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Matthew S MacLennan, Miranda G M Kok, Laiel Soliman, Alan So, Antonio Hurtado-Coll, David D Y Chen
Targeted and untargeted analyses of the sub-5 kDa urine metabolome of genitourinary cancer patients (prostate and/or bladder) were performed without chemical derivatization using capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS). For targeted analysis, endogenous levels of sarcosine and 5 other amino acid metabolites implicated in the progression of prostate cancer were quantified in four patients and in a pooled urine sample from healthy volunteers. An untargeted analysis (m/z 50 to 850) of patient urine was performed using the same CE-ESI-MS system identifying over 400 distinct molecular features per patient...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Paul H Yancey, Ben Speers-Roesch, Sheila Atchinson, James D Reist, Andrew R Majewski, Jason R Treberg
Accumulation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) by deep-sea animals is proposed to protect proteins against the destabilizing effects of high hydrostatic pressure (the piezolyte hypothesis). Chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimaeras) provide a unique test of this hypothesis because shallow-living species have elevated TMAO levels to counteract the destabilizing effects of high urea levels accumulated for osmoregulation. Limited interspecific studies of chondrichthyans reveal that increasing depth correlates with decreased urea and increased TMAO levels, suggesting a dynamic balance between destabilizing forces on proteins (high urea, hydrostatic pressure) and TMAO to counteract these forces...
March 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
A S Axambayeva, L R Zhaparova, Zh S Shagyrova, E M Ramankulov, A V Shustov
Tyrosinases catalyze oxidation of phenols with a formation of biphenols, quinones, and highly polymerized melanins. Tyrosinases have prospects for industrial use to remove phenols, also in biosensors, in bioorganic synthesis, and for a production of biocompatible adhesives (medical glues). Despite growing fields of potential applications, a selection of commercially available tyrosinases are currently limited to a single enzyme which is isolated from fruiting bodies of mushrooms. This article describes a preparation of recombinant tyrosinase from a bacterium Verrucomicrobium spinosum using a heterologous expression in Escherichia coli...
January 6, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Mahshid Hamzehloueian, Zakieh Davari
The molecular mechanism of the [3+2] cycloaddition (32CA) reaction of an azomethine ylide, generated in situ from isatin and sarcosine, with benzo-imidazol-2-yl-3-phenylacrylonitrile have been theoretically studied by using DFT at the B3LYP and M06-2X levels of theory. This reaction takes place through an asynchronous one-step mechanism. Analysis of the global electron density transfer (GEDT) indicates that this 32CA has a polar character. The regiochemistry of this reaction was investigated using Parr functions analysis, as well as HSAB principle and potential energy surface analysis, where the results are in agreement with the experimental observations...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Hui Li, Adam F Wallace, Mingjing Sun, Patrick N Reardon, Deb P Jaisi
Glyphosate is the active ingredient of the common herbicide Roundup®. The increasing presence of glyphosate and its byproducts has raised concerns about its potential impact on the environment and human health. In this research, we investigated abiotic pathways of glyphosate degradation as catalyzed by birnessite under aerobic and neutral pH conditions to determine whether certain pathways have the potential to generate less harmful intermediate products. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were utilized to identify and quantify reaction products, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to investigate the bond critical point (BCP) properties of the C‒N bond in glyphosate and Mn(IV)‒complexed glyphosate...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Hongda Liang, Miaomiao Xin, Lei Zhao, Liqin Wang, Mingshu Sun, Jibo Wang
The correlation between serum creatinine and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) values and clinical pathology and prognosis in patients with renal injury caused by anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis were analyzed. Eighty-six patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) treated in the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University were enrolled in the study. Patients were assigned into an elderly group (n=45) or a non-elderly group (n=41) according to age. The serum creatinine (Scr) level was measured via the sarcosine oxidase method, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was measured using the full-automatic ESR analyzer; the relationship between Scr and ESR values and the pathology type of patients was statistically analyzed...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kurt Leroy Hoffman, Hugo Cano-Ramírez
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe neuropsychiatric illness estimated to affect between 1-3% of the population. In today's literature, there are a number well-validated and convincing animal models of OCD described. Areas covered: Herein, the authors look at the role that animal models of OCD (including transgenic models, deer mouse stereotypy, quinpirole sensitization, post-training signal attenuation, and mouse marble burying) have played in determining the current directions of OCD drug discovery...
December 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Alexander Anis'kov, Irina Klochkova, Roman Tumskiy, Alevtina Yegorova
For the first time, arylmethylidene cyclohexanones that are non-symmetrical due to the presence of peripheral substituents were studied in 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions. It is shown that the interaction with the azomethine ylide generated from sarcosine proceeds regio- and diastereoselectively, with the participation of two non-equivalent parts of the dipolarophile. Also for the first time, β-amino ketones (Mannich bases) were used as dipolarophile equivalents of unsaturated ketones. It was found that cycloaddition occurs diastereoselectively at the generated center...
December 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nikolaj Ørntoft, Kim Frisch, Peter Ott, Susanne Keiding, Michael Sørensen
Positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-cholylsarcosine (11C-CSar), a radiolabelled synthetic N-methylglycine (sarcosine) conjugate of cholic acid, is a novel molecular imaging technique that enables quantitative assessment of the individual transport steps involved in hepatic secretion of conjugated bile acids. Here, we present the method and discuss its potential clinical and scientific applications based on findings in the first human study of healthy subjects and patients with cholestasis. We also present a clinical example of a patient studied during and six months after an episode of drug-induced cholestatic liver injury...
November 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ian Diner, Tram Nguyen, Nicholas T Seyfried
In this study, we describe an abbreviated single-step fractionation protocol for the enrichment of detergent-insoluble protein aggregates from human postmortem brain. The ionic detergent N-lauryl-sarcosine (sarkosyl) effectively solubilizes natively folded proteins in brain tissue allowing the enrichment of detergent-insoluble protein aggregates from a wide range of neurodegenerative proteinopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion diseases...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tsukasa Mori, Yukio Yanagisawa, Yoichiro Kitani, Goshi Yamamoto, Naoko Goto-Inoue, Tadashi Kimura, Keiko Kashiwagi, Akihiko Kashiwagi
Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity is the ability of prey to adapt to their native predator. However, owing to environmental changes, encounters with unknown predators are inevitable. Therefore, study of prey and non-native predator interaction will reveal the primary stages of adaptive strategies in prey-predator interactions in the context of evolutionary processes. Here, Xenopus tadpoles exposed to a non-native predator, a larval salamander, showed a significant increase in body weight and tail length to body length ratio...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
Cheol Joo Kim, Eri Hara, Naoki Watabe, Isao Hara, Shunsaku Kimura
Poly(sarcosine) displayed on polymeric micelle is reported to trigger a T cell-independent type2 reaction with B1a cells in the mice to produce IgM and IgG3 antibodies. In addition to polymeric micelle, three kinds of vesicles displaying poly(sarcosine) on surface were prepared here to evaluate the amounts and avidities of IgM and IgG3, which were produced in mice, to correlate them with physical properties of the molecular assemblies. The largest amount of IgM was produced after twice administrations of a polymeric micelle of 35 nm diameter (G1)...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Miguel A Merlos Rodrigo, Vladislav Strmiska, Eva Horackova, Hana Buchtelova, Petr Michalek, Marie Stiborova, Tomas Eckschlager, Vojtech Adam, Zbynek Heger
BACKGROUND: Sarcosine is a widely discussed oncometabolite of prostate cells. Although several reports described connections between sarcosine and various phenotypic changes of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, there is still a lack of insights on the complex phenomena of its effects on gene expression patterns, particularly in non-malignant and non-metastatic cells. METHODS: To shed more light on this phenomenon, we performed parallel microarray profiling of RNA isolated from non-malignant (PNT1A), malignant (22Rv1), and metastatic (PC-3) prostate cell lines treated with sarcosine...
November 6, 2017: Prostate
Hae-Won Lee, Hee-Min Lee, So-Ra Yoon, Sung Hyun Kim, Ji-Hyoung Ha
RT-qPCR allows sensitive detection of viral particles of both infectious and noninfectious viruses in water environments, but cannot discriminate non-infectious from infectious viruses. In this study, we aimed to optimize RT-qPCR-based detection of chlorine-inactivated human norovirus (NoV) and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) in suspension by pretreatment with an optimal combination of a monoazide and a detergent that can efficiently penetrate damaged viral capsids. Four methods were compared to determine the efficacy of chlorine disinfection (at 1, 3, and 5 min mg/L): (A) RT-qPCR alone, (B) RT-qPCR assay preceded by magnetic bead separation for enrichment of viral particles (MBS-RT-qPCR), (C) MBS-RT-qPCR assay with pretreatment with propidium monoazide (PMA-MBS-RT-qPCR), and (D) PMA-MBS-RT-qPCR assay with pretreatment with sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (INCI-PMA-MBS-RT-qPCR)...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
M Adeva-Andany, G Souto-Adeva, E Ameneiros-Rodríguez, C Fernández-Fernández, C Donapetry-García, A Domínguez-Montero
Plasma glycine level is low in patients with obesity or diabetes and the improvement of insulin resistance increases plasma glycine concentration. In prospective studies, hypoglycinemia at baseline predicts the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and higher serum glycine level is associated with decreased risk of incident type 2 diabetes. Consistently, plasma glycine concentration is lower in the lean offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy subjects. Among patients with type 2 diabetes, hypoglycinemia occurs before clinical manifestations of the disease, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying glycine deficit and its potential clinical repercussions are unclear...
November 1, 2017: Amino Acids
Lorenzo Biancalana, Giada Tuci, Fabio Piccinelli, Fabio Marchetti, Marco Bortoluzzi, Guido Pampaloni
The unprecedented, direct chemical oxidation of l-proline to pyrroline-2-carboxylate was achieved in water (pH 9-10) by means of NH4VO3/NH3 or V2O5/MOH (K = Na, K), and the anion was fully characterized as ammonium or alkaline metal salts. Quantitative yield and higher atom economy performance were achieved with the latter system, the alkaline salts being more stable than the ammonium one. Different mixed valence V(iv)/V(v) compounds precipitated from the reaction mixtures depending on the nature of the employed base...
November 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Sarah J Meale, Diego P Morgavi, Isabelle Cassar-Malek, Donato Andueza, Isabelle Ortigues-Marty, Richard J Robins, Anne-Marie Schiphorst, Sophie Laverroux, Benoit Graulet, Hamid Boudra, Gonzalo Cantalapiedra-Hijar
The efficiency with which ruminants convert feed to desirable products is difficult to measure under normal commercial settings. We explored the use of potential biological markers from easily obtainable samples, that is, blood, hair, and feces, to characterize potential causes of divergent efficiency when considered as residual feed intake (RFI) or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). A total of 54 Charolais bulls, 20 in period 1 and 34 in period 2, were examined for individual dry matter intake (DMI) and growth...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Carsten Uhd Nielsen, Maria Bjerg, Nithiya Ulaganathan, René Holm
Taurine is involved in various physiological processes, and one of the most abundant amino acids in human. The aim was to investigate the mechanism for intestinal absorption of taurine in vivo using also in vitro mechanistic studies. Taurine absorption was measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 10-997 mg/kg and 1-30 mg/kg for oral and intravenous administration, respectively. Oral absorption was measured in the presence of substrates for the proton-coupled amino acid transporter, PAT1, that is, 200 mg/kg proline (Pro) and sarcosine (Sar), and in the presence of 2-Amino-2-norbornanecarboxylic acid (BCH) (200 mg/kg)...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
Yi Guo, Chen-Xi Liu, Li-Sheng Zhang, Meng-Qing Wang, Hong-Yin Chen
Insects cannot synthesize sterols and must obtain them from plants. Therefore, reducing plant sterol content or changing sterol type might be an effective pest control strategy. However, the impacts of these changes on pests' natural predators remain unknown. Here, we fed artificial diets with reduced sterol content to Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and investigated the effects on its natural predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Reduced sterol content in M. separata (MS1, MS2, and MS5) was achieved by feeding them artificial diets prepared from a feed base subjected to one, two, or five cycles of sterol extractions, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Hiroshi Arakawa, Ikumi Washio, Natsumi Matsuoka, Hikaru Kubo, Angelina Yukiko Staub, Noritaka Nakamichi, Naoki Ishiguro, Yukio Kato, Takeo Nakanishi, Ikumi Tamai
Kidney plays a key role in the elimination and reabsorption of drugs and nutrients, however in vitro methods to evaluate renal disposition are limited. In the present study, we investigated usefulness of isolated kidney slice, which had been used for transport only at basolateral membrane of tubular epithelial cells, for evaluation of apical membrane transporters. As transporters that are easy to discriminate between apical and basolateral transports, apical membrane specific and sodium-dependent transporters (SGLTs and OCTNs) and pH-dependent transporters (PEPTs) are selected...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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