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Ian Diner, Tram Nguyen, Nicholas T Seyfried
In this study, we describe an abbreviated single-step fractionation protocol for the enrichment of detergent-insoluble protein aggregates from human postmortem brain. The ionic detergent N-lauryl-sarcosine (sarkosyl) effectively solubilizes natively folded proteins in brain tissue allowing the enrichment of detergent-insoluble protein aggregates from a wide range of neurodegenerative proteinopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion diseases...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tsukasa Mori, Yukio Yanagisawa, Yoichiro Kitani, Goshi Yamamoto, Naoko Goto-Inoue, Tadashi Kimura, Keiko Kashiwagi, Akihiko Kashiwagi
Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity is the ability of prey to adapt to their native predator. However, owing to environmental changes, encounters with unknown predators are inevitable. Therefore, study of prey and non-native predator interaction will reveal the primary stages of adaptive strategies in prey-predator interactions in the context of evolutionary processes. Here, Xenopus tadpoles exposed to a non-native predator, a larval salamander, showed a significant increase in body weight and tail length to body length ratio...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
Cheol Joo Kim, Eri Hara, Naoki Watabe, Isao Hara, Shunsaku Kimura
Poly(sarcosine) displayed on polymeric micelle is reported to trigger a T cell-independent type2 reaction with B1a cells in the mice to produce IgM and IgG3 antibodies. In addition to polymeric micelle, three kinds of vesicles displaying poly(sarcosine) on surface were prepared here to evaluate the amounts and avidities of IgM and IgG3, which were produced in mice, to correlate them with physical properties of the molecular assemblies. The largest amount of IgM was produced after twice administrations of a polymeric micelle of 35 nm diameter (G1)...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Miguel A Merlos Rodrigo, Vladislav Strmiska, Eva Horackova, Hana Buchtelova, Petr Michalek, Marie Stiborova, Tomas Eckschlager, Vojtech Adam, Zbynek Heger
BACKGROUND: Sarcosine is a widely discussed oncometabolite of prostate cells. Although several reports described connections between sarcosine and various phenotypic changes of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, there is still a lack of insights on the complex phenomena of its effects on gene expression patterns, particularly in non-malignant and non-metastatic cells. METHODS: To shed more light on this phenomenon, we performed parallel microarray profiling of RNA isolated from non-malignant (PNT1A), malignant (22Rv1), and metastatic (PC-3) prostate cell lines treated with sarcosine...
November 6, 2017: Prostate
Hae-Won Lee, Hee-Min Lee, So-Ra Yoon, Sung Hyun Kim, Ji-Hyoung Ha
RT-qPCR allows sensitive detection of viral particles of both infectious and noninfectious viruses in water environments, but cannot discriminate non-infectious from infectious viruses. In this study, we aimed to optimize RT-qPCR-based detection of chlorine-inactivated human norovirus (NoV) and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) in suspension by pretreatment with an optimal combination of a monoazide and a detergent that can efficiently penetrate damaged viral capsids. Four methods were compared to determine the efficacy of chlorine disinfection (at 1, 3, and 5 min mg/L): (A) RT-qPCR alone, (B) RT-qPCR assay preceded by magnetic bead separation for enrichment of viral particles (MBS-RT-qPCR), (C) MBS-RT-qPCR assay with pretreatment with propidium monoazide (PMA-MBS-RT-qPCR), and (D) PMA-MBS-RT-qPCR assay with pretreatment with sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (INCI-PMA-MBS-RT-qPCR)...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
M Adeva-Andany, G Souto-Adeva, E Ameneiros-Rodríguez, C Fernández-Fernández, C Donapetry-García, A Domínguez-Montero
Plasma glycine level is low in patients with obesity or diabetes and the improvement of insulin resistance increases plasma glycine concentration. In prospective studies, hypoglycinemia at baseline predicts the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and higher serum glycine level is associated with decreased risk of incident type 2 diabetes. Consistently, plasma glycine concentration is lower in the lean offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy subjects. Among patients with type 2 diabetes, hypoglycinemia occurs before clinical manifestations of the disease, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying glycine deficit and its potential clinical repercussions are unclear...
November 1, 2017: Amino Acids
Lorenzo Biancalana, Giada Tuci, Fabio Piccinelli, Fabio Marchetti, Marco Bortoluzzi, Guido Pampaloni
The unprecedented, direct chemical oxidation of l-proline to pyrroline-2-carboxylate was achieved in water (pH 9-10) by means of NH4VO3/NH3 or V2O5/MOH (K = Na, K), and the anion was fully characterized as ammonium or alkaline metal salts. Quantitative yield and higher atom economy performance were achieved with the latter system, the alkaline salts being more stable than the ammonium one. Different mixed valence V(iv)/V(v) compounds precipitated from the reaction mixtures depending on the nature of the employed base...
November 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Sarah J Meale, Diego P Morgavi, Isabelle Cassar-Malek, Donato Andueza, Isabelle Ortigues-Marty, Richard J Robins, Anne-Marie Schiphorst, Sophie Laverroux, Benoit Graulet, Hamid Boudra, Gonzalo Cantalapiedra-Hijar
The efficiency with which ruminants convert feed to desirable products is difficult to measure under normal commercial settings. We explored the use of potential biological markers from easily obtainable samples, that is, blood, hair, and feces, to characterize potential causes of divergent efficiency when considered as residual feed intake (RFI) or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). A total of 54 Charolais bulls, 20 in period 1 and 34 in period 2, were examined for individual dry matter intake (DMI) and growth...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Carsten Uhd Nielsen, Maria Bjerg, Nithiya Ulaganathan, René Holm
Taurine is involved in various physiological processes, and one of the most abundant amino acids in human. The aim was to investigate the mechanism for intestinal absorption of taurine in vivo using also in vitro mechanistic studies. Taurine absorption was measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 10-997 mg/kg and 1-30 mg/kg for oral and intravenous administration, respectively. Oral absorption was measured in the presence of substrates for the proton-coupled amino acid transporter, PAT1, that is, 200 mg/kg proline (Pro) and sarcosine (Sar), and in the presence of 2-Amino-2-norbornanecarboxylic acid (BCH) (200 mg/kg)...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
Yi Guo, Chen-Xi Liu, Li-Sheng Zhang, Meng-Qing Wang, Hong-Yin Chen
Insects cannot synthesize sterols and must obtain them from plants. Therefore, reducing plant sterol content or changing sterol type might be an effective pest control strategy. However, the impacts of these changes on pests' natural predators remain unknown. Here, we fed artificial diets with reduced sterol content to Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and investigated the effects on its natural predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Reduced sterol content in M. separata (MS1, MS2, and MS5) was achieved by feeding them artificial diets prepared from a feed base subjected to one, two, or five cycles of sterol extractions, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Hiroshi Arakawa, Ikumi Washio, Natsumi Matsuoka, Hikaru Kubo, Angelina Yukiko Staub, Noritaka Nakamichi, Naoki Ishiguro, Yukio Kato, Takeo Nakanishi, Ikumi Tamai
Kidney plays a key role in the elimination and reabsorption of drugs and nutrients, however in vitro methods to evaluate renal disposition are limited. In the present study, we investigated usefulness of isolated kidney slice, which had been used for transport only at basolateral membrane of tubular epithelial cells, for evaluation of apical membrane transporters. As transporters that are easy to discriminate between apical and basolateral transports, apical membrane specific and sodium-dependent transporters (SGLTs and OCTNs) and pH-dependent transporters (PEPTs) are selected...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Liang Chen, Jing Sun, Ying Huang, Yu Zhang, Chao-Guo Yan
The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of active azomethine ylide, which were generated in situ from addition reaction of α-amino acids with dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylates, with 2-arylidene-1,3-indanediones showed versatile regioselectivity and diastereoselectivity. The reaction of sarcosine and glycine afforded one kind of functionalized spiro[indene-2,3'-pyrrolidines]. The other primary α-amino acids such as alanine, phenylalanine and leucine gave another kind of regioisomeric spiro[indene-2,3'-pyrrolidines]. The cyclic α-amino acids resulted in the corresponding spiro[indene-2,2'-pyrrolizines] and [indene-2,6'-pyrrolo[1,2-c]thiazoles]...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Can Xu, Caidan Rezeng, Jian Li, Lan Zhang, Yujing Yan, Jian Gao, Yingfeng Wang, Zhongfeng Li, Jianxin Chen
"RenqingMangjue" pill (RMP), as an effective prescription of Traditional Tibetan Medicine (TTM), has been widely used in treating digestive diseases and ulcerative colitis for over a thousand years. In certain classical Tibetan Medicine, heavy metal may add as an active ingredient, but it may cause contamination unintentionally in some cases. Therefore, the toxicity and adverse effects of TTM became to draw public attention. In this study, 48 male Wistar rats were orally administrated with different dosages of RMP once a day for 15 consecutive days, then half of the rats were euthanized on the 15th day and the remaining were euthanized on the 30th day...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Subhranu Samanta, Sheikh Ziaur Rahaman, Anisha Roy, Surajit Jana, Somsubhra Chakrabarti, Rajeswar Panja, Sourav Roy, Mrinmoy Dutta, Sreekanth Ginnaram, Amit Prakash, Siddheswar Maikap, Hsin-Ming Cheng, Ling-Na Tsai, Jian-Tai Qiu, Samit K Ray
Formation-free multi-level resistive switching characteristics by using 10 nm-thick polycrystalline GeOx film in a simple W/GeOx/W structure and understanding of switching mechanism through redox reaction in H2O2/sarcosine sensing (or changing Ge°/Ge(4+) oxidation states under external bias) have been reported for the first time. Oxidation states of Ge(0)/Ge(4+) are confirmed by both XPS and H2O2 sensing of GeOx membrane in electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor structure. Highly repeatable 1000 dc cycles and stable program/erase (P/E) endurance of >10(6) cycles at a small pulse width of 100 ns are achieved at a low operation current of 0...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Virender Singh, Raj Kumar Sharma, Thamarailingam Athilingam, Pradip Sinha, Neeraj Sinha, Ashwani Kumar Thakur
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder induced by aggregation of the pathological form of Huntingtin protein that has expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) repeats. In the Drosophila model, for instance, expression of transgenes with polyQ repeats induces HD-like pathologies, progressively correlating with the increasing lengths of these repeats. Previous studies on both animal models and clinical samples have revealed metabolite imbalances during HD progression. To further explore the physiological processes linked to metabolite imbalances during HD, we have investigated the 1D (1)H NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics profile of Drosophila HD model...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Parveen Kumar, Ranjana Jaiwal, C S Pundir
An improved amperometric biosensor for detection of creatinine was developed based on immobilization of nanoparticles (NPs) of creatininase (CA), creatinase (CI), and sarcosine oxidase (SOx) onto glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed for characterization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). The GC electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) at different stages of its amendment...
November 15, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
Remigiusz Bąchor, Alicja Kluczyk, Piotr Stefanowicz, Zbigniew Szewczuk
The investigation on the synthesis of α-C deuterated analogues of cyclosporine A (CsA) in N-methylated amino acid residues was performed. The reaction based on our previous report (Bachor et al. 2014 J Mass Spectrom 49, 43-49), proceeds in the presence of bases like TBD or MTBD at pH 13.4. The obtained results suggest the possibility of introduction of three deuterons, two at the α-C of sarcosine and one at the chiral α-C atom of 2-N-methyl-(R)-((E)-2-butenyl)-4-methyl-L-threonine residue. The stability of the obtained isotopologues was analyzed both under neutral or acidic conditions and the obtained results revealed that the introduced deuterons do not undergo back-exchange...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Xue-Feng Cao, Zhen-Zhong Bai, Lan Ma, Shuang Ma, Ri-Li Ge
Cao, Xue-Feng, Zhen-Zhong Bai, Lan Ma, Shuang Ma, and Ri-Li Ge. Metabolic alterations of Qinghai-Tibet plateau pikas in adaptation to high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 18:219-225, 2017.-To determine specific metabolic alterations in the myocardium of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) and potential metabolic biomarkers involved in their adaptation to the high-altitude environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Ten pikas were captured by traps in the Kekexili Reserve (4630 m a.s.l; n = 5) and at the foot of the Laji Mountain (2600 m a...
September 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Zhixin Zhang, Hao Gu, Huizhen Zhao, Yuehong Liu, Shuang Fu, Meiling Wang, Wenjuan Zhou, Ziye Xie, Honghong Yu, Zhenghai Huang, Xiaoyan Gao
The evaluation of individual variability in endogenous drugs' metabolism and disposition is a very challenging task. We developed and validated a metabotype to pharmacokinetics (PK) matching approach by taking cholic acid as an example to predict the individualized PK of endogenous drugs. The stable isotope-labeled cholic acid was selected as the substitute analyte of cholic acid to ensure the accurate measurement of blood concentration. First, large-scale metabolite profiling studies were performed on the predose urine samples of 28 rats...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Yan Xiao, Jianqiang Wang, Jun Zhang, Andreas Heise, Meidong Lang
Copolypept(o)ides of polysarcosine (PSar) and poly(N-isopropyl-L-glutamine) (PIGA) with random and block sequence structures were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of sarcosine N-carboxyanhydrides (Sar-NCA) and γ-benzyl-l-glutamate N-carboxyanhydrides (BLG-NCA) and post modification. With different distribution of Sar along the main chain, H-bonding pattern and secondary structure of polypeptides were turned, as well as aggregation and gelation behavior. Both copolypept(o)ides formed hydrogels above their critical gelation concentrations (CGCs) without thermo-sensitivity, which was normally reserved for PEG copolypeptides (eg, PEG-b-PIGA)...
August 18, 2017: Biopolymers
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