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Yann Desfougères, Jean-Michel Poitou, Henri Wróblewski, Laure Béven
Spiralin is the most abundant protein of several species of spiroplasmas, helical, motile bacteria pathogenic for arthropods and plants. This amphiphilic protein is anchored to the outer face of the plasma membrane by a lipoylated N-terminal cysteine. Although spiroplasma pathogenicity in mammals is controversial, it was shown that spiralin is highly immunogenic and endowed with immunomodulatory activity. In this paper, we describe a high performance method for the purification of Spiroplasma melliferum spiralin under non-denaturing conditions...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Z Heger, T Eckschlager, M Stiborová, V Adam
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) constitutes a heterogeneous group of diseases with high prevalence rates that are still increasing, particularly in western countries. Since 1980, prostate specific antigen (PSA) and other diagnostic approaches have been used for PC screening; however, some of these approaches are often deemed painful and cause invasive damage of tissue. Therefore, molecular approaches to PC diagnosis are attracting increasing attention, potentially providing patients with less stressful situations and providing better diagnoses and even prognostic information...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Jun Kong, Zijie Li, Huijie Zhang, Xiao-Dong Gao, Hideki Nakanishi
OBJECTIVES: To achieve consecutive conversion from creatinine to urea and sarcosine using creatininase and creatinase encapsulated in spores of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: Creatininase encapsulated into the spore wall was produced and its specific activity was 3.4 ± 0.4 U/mg. By deletion of OSW2 gene, which causes a mild spore wall defect, the activity was increased to 10.9 ± 0.5 U/mg. Compared with soluble enzymes, spore-encapsulated creatininase was tolerant to environmental stresses; creatininase encapsulated in osw2∆ spores retained more than 90 % of the activity after treatment by SDS or proteinase K...
October 12, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Yang Quan-Jun, Zhang Jian-Ping, Zhang Jian-Hua, Han Yong-Long, Xin Bo, Zhang Jing-Xian, Dai Bona, Zhang Yuan, Guo Cheng
Inhaled budesonide and salbutamol represent the most important and frequently used drugs in asthmatic children during acute exacerbation. However, there is still no consensus about their resulting metabolic derangements; thus, the present study was conducted to determine the distinct metabolic profiles of these two drugs. A total of 69 children with asthma during acute exacerbation were included, and their serum and urine were investigated using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A metabolomics analysis was performed using a principal component analysis and orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares using SIMCA-P...
October 12, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Yuji Yamazaki, Naoki Watabe, Hiroaki Obata, Eri Hara, Masashi Ohmae, Shunsaku Kimura
Molecular assemblies varying morphologies in a wide range from spherical micelle, nanosheet, curved sheet, nanotube and vesicle were prepared and loaded with Lewis y (Le(y) ) tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen on the assembly surface. The molecular assemblies were composed of poly(sarcosine)m -block-poly(L-lactic acid)30 (m = 15 or 50, Lactosome), poly(sarcosine)m -block-(D/L-Leu-Aib)n (m = 22 or 30, n = 6 or 8) and their combinations. The molecular assemblies carrying Le(y) on the surface were administered in BALB/c nu/nu mice...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Øivind Midttun, Adrian McCann, Ove Aarseth, Marit Krokeide, Gry Kvalheim, Klaus Meyer, Per Magne Ueland
Targeted metabolic profiling characterized by complementary platforms, multiplexing and low volume consumption are increasingly used for studies using biobank material. Using liquid-liquid extraction, we developed a sample workup suitable for quantification of 6 fat- and 26 water-soluble biomarkers. 50μL of serum/plasma was mixed with dithioerythritol, ethanol and isooctane/chloroform. The organic layer was used for analysis of the fat-soluble vitamins all-trans retinol (A), 25-hydroxyvitamin D2, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, α-tocopherol (E), γ-tocopherol (E) and phylloquinone (K1) by LC-MS/MS...
October 7, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Chelliah Bharkavi, Sundaravel Vivek Kumar, Mohamed Ashraf Ali, Hasnah Osman, Shanmugam Muthusubramanian, Subbu Perumal
A facile stereoselective synthesis of novel dispiro indeno pyrrolidine/pyrrolothiazole-thiochroman hybrids has been achieved by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides, generated in situ from ninhydrin and sarcosine/thiaproline, on a series of 3-benzylidenethiochroman-4-ones. The synthesised compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial, anticancer and AchE inhibition activities. Compound 4l (IC50 1.07μM) has been found to exhibit the most potent antimycobacterial activity compared to cycloserine (12 times), pyrimethamine (37 times) and ethambutol (IC50 <1...
September 19, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Zbynek Heger, Hana Polanska, Miguel Angel Merlos Rodrigo, Roman Guran, Pavel Kulich, Pavel Kopel, Michal Masarik, Tomas Eckschlager, Marie Stiborova, Rene Kizek, Vojtech Adam
Herein, we describe the preparation of liposomes with folate-targeting properties for the encapsulation of anti-sarcosine antibodies (antisarAbs@LIP) and sarcosine (sar@LIP). The competitive inhibitory effects of exogenously added folic acid supported the role of folate targeting in liposome internalization. We examined the effects of repeated administration on mice PC-3 xenografts. Sar@LIP treatment significantly increased tumor volume and weight compared to controls treated with empty liposomes. Moreover, antisarAbs@LIP administration exhibited a mild antitumor effect...
2016: Scientific Reports
Masashi Ohmae, Mei Kojima, Kenta Mihara, Yuji Yamazaki, Isao Hara, Eri Hara, Shunsaku Kimura
Effects of sialic acid coatings on polymeric micelle consisting of poly(sarcosine)-block-poly(l-lactic acid) (Lactosome) in the aim of prevention of the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon are studied. Two kinds of the sialic acid-presenting Lactosomes targeting the immunosuppressive receptors of Siglec-G and CD22 have been successfully prepared. Lactosome presenting 5-N-acetylneuraminic acid or 5-N-acetylneuraminyl-α(2→6)-galactosyl-β(1→4)-N-acetylglucosamine at the nanocarrier surface diminished the ABC phenomenon due to the reduction of the anti-poly(sarcosine) IgM production...
October 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Ebru Birlik Özkütük, Sibel Emir Diltemiz, Şeyma Avcı, Deniz Uğurağ, Rabia Berna Aykanat, Arzu Ersöz, Rıdvan Say
In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method based on novel molecular imprinted polymeric sensor has been developed and validated for the determination of prostate cancer metabolite biomarker. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been synthesized by emulsion polymerization, using sarcosine as template molecule, methacryloylamido histidine (MAH) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linking agent. The performance of the developed sarcosine sensor has been evaluated, and the results have indicated that a sensitive potentiometric sensor has been fabricated...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Rosilene Cristina Rossetto Burgos, Kateřina Červinková, Tom van der Laan, Rawi Ramautar, Eduard P A van Wijk, Michal Cifra, Slavik Koval, Ruud Berger, Thomas Hankemeier, Jan van der Greef
Ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) is light emitted spontaneously by biological systems without the use of specific luminescent complexes. UPE is emitted in the near-UV/UV-Vis/near-IR spectra during oxidative metabolic reactions; however, the specific pathways involved in UPE remain poorly understood. Here, we used HL-60 cells, a human promyelocytic cell line that is often used to study respiratory burst, as a model system to measure UPE kinetics together with metabolic changes. HL-60 cells were differentiated into neutrophil-like cells by culturing in all-trans-retinoic acid for 7days...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Ana Rita Lima, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Márcia Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among men in Western countries. Current screening techniques are based on the measurement of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels and digital rectal examination. A decisive diagnosis of PCa is based on prostate biopsies; however, this approach can lead to false-positive and false-negative results. Therefore, it is important to discover new biomarkers for the diagnosis of PCa, preferably noninvasive ones...
August 2016: Translational Oncology
Kuang-Ti Chen, Ching-Hsiang Wu, Mang-Hung Tsai, Ya-Chieh Wu, Ming-Jia Jou, Chih-Chia Huang, I-Hua Wei
Sarcosine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor enhancer, can improve depression-like behavior in rodent models and depression in humans. We found that a single dose of sarcosine exerted antidepressant-like effects with rapid concomitant increases in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway activation and enhancement of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor (AMPAR) membrane insertion. Sarcosine may play a crucial role in developing novel therapy for depression. For a detailed understanding of sarcosine, this study examined the effects of long-term sarcosine treatment on the forced swim test (FST), mTOR signaling, and AMPAR membrane insertion in rats...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Guangmang Liu, Wei Cao, Tingting Fang, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Caimei Wu, Jing Wang
Glutamine and N-carbamylglutamate can enhance growth performance and health in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of glutamine and N-carbamylglutamate supplementation in rat metabolism. Thirty rats were fed a control, glutamine, or N-carbamylglutamate diet for four weeks. Urine samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics, specifically high-resolution ¹H NMR metabolic profiling combined with multivariate data analysis...
2016: Nutrients
Glendon D McLachlan, Babak Gandjian, Hind Alhumaidan
The folding of a recombinant spider silk protein-polymer in the presence of the tri-methylamine osmolytes TMANO and Betaine in 80% H2 O is reported. Circular dichroism measurements (CD) reveal an increase in α-helical secondary structure with increasing osmolyte concentrations, as determined by an increase in ellipticity at 222 nm. Consistent with this observation, the signal for random coil sampling, observed at 205 nm, is greatly reduced with increasing trimethylamine. Fluorescence spectra of a single tyrosine positioned within the conserved 33-amino acid repeat primary sequence (of the spider-silk mimetic) complements the conformational changes observed by CD...
October 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Jaspal Singh, Satya Prakash Shukla, Tanvi J Desai, D Gomika Udugamasooriya
We previously reported a unique peptide-peptoid hybrid, PPS1 that specifically recognizes lipid-phosphatidylserine (PS) and a few other negatively charged phospholipids, but not neutral phospholipids, on the cell membrane. The dimeric version of PPS1, i.e., PPS1D1 triggers strong cancer cell cytotoxicity and has been validated in lung cancer models both in vitro and in vivo. Given that PS and other negatively charged phospholipids are abundant in almost all tumor microenvironments, PPS1D1 is an attractive drug lead that can be developed into a globally applicable anti-cancer agent...
September 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Junjie Fu, Amy Xia, Yao Dai, Xin Qi
Discovering molecules capable of binding to HIV trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA thereby disrupting its interaction with Tat protein is an attractive strategy for developing novel antiviral drugs. Computational docking is considered as a useful tool for predicting binding affinity and conducting virtual screening. Although great progress in predicting protein-ligand interactions has been achieved in the past few decades, modeling RNA-ligand interactions is still largely unexplored due to the highly flexible nature of RNA...
July 19, 2016: Current HIV Research
Guoxiao Guo, Zhikuan He, Zhaohui Shi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and function of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) in gastric cancer using a rat model. A total of 92 Wistar rats were divided into two groups: An experimental group (n=46) and a control group (n=46). In the experimental group, sarcosine ethyl ester hydrochloride and sodium nitrite carcinogens were administered for 6 months to induce gastric cancer, whereas the control group was administered saline. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and western blotting were applied to analyze FOXP3 expression in gastric cancer and normal gastric tissue in the experimental and control groups, respectively...
August 2016: Oncology Letters
Ruu-Fen Tzang, Yue-Cune Chang, Guochuan E Tsai, Hsien-Yuan Lane
Methylphenidate, a stimulant that activates dopaminergic and noradrenergic function, is an important agent in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sarcosine, a glycine transporter-1 inhibitor, may also play a role in treating ADHD by modulating the glutamatergic neurotransmission system through activating N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptors. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of sarcosine in treating children with ADHD. We conducted a six-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial...
October 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Takuya Uchikawa, Toshihiro Kanno, Isao Maruyama, Nobuko Mori, Akira Yasutake, Yuji Ishii, Hideyuki Yamada
Methylmercury (MeHg) is gradually changed to inorganic Hg after demethylation in animal tissues, and a selective quantification of inorganic Hg in the tissues is necessary to detect the reaction. We detected inorganic Hg formation in liver and kidney of mouse as early as 24 hr after MeHg injection. As an example of biological demethylation, the cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated N-demethylation of drugs has been well documented, and formaldehyde was detected as a reaction product. Here we incubated mouse liver homogenate with added MeHg and observed a dose-dependent production of formaldehyde, as well as inorganic Hg formation...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
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