial activity compared to cycloserine (12 times), pyrimethamine (37 times) and ethambutol (IC50 <1...
September 19, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646588/prostate-tumor-attenuation-in-the-nu-nu-murine-model-due-to-anti-sarcosine-antibodies-in-folate-targeted-liposomes
#17
Zbynek Heger, Hana Polanska, Miguel Angel Merlos Rodrigo, Roman Guran, Pavel Kulich, Pavel Kopel, Michal Masarik, Tomas Eckschlager, Marie Stiborova, Rene Kizek, Vojtech Adam
Herein, we describe the preparation of liposomes with folate-targeting properties for the encapsulation of anti-sarcosine antibodies (antisarAbs@LIP) and sarcosine (sar@LIP). The competitive inhibitory effects of exogenously added folic acid supported the role of folate targeting in liposome internalization. We examined the effects of repeated administration on mice PC-3 xenografts. Sar@LIP treatment significantly increased tumor volume and weight compared to controls treated with empty liposomes. Moreover, antisarAbs@LIP administration exhibited a mild antitumor effect...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624073/reduced-immune-response-to-polymeric-micelles-coating-sialic-acids
#18
Masashi Ohmae, Mei Kojima, Kenta Mihara, Yuji Yamazaki, Isao Hara, Eri Hara, Shunsaku Kimura
Effects of sialic acid coatings on polymeric micelle consisting of poly(sarcosine)-block-poly(l-lactic acid) (Lactosome) in the aim of prevention of the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon are studied. Two kinds of the sialic acid-presenting Lactosomes targeting the immunosuppressive receptors of Siglec-G and CD22 have been successfully prepared. Lactosome presenting 5-N-acetylneuraminic acid or 5-N-acetylneuraminyl-α(2→6)-galactosyl-β(1→4)-N-acetylglucosamine at the nanocarrier surface diminished the ABC phenomenon due to the reduction of the anti-poly(sarcosine) IgM production...
October 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612708/potentiometric-sensor-fabrication-having-2d-sarcosine-memories-and-analytical-features
#19
Ebru Birlik Özkütük, Sibel Emir Diltemiz, Şeyma Avcı, Deniz Uğurağ, Rabia Berna Aykanat, Arzu Ersöz, Rıdvan Say
In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method based on novel molecular imprinted polymeric sensor has been developed and validated for the determination of prostate cancer metabolite biomarker. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been synthesized by emulsion polymerization, using sarcosine as template molecule, methacryloylamido histidine (MAH) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linking agent. The performance of the developed sarcosine sensor has been evaluated, and the results have indicated that a sensitive potentiometric sensor has been fabricated...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597516/tracking-biochemical-changes-correlated-with-ultra-weak-photon-emission-using-metabolomics
#20
Rosilene Cristina Rossetto Burgos, Kateřina Červinková, Tom van der Laan, Rawi Ramautar, Eduard P A van Wijk, Michal Cifra, Slavik Koval, Ruud Berger, Thomas Hankemeier, Jan van der Greef
Ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) is light emitted spontaneously by biological systems without the use of specific luminescent complexes. UPE is emitted in the near-UV/UV-Vis/near-IR spectra during oxidative metabolic reactions; however, the specific pathways involved in UPE remain poorly understood. Here, we used HL-60 cells, a human promyelocytic cell line that is often used to study respiratory burst, as a model system to measure UPE kinetics together with metabolic changes. HL-60 cells were differentiated into neutrophil-like cells by culturing in all-trans-retinoic acid for 7days...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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