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"Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation" OR "CPR"

David Weidenauer, Thomas Hamp, Christoph Schriefl, Caroline Holaubek, Markus Gattinger, Mario Krammel, Markus Winnisch, Ana Weidenauer, Gerald Mundigler, Irene Lang, Wolfgang Schreiber, Fritz Sterz, Harald Herkner, Hans Domanovits
BACKGROUND: Cardio-pulmonary-resuscitation (CPR) training starting at the age of 12 years is recommended internationally. Training younger children is not recommended because young children lack the physical ability to perform adequate CPR and discouragement to perform CPR later is apprehended. The aim of this study was to answer the following questions: Are younger children discouraged after CPR training? Is discouragement caused by their lack in physical ability to perform adequate chest compressions on a standard manikin and would the use of manikins with a reduced resistance affect their motivation or performance? METHODS: We investigated the motivation and CPR performance of children aged 8-13 years after CPR training on manikins of different chest stiffness in a prospective, randomized, single-blind, controlled trial...
2018: PloS One
Jongho Kim, Lyle Brewster, Sonja Maria, Jundong Moon
High-rise buildings present unique challenges to providing high-quality CPR. We investigated the effect of using a mechanical compressor and supraglottic airway on flow time and CPR quality in simulated cardiac arrests occurring within a high-rise building. Twelve teams of EMS providers performed CPR according to 4 scenarios: manual compression and ventilation through bag-valve-mask (MAB) or supraglottic airway (MAS); mechanical compression and ventilation through bag-valve-mask (MEB) or supraglottic airway (MES)...
2018: Emergency Medicine International
Vikramjeet Arora, Manju Bala, Sumit Chawla
Context: Basic life support (BLS) is a core life-saving skill which everyone should know, but knowledge of BLS is poor even among medical students. Aims: The aim of our study was to assess the knowledge regarding BLS among medical students and see impact of training and also to know whether a short session of video training made an impact on their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills. Settings and Design: Ninety-two 2nd -year medical students were included in the study...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
David Fernández-Ayuso, Rosa Fernández-Ayuso, Cristino Del-Campo-Cazallas, José Luis Pérez-Olmo, Borja Matías-Pompa, Josué Fernández-Carnero, Cesar Calvo-Lobo
BACKGROUND: High-fidelity simulation represents a primary tool in nursing education, especially when hands-on practical training is involved. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the influence of high-fidelity clinical simulation, applied during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training, on blood pressure, heart rate, stress, and anxiety levels in 2 groups of nursing students. One group had experience in health contexts, whereas the other group had none. METHODS: We performed a quasi-experimental study...
August 15, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
Christopher Newell, Scott Grier, Jasmeet Soar
After cardiac arrest a combination of basic and advanced airway and ventilation techniques are used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and after a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The optimal combination of airway techniques, oxygenation and ventilation is uncertain. Current guidelines are based predominantly on evidence from observational studies and expert consensus; recent and ongoing randomised controlled trials should provide further information. This narrative review describes the current evidence, including the relative roles of basic and advanced (supraglottic airways and tracheal intubation) airways, oxygenation and ventilation targets during CPR and after ROSC in adults...
August 15, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Aaron Michael Burnett, Ralph J Frascone, Johannes Brechtken, David Warren, Brian Roach, Andrew R Zinkel
We report a case of a 56 year old male in ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest for a total of 2 hours and 50 minutes who was diagnosed with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during a brief 10 min period of ROSC. The patient underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) while receiving mechanical chest compressions for ongoing VF. Our case demonstrates the potential for neurologically intact survival in VF cardiac arrest patients despite prolonged periods of VF who are treated with mechanical CPR and intra-arrest PCI...
August 15, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Rob Fenwick
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a common occurrence in the UK, with 60,000 cases reported annually. To improve outcomes among these patients it is necessary to improve links in the cardiac arrest chain of survival. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is one of the main elements of this chain because it reduces further ischaemic insult in the brain and heart by contributing to blood flow. However, even the best manual CPR provides only 20%-30% of the normal cardiac output. Despite the emphasis on timely CPR at the correct rate and depth, delivery of compressions is suboptimal for many patients and mechanical devices may improve outcomes...
August 15, 2018: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Charlie C Hall, Jean Lugton, Juliet Anne Spiller, Emma Carduff
OBJECTIVES: Do Not Attempt Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) discussions with patients and their caregivers have been subjected to intense ethical and legal debate in recent years. Legal cases and national guidelines have tried to clarify the best approach to DNACPR discussions; however, there is little evidence of how best to approach them from the patient, family or caregiver perspective. This paper describes published accounts of patient, family and caregiver experiences of discussions about advance cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) decision making...
August 14, 2018: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Yuko Sato, Mitsunori Miyashita, Kazuki Sato, Kenji Fujimori, Koichi Benjamin Ishikawa, Hiromasa Horiguchi, Kiyohide Fushimi, Chikashi Ishioka
Background: End-of-life (EOL) cancer care in Japanese acute care hospitals has not been well described. Methods: We aimed to assess the aggressiveness of EOL care and examine common treatments administered to cancer patients using a health administrative database. Subjects are adult cancer patients who died at acute care hospitals between April 2011 and March 2014. Data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database were analysed to measure the aggressiveness of care (chemotherapy, intensive care unit [ICU] admission and cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR]) and describe procedures and prescriptions administered in the last 14 and 30 days of life, disaggregated by hospital case volume: high, intermediate and low volumes...
August 13, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Fahad Saeed, Malik M Adil, Umar M Kaleem, Abdus Salam Khan, Jean L Holley, Sevag Damirjian
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data on the outcomes of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). We analyzed the impact of acute kidney injury on in-hospital CPR-related outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS 2005 - 2011) including patients with and without AKI who had undergone in-hospital CPR. Baseline characteristics, in-hospital complications and discharge outcomes were compared between the two groups...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Laurens Doucet, Ruben Lammens, Sarah Hendrickx, Phillipe Dewolf
BACKGROUND: The importance of early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cannot be emphasized enough and has a major impact on survival. Unfortunately, CPR education in schools is often inadequate or non-existing due to lack of educators and financial resources. The introduction of application-based teaching could facilitate education as no instructor is needed. The aim of present study is to compare app-based self-teaching (intervention group) with a traditional instructor-led course (control group)...
August 14, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
Helen Sherrell, Vicky Clifton, Sailesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Intrapartum complications are a major contributor to adverse perinatal outcomes, including stillbirth, hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and subsequent longer term disability. In many cases, hypoxia develops as a gradual process due to the inability of the fetus to tolerate the stress of parturition suggesting reduced fetoplacental reserve before labour commences. The fetal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) is an independent predictor of intrapartum fetal compromise, poor acid base status at birth and of neonatal unit admission at term...
August 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Yukihiro Esaka, Kenji Hisato, Takuhei Yamamoto, Hiroya Murakami, Bunji Uno
The substrate selectivities of three endonucleases were studied quantitatively using capillary zone electrophoresis to find one giving N2 -ethyl(Et)-2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-dGMP) and cyclic 1,N2 -propano(CPr)-5'-dGMP from DNAs damaged by acetaldehyde (AA). Six 2'-deoxyribonucleoside-5'-monophosphates to be quantified in the hydrolysis solutions of DNAs, namely, Et-5'-dGMP, CPr-5'-dGMP, and four authentic ones, were completely separated using a 100 mM borate running buffer solution having an optimized pH of 9...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Ahmed Abuosa, Jamilah AlRahimi, Nasir Mansour, Ashar Bilal, Atif AlQabbani, Akram Neyaz
A case of a young Saudi patient with a previous diagnosis of bronchial asthma, nasal polyps, and chronic smoker, presented with atypical chest pain, elevated serum troponin and borderline ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, with no significant regional wall motion abnormalities at bedside echocardiography is reported. The patient was admitted to the coronary care unit for continuous monitoring as possible acute coronary syndrome, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). One hour after admission, the patient had ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest that required three DC shocks and amiodarone bolus before returning of spontaneous circulation, which followed the fourth shock...
October 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
Christina Mackaill, Gregori Sponchiado, Ana K Leite, Paola Dias, Michele Da Rosa, Elliot J Brown, Julio C M de Lima, Lucas Rehnberg, Thais Russomano
INTRODUCTION: 2015 UK resuscitation guidelines aim for 50-60 mm depth when giving external chest compressions (ECCs). This is achievable in hypogravity if the rescuer flexes and extends their arms during CPR, or using a new method trialed; the 'Mackaill-Russomano' (MR CPR) method. METHODS: 10 participants performed 3 sets of 30 ECCs in accordance with 2015 guidelines. A control was used at 1Gz, with eight further conditions using Mars and Moon simulations, with and without braces in the terrestrial position and using the MR CPR method...
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Lukasz Szarpak
According to the American Society of Anesthesiologists, the incidence of difficult intubation in the operating room is 1.2-3.8%; however, in emergency conditions, this rate is higher and reaches even 5.3%. Successful emergency airway management is an essential component of the modern practice of medicine. Areas covered: The aim of the study is to review the literature regarding different devices used to perform endotracheal intubation (Macintosh, Miller, and McCoy laryngoscopes; ETView, GlideScope, TruView, Airtraq, McGrath MAC, Pentax AWS, Trachlight, Shikani, and Bullard) and discuss their clinical and experimental role in difficult airway management...
August 11, 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
Patrycja Misztal-Okońska, Dorota Lasota, Mariusz Goniewicz, Krzysztof Goniewicz, Witold Pawłowski, Robert Czerski, Alicja Tuszczyńska
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The ability to provide first aid, especially cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in accordance with the guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) is a key element in helping and rescuing people with pre-hospital cardiac arrest. As recommended by the ERC 2015 guidelines, one of the most important steps to be taken to increase the rate of CPR appraisal by participants or cardiac arrest witnesses is to teach these skills to all children in schools. Numerous studies have shown that school-age children are positive about learning resuscitation, and moreover, they are important multipliers of knowledge because they are happy to transmit the information they receive to family members and the closest surroundings...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Romualdo Sciorio, K J Thong, Susan J Pickering
This study investigates the utility of the Rapid-i closed device for vitrification of human blastocysts on day-5 (D5) and day-6 (D6) of development and the implantation and pregnancy rate following single blastocyst transfer (SBT) of warmed D5/D6 blastocysts. This retrospective cohort study was performed at Edinburgh Assisted Conception Programme, EFREC, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh between January 2013 and January 2017. Good quality blastocysts were vitrified on D5 or D6 using Irvine Vitrification medium (Irvine Scientific-USA) and the Rapid-I closed Vitrification System™ (Vitrolife, Sweden)...
August 9, 2018: Cryobiology
Hiroya Asou, Naoyuki Imada, Yuichi Nishiyama, Tomoyasu Sato, Katsuhiro Ichikawa
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to develop an automated system for determining the cardiac rest period during whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers (25-51 years old, 50-77 beats/min heart rate) were enrolled in this prospective study. A motion area map was generated from a cine image set by extracting high-speed component of cardiac motion, and it was used to specify the rest period in the proposed CMRA...
July 7, 2018: Clinical Imaging
David J Heegeman, William D Rosandick, Rachel H Boehning-Anderson, Andrew R Woltmann
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory Therapists (RTs) are some of the first staff to arrive at in-hospital incidents where cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is needed, yet at some facilities, their ability to intubate is limited by hospital scope of practice. During the intubation process, CPR is often interrupted which could potentially increase the likelihood of adverse patient outcomes. Training RTs to secure the airway using non-intubation methods may reduce or eliminate time for CPR interruptions and allow for earlier continuous/uninterrupted chest compressions...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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