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("End Tidal" OR "End-tidal") AND ("Carbon Dioxide" OR "CO2")

Robert A Berg, Ron W Reeder, Kathleen L Meert, Andrew R Yates, John T Berger, Christopher J Newth, Joseph A Carcillo, Patrick S McQuillen, Rick E Harrison, Frank W Moler, Murray M Pollack, Todd C Carpenter, Daniel A Notterman, Richard Holubkov, J Michael Dean, Vinay M Nadkarni, Robert M Sutton
BACKGROUND: Based on laboratory cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) investigations and limited adult data, the American Heart Association Consensus Statement on CPR Quality recommends titrating CPR performance to achieve end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) >20 mmHg. AIMS: We prospectively evaluated whether ETCO2 > 20 mmHg during CPR was associated with survival to hospital discharge. METHODS: Children ≥37 weeks gestation in Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network intensive care units with chest compressions for ≥1 minute and ETCO2 monitoring prior to and during CPR between July 1, 2013 and June 31, 2016 were included...
August 14, 2018: Resuscitation
Erika Iwamoto, Joshua M Bock, Darren P Casey
This study aimed to elucidate the effect of aging on shear-mediated dilation of the common and internal carotid arteries (CCA and ICA, respectively). Hypercapnia-induced shear-mediated dilation in the CCA and ICA were assessed in ten young (5F/5M, 23±1 years) and ten older (6F/4M, 68±1 years) healthy adults. Shear-mediated dilation was induced by two levels of hypercapnia (target end-tidal carbon dioxide; +5 and +10mmHg from individual baseline value) and was calculated as the percent rise in peak diameter from baseline diameter...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Talli Hogen, Steven G Cole, Kenneth J Drobatz
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2 ) could predict return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in patients with cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) undergoing CPR. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Two private specialty referral hospitals. ANIMALS: Thirty-five client-owned dogs and cats in CPA in which CPR was performed and pertinent data recorded on a purpose-made form...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Mitch Lomax, Billy Mayger, Zoe L Saynor, Christopher Vine, Heather C Massey
Lomax, M, Mayger, B, Saynor, ZL, Vine, C, and Massey, HC. Practical considerations for assessing pulmonary gas exchange and ventilation during flume swimming using the MetaSwim metabolic cart. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The MetaSwim (MS) metabolic cart can assess pulmonary gas exchange and ventilation in aquatic environments. The aims of this study were: (a) to determine the agreement between minute ventilation (V[Combining Dot Above]E), pulmonary oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), and carbon dioxide output (V[Combining Dot Above]CO2) using the MS and Douglas bag (DB) methods during flume swimming; and (b) to assess the repeatability of these and other MS-derived parameters...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jun Ueda, Michi Kawamoto, Nobuo Kohara
Loss of consciousness occurs in post-hyperventilation apnea, but its pathophysiology remains unclear. We herein report a patient with post-hyperventilation apnea showing spindle activity on electroencephalogram (EEG). The patient was alert and breathing spontaneously before the hyperventilation test, but loss of consciousness and apnea with spindle activity on EEG occurred when the end-tidal CO2 decreased during the hyperventilation test. She recovered consciousness and spontaneous breathing with the disappearance of the spindle activity on EEG when the end-tidal CO2 increased after the hyperventilation test...
August 10, 2018: Internal Medicine
Ian C Gibbs, Oluwole Fadahunsi, Natoya Reid, Andrea M Bonnick
Malignant hyperthermia is a rare condition that occurs in susceptible patients exposed to triggering anesthetic agents. It is associated with a high mortality rate if not recognized immediately and treated appropriately. A 52-year-old man presented to our clinic 2 days after an assault for management of jaw pain. A minimally displaced right parasymphyseal fracture and moderately displaced left body fracture of the mandible were diagnosed. There were no known drug allergies. The patient reported no previous difficulty with anesthesia, as well as no known prior adverse reactions to anesthesia in any relatives...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Lexandra Schick, Brian Driver, Johanna C Moore, Erik Fagerstrom, James R Miner
OBJECTIVES: To determine if there is a difference in procedural amnesia and adverse respiratory events (ARE) between the target sedation levels of moderate (MS) and deep (DS) procedural sedation. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized clinical trial of consenting adult patients planning to undergo deep procedural sedation with propofol between March 5th , 2015 and May 24th , 2017. Patients were randomized to a target sedation level of moderate or deep sedation using the American Society of Anesthesiologist's definitions...
August 11, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Caterina Di Bella, Luca Lacitignola, Salvatore Grasso, Paola Centonze, Antonella Greco, Rossella Ostuni, Antonio Crovace, Francesco Staffieri
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) followed by 5 cmH2 O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in dogs undergoing laparoscopy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical study. ANIMALS: A group of 20 dogs undergoing laparoscopic ovariectomy. METHODS: Dogs were sedated with acepromazine and methadone intramuscularly; anesthesia was induced with propofol intravenously and maintained with inhaled isoflurane...
April 16, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Marianne C Wallis, Matthew D Wilson, Mihriye Mete, Lydia Koroshetz, Rui Soares, Munish Goyal
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with approximately 100,000 deaths per year in the United States and the incidence of deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism in the US is estimated at more than 350,000 cases annually (1). The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism poses a diagnostic challenge in the Emergency Department (ED), despite, validated decision rules, lab tests, and radiographic imaging (2, 3). While a simple lab test would be ideal for diagnosis, the well-known D-dimer test is, at its best, only about 54% specific (4)...
August 6, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Brendan F Judy, Jordan W Swanson, Wuyang Yang, Phillip B Storm, Scott P Bartlett, Jesse A Taylor, Gregory G Heuer, Shih-Shan Lang
OBJECTIVE Evaluation of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in the pediatric craniosynostosis population based solely on ophthalmological, clinical, and radiographic data is subjective, insensitive, and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the intraoperative ICP before and after craniectomy in this patient population. METHODS The authors measured the ICP before and after craniectomy using a subdural ICP monitor in 45 children. They regulated end-tidal carbon dioxide and the monitoring site under general anesthesia to record consistent ICP readings...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Patrick Siedlecki, Paolo Sanzo, Carlos Zerpa, Ian Newhouse
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Recent findings suggest breathing may negatively affect performance after concussion. The aim of the study was to examine group differences between individuals with and without post-concussion syndrome (PCS) in end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2 ) and respiratory rate (RR) during neurocognitive and physical tasks. HYPOTHESIS: Individuals in the PCS group will have elevated ETCO2 and lower RR compared to the control group. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was used in which a capnography unit collected ETCO2 and RR breathing data from 22 participants (control = 17; PCS = 5) during rest, the completion of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) battery and while slow and fast walking...
August 1, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Anoop Pahuja, Katie Hunt, Vadivelam Murthy, Prashanth Bhat, Ravindra Bhat, Anthony D Milner, Anne Greenough
Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are major complications of premature birth. We tested the hypotheses that prematurely born infants who developed an IVH or BPD would have high expiratory tidal volumes (VTE ) (VTE  > 6 ml/kg) and/or low-end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2 ) levels (ETCO2 levels < 4.5 kPa) as recorded by respiratory function monitoring or hyperoxia (oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) > 95%) during resuscitation in the delivery suite. Seventy infants, median gestational age 27 weeks (range 23-33), were assessed; 31 developed an IVH and 43 developed BPD...
July 31, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
María C Arango-Granados, Virginia Zarama Córdoba, Andrés M Castro Llanos, Luis A Bustamante Cristancho
BACKGROUND: Methods to guide fluid therapy in spontaneously breathing patients are scarce. No studies have reported the accuracy of end-tidal CO2 (ET-CO2 ) to predict volume responsiveness in these patients. We sought to evaluate the ET-CO2 gradient (ΔET-CO2 ) after a passive leg rise (PLR) maneuver to predict volume responsiveness in spontaneously breathing healthy adults. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in healthy adult human volunteers. A PLR maneuver was performed and cardiac output (CO) was measured by transthoracic echocardiography...
July 30, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Ryan C Brindle, Annie T Ginty, Anna C Whittaker, Douglas Carroll, Samuel J E Lucas
Recent evidence indicates that cerebral autoregulation (CA) might be more pressure passive than previously thought. That is, cerebral blood flow, traditionally thought to be regulated independently of prevailing mean arterial pressure (MAP), might fluctuate, to some extent, as a function of MAP. However, due to limitations associated with experimental usage of pharmaceuticals to manipulate MAP and inconsistent control of arterial carbon dioxide, questions remain regarding the MAP-cerebral blood flow relationship, especially during typical daily activities that alter MAP...
July 30, 2018: Psychophysiology
Stefania C Grasso, Jeff C Ko, Ann B Weil, Jennifer A Hess, Vaidehi Paranjape, Mark Payton
OBJECTIVE To assess the isoflurane-sparing effect of a transdermal formulation of fentanyl solution (TFS) and subsequent naloxone administration in dogs. DESIGN Experiment. ANIMALS 6 healthy mixed-breed dogs. PROCEDURES Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane was determined in each dog with a tail clamp method (baseline). Two weeks later, dogs were treated with TFS (2.7 mg/kg [1.23 mg/lb]), and the MAC of isoflurane was determined 4 and 24 hours later. After the 4-hour MAC assessment, saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was immediately administered IV and MAC was reassessed...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Bryce N Balmain, Helen Seale, Julie Harris, Kathleen Hall, Aaron C W Lin, Surendran Sabapathy, Norman R Morris
We measured pulmonary gas exchange during six minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with idiopathic (IPAH) and congenital heart disease-related pulmonary hypertension (CHDPH), and determined the relationship between the degree of desaturation and changes in minute ventilation to carbon dioxide production V˙E V˙CO2 and end-tidal partial pressure for carbon dioxide (Pet CO2 ) in both groups. Fifty-two patients (IPAH, n = 28; CHDPH, n = 24) completed 6MWT with simultaneous pulmonary gas exchange. Whilst no significant difference in six minute walk distance was observed between groups (IPAH: 529 ± 89; CHDPH: 476 ± 119 m, p = 0...
July 23, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
M Mosing, A D Waldmann, A Raisis, S H Böhm, E Drynan, K Wilson
BACKGROUND: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a method to measure regional impedance changes within the thorax. The total tidal impedance variation has been used to measure changes in tidal volumes in pigs, dogs and humans. OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of EIT to quantify changes in tidal volume in anaesthetised mechanically ventilated horses. STUDY DESIGN: In vivo experimental study. METHODS: Six horses (mean ± s...
July 23, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Lucy Beishon, Claire A L Williams, Thompson G Robinson, Victoria J Haunton, Ronney B Panerai
Cognitive testing with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) has been used to assess neurovascular coupling (NVC), but few studies address its multiple contributions. Subcomponent analysis considers the relative myogenic (resistance area product, RAP) and metabolic (critical closing pressure (CrCP)) contributors. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in subcomponents that occur with cognitive stimulation with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-III) in healthy controls. Healthy volunteers underwent continuous recording of bilateral TCD, heart rate (HR, three-lead ECG), end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2 , capnography), and mean arterial pressure (MAP, Finometer)...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
Daniel C O'Brien, Yuti Desai, Robert T Swanson, Uma Parekh, Jane Schubart, Michele M Carr
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationships between preoperative sleep study findings of children undergoing adenotonsillectomy anesthesia emergence time, recovery room time, and length of stay. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series with chart review. SETTING: Tertiary care children's hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All children aged 1-17 years who had undergone adenotonsillectomy between 2013 and 2016 were included...
July 6, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Mengzhu Li, Zhiqiang Liu, Fuqing Lin, Huiying Wang, Xiaozhen Niu, Xun Ge, Shukun Fu, Lin Fang, Cheng Li
BACKGROUND: The use of sedation is becoming more commonplace. Although pulse oximetry is a standard monitoring procedure during sedation, it cannot accurately detect early hypoventilation. End-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) monitoring can be an earlier indicator of airway compromise; however, the existing literature is limited to a few studies with varying outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether EtCO2 monitoring decreases the incidences of CO2 retention and apnoeic events in propofol-based sedation...
July 12, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
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