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("End Tidal" OR "End-tidal") AND ("Carbon Dioxide" OR "CO2")

Rasmus Aagaard, Bo Løfgren, Philip Caap, Troels Mygind-Klausen, Morten T Bøtker, Asger Granfeldt
INTRODUCTION: Identifying reversible causes of cardiac arrest is challenging. The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is often missed. Pulmonary embolism increases alveolar dead space resulting in low end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2 ) relative to arterial CO2 (PaCO2 ) tension. Thus, a low EtCO2 /PaCO2 ratio during resuscitation may be a sign of pulmonary embolism. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of data from two porcine studies comparing ultrasonographic measurements of right ventricular diameter during resuscitation from cardiac arrest of different causes...
October 12, 2018: Resuscitation
L G Teixeira, L R Martins, P I Schimites, R B de Oliveira, J Bonella, R V Campos, L T Mangini, J C Gasparotto, A V Soares
This study evaluated the variability of the peripheral perfusion index (PI) in 22 anaesthetised female dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy and examined the relationship between peripheral PI and heart rate, blood pressure, blood pH, end tidal CO2 (EtCO2 ), O2 saturation (SpO2 ), core-peripheral temperature gradient (ΔTc-p), partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2 ), and concentrations of glucose, cortisol, lactate and bicarbonate (HCO3 - ). Blood pH, lactate and glucose concentrations were determined 15, 30, 45min into the ovariohysterectomy procedure and after extubation...
October 2018: Veterinary Journal
James L West, Rebecca M Garner, Justin R Traunero, Stacey Q Wolfe, Kyle M Fargen
In the diagnosis of venous stenosis associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), previous studies have identified significant differences when venous pressures are measured under conscious sedation versus general anesthesia. No previous reports have investigated the effect that respiratory parameters may have on cerebral venous sinus pressure and the associated trans-stenosis pressure gradient. Two IIH patients were retrospectively identified from a prospective database wherein venous manometry was performed as part of a venous stenting procedure with waveform recording during changes in end-tidal carbon dioxide level (EtCO2 )...
September 25, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Yaxuan Liu, Yangyang Ying, Jaffar S Pandu, Yan Wang, Shuang Dou, Yanzhong Li, Dedong Ma
OBJECTIVE: We have designed the expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) mask to provide a new sort of therapeutic strategies for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS). And this study aims to assess the safety, efficacy and compliance of the EPAP therapy. METHODS: 40 healthy volunteers were enrolled to measure the end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2 ) while being treated by EPAP mask. 40 symptomatic moderate or severe OSAHS patients (AHI≥15/h) recruited were equally divided into two groups randomly and treated with CPAP or mask for a week respectively...
September 24, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Domenico L Grieco, Laurent Brochard, Adrien Drouet, Irene Telias, Stéphane Delisle, Gilles Bronchti, Cecile Ricard, Marceau Rigollot, Bilal Badat, Paul Ouellet, Emmanuel Charbonney, Jordi Mancebo, Alain Mercat, Dominique Savary, Jean-Christophe M Richard
Rationale Guidelines recommend that end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) should be used to monitor cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) but its physiological interpretation remains uncertain. Chest compressions induce oscillations in expired CO2, which could reflect variable degrees of intrathoracic airway closure. Objectives To understand the capnogram during CPR and analyze its relationship with airway patency and delivered ventilation. Methods, Measurements 1) Clinical study analyzing capnogram patterns after intubation in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest receiving continuous chest compressions...
September 26, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Peter Novak
The objective of the study was to identify markers of hypocapnic cerebral hypoperfusion (HYCH) in patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI) without tachycardia and without orthostatic hypotension. This single center, retrospective study included OI patients referred for autonomic evaluation with the 10 min tilt test. Heart rate, end-tidal CO2 (ET-CO2), blood pressure, and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) from middle cerebral artery were monitored. HYCH was defined by: (1) Symptoms of OI; (2) Orthostatic hypocapnia (low ET-CO2); (3) Abnormal decline in orthostatic CBFv due to hypocapnia; 4) Absence of tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, or other causes of low CBFv or hypocapnia...
2018: PloS One
Maria Eduarda Bastos Andrade Moutinho da Conceição, Ricardo Andres Ramirez Uscategui, Paulo Henrique Leal Bertolo, Damazio Campos de Souza, Daniele Dos Santos Rolemberg, Paola Castro de Moraes, Pedro Paulo Maia Teixeira, Luis Gustavo Gosuen Gonçalves Dias
Videosurgery is increasingly used in veterinary medicine. Compared with open surgery, it has been shown to cause minimal pain and promote a more rapid recovery. There are various methods of assessing pain and postoperative inflammation in cats, although their particular behaviours may make these assessments difficult. The aim of this study was to compare levels of postoperative pain and inflammation after laparoscopic ovariectomy with an open minimally invasive technique. Twenty queens were randomly divided into two groups based on the method of haemostasis and surgical technique: (1) laparoscopic ovariectomy using a miniloop (miniloop group (MG)); and (2) minilaparotomy using a Snook hook (control group (CG))...
September 25, 2018: Veterinary Record
Trina M Hancock, Nigel A Caulkett, Ed A Pajor, Leanna Grenwich
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intratesticular injection of an alfaxalone-lidocaine combination can induce anesthesia and provide a rapid recovery in piglets undergoing surgical castration. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized experimental study. ANIMALS: A group of 30 male piglets, aged 2-10 days, weighing 1.3-4.6 kg. METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into three equal groups for intratesticular administration of alfaxalone + lidocaine: high dose (group HD; 8 mg kg-1  + 2...
July 31, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
François Javaudin, Natacha Desce, Quentin Le Bastard, Hugo De Carvalho, Philippe Le Conte, Joséphine Escutnaire, Hervé Hubert, Emmanuel Montassier, Brice Leclere
INTRODUCTION: The targets for vital parameters following return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) from an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are based on studies carried out predominantly in intensive care units. Therefore, we studied the pre-hospital phase. METHOD: We included all adult OHCA from the French OHCA Registry. Vital parameters [peripheral oxygen saturation level (SpO2 ), end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2 ) and systolic blood pressure (SBP)] documented during the pre-hospital phase by mobile medical team, were evaluated with regard to the neurological outcome on day 30 (classified as good for Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) 1 - 2, and poor for CPC 3 - 5 or death)...
September 22, 2018: Resuscitation
Yahong Gong, Jin Wang, Xiaohan Xu, Jianjin Li, Ruiyue Song, Jie Yi
BACKGROUND: Flexible reinforced laryngeal mask airway (FLMA®) has gained popularity in thyroid surgery, but air leak and displacement are still concerns. METHODS: In this randomized, single-blinded, noninferiority, controlled trial, we randomized patients scheduled for elective radical thyroidectomy to an endotracheal tube (ETT) group or a FLMA group. The primary outcomes were ventilation leak volume, peak airway pressure, and partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2)...
September 24, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Chulee Ubolsakka-Jones, Khajonsak Pongpanit, Watchara Boonsawat, David A Jones
OBJECTIVES: Faster recovery of postexertional dyspnea might enable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients to undertake more physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether breathing with a positive expiratory load to reduce dynamic hyperinflation (DH) would hasten recovery. METHODS: Thirteen male COPD patients (59 ± 7 years; Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease Stages II and III) took part in a randomized cross-over trial in which they exercised by self-paced spot marching...
September 24, 2018: Physiotherapy Research International: the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy
Raisa Rentola, Johanna Hästbacka, Erkki Heinonen, Per H Rosenberg, Tom Häggblom, Markus B Skrifvars
Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is the traditional method for measuring the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. In mechanically ventilated patients a continuous noninvasive monitoring of carbon dioxide would obviously be attractive. In the current study, we present a novel formula for noninvasive estimation of arterial carbon dioxide. Eighty-one datasets were collected from 19 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs. Eleven animals were mechanically ventilated without interventions. In the remaining eight pigs the partial pressure of carbon dioxide was manipulated...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Kemal Tolga Saracoglu, Ali Demir, Gokhan Pehlivan, Ayten Saracoglu, Zeynep Eti
BACKGROUND: Ease and speed of insertion, reduced trauma incidence, integral bite block, gastric access, non-inflatable cuff and superior seal pressure are the advantages of I-gel. The primary goal of this study was to compare airway leak pressures and fiberoptic view in supine and lateral positions. Our secondary aim was to analyze the effects of I-gel insertion on hemodynamic parameters. METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing saturation biopsy due to prostatic hyperplasia were recruited in this prospective randomized study...
September 17, 2018: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
Julie A Balko, Bonnie J Gatson, Eli B Cohen, Emily H Griffith, Craig A Harms, Kate M Bailey
Prolonged anesthetic recovery time is a common complication of chelonian inhalant anesthesia and may be exacerbated by right-to-left intracardiac shunting of blood. Epinephrine may decrease intracardiac shunting, which may shorten anesthetic recovery time. The study objective was to assess inhalant anesthetic recovery time following intramuscular epinephrine compared with saline in the loggerhead sea turtle ( Caretta caretta). With the use of a prospective, randomized, blinded, crossover design with a 1-wk washout period, six turtles were anesthetized with intravenous (IV) alfaxalone 3 mg/kg, orotracheally intubated, manually ventilated with 3...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Laura M Kleinschmidt, Matthew E Kinney, Gerardo R Camilo, Tim Thier, Martha Fischer, Christopher S Hanley, Luis R Padilla
The aims of this study were to determine if a propofol constant rate infusion (CRI) in Speke's gazelle, Gazella spekei, would serve as an effective alternative maintenance anesthetic, result in shorter recovery times, and improve anesthetic recovery quality when compared with isoflurane. Eight adult gazelle were enrolled in this complete crossover study with a minimum 3-wk washout period. All gazelle were induced with 10 mg/kg intravenous propofol and maintained with either propofol CRI (0.4 mg/kg/min) or isoflurane (1-3%) for 45 min...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Patrick C Ng, Tara B Hendry-Hofer, Alyssa E Witeof, Matthew Brenner, Sari B Mahon, Gerry R Boss, Vikhyat S Bebarta
Cyanide is a readily available and potentially lethal substance. Oral exposure can result in larger doses, compared withother routes. Currently, there are no antidotes specific for use in the treatment of oral cyanide poisoning, and studies cannotbe done in humans. We report on a new large animal model of oral cyanide toxicity to evaluate potential antidotes. Six femaleswine (Sus scrofa; weight, 45 to 55 kg) were anesthetized, intubated, and instrumented. Animals received a KCN bolusof either 5 or 8 mg/kg delivered via orogastric tube...
September 12, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Jigar C Chauhan, Rituparna Deb
CO2 removal by the lungs depends upon ventilation and pulmonary blood flow, with end tidal CO2 (EtCO2 ) as surrogate for it. We studied indices based on EtCO2 measured routinely during anesthesia for cardiac catheterization, along with simultaneously calculated Qp:Qs (pulmonary-to-systemic-blood-flow ratio) in children with complex congenital heart disease to assess the relationship between these measures. A retrospective, single-center, correlational cohort study was conducted at a tertiary-care, free-standing children's hospital...
September 8, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Hyun-Jung Shin, Eun-Young Kim, Jung-Won Hwang, Sang-Hwan Do, Hyo-Seok Na
BACKGROUND: In addition to propofol, dexmedetomidine is a suitable alternative for intraoperative sedation in procedures requiring regional anesthesia. To date, however, little is known about the influences of each drug on upper airway patency. Accordingly, the authors investigated differences between dexmedetomidine and propofol sedation in the occurrence of upper airway obstruction and requirements for airway intervention in patients with mild obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: Patients with an apnea/hypopnea index of 5-14/h according to Watch-PAT 200 analysis were enrolled in this study...
September 5, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
C T Lewis, J Brown, A C Inglis, D N Naumann, N Crombie
BACKGROUND: Advanced airway management is a research priority in prehospital care. There is a high burden of major trauma in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province, South Africa (SA), and transfer times to trauma units are often prolonged. OBJECTIVES: To examine emergency intubation practice in trauma and burns patients in Pietermaritzburg, KZN, and its environs. METHODS: This was a prospective consecutive case series, conducted from 11 May to 17 July 2016...
July 25, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Mikio Hiura, Tadashi Nariai, Katsumi Takahashi, Akitaka Muta, Muneyuki Sakata, Kenji Ishibashi, Jun Toyohara, Kei Wagatsuma, Tetsuro Tago, Kenji Ishii, Taketoshi Maehara
Neuronal activity causes changes in both cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 ) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Since the relationship between tissue oxygenation and regional CBF (rCBF) during exercise has not been elucidated, we compared the data obtained using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and rCBF examined using positron emission tomography (PET). Participants in this study comprised 26 healthy young men. Changes in concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (ΔO2 Hb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (ΔHHb) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were measured using NIRS continuously during a 15-min bout of the constant-load low-intensity cycling exercise (n = 14)...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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