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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342876/new-biomarkers-in-brain-trauma
#1
REVIEW
Gaurav S Tomar, Gyaninder P Singh, Dhruba Lahkar, Kangana Sengar, Richa Nigam, Monisha Mohan, Roy Anindya
Brain-specific biomolecules are being increasingly investigated as a viable alternative to the clinical scores and radiological features, on which we still rely upon for stratification, therapy and predicting outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI generally leads to release of various chemical compound within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood depending on the severity of injury, which were studied variedly in last decades. However, most of these compounds being non-specific to brain, their applicability was challenged further...
October 18, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342807/the-profile-of-blunt-traumatic-infratentorial-cranial-bleed-types
#2
Isaac Ng, Nikolay Bugaev, Ron Riesenburger, Aaron C Shpiner, Janis L Breeze, Sandra S Arabian, Reuven Rabinovici
Infratentorial traumatic intracranial bleeds (ICBs) are rare and the distribution of subtypes is unknown. To characterize this distribution the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) 2014 was queried for adults with single type infratentorial ICB, n = 1,821: subdural hemorrhage (SDH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), epidural hemorrhage (EDH), and intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH). Comparisons were made between the groups with statistical significance determined using chi squared and t-tests. SDH occurred in 29% of patients, mostly in elderly on anti-coagulants (13%) after a fall (77%), 42% of them underwent craniotomy, their mortality was the lowest (4%)...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342183/pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-and-ocular-injury
#3
Ryan Gise, Timothy Truong, David M Poulsen, Yssra Soliman, Afshin Parsikia, Joyce N Mbekeani
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of pediatric disability and mortality. Together with sight-threatening ocular injuries, TBIs may lead to devastating consequences in developing children and complicate rehabilitation. We sought to investigate this relationship in pediatric patients admitted with major trauma. METHODS: The records of pediatric patients admitted with ocular injury and concomitant TBI were reviewed retrospectively using the National Trauma Data Bank (2008-2014)...
October 17, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342062/insights-into-cognitive-pupillometry-evaluation-of-the-utility-of-pupillary-metrics-for-assessing-cognitive-load-in-normative-and-clinical-samples
#4
Jamie N Hershaw, Mark L Ettenhofer
Despite increasing use of pupillometry to understand cognitive deficits in clinical populations, there is no consensus on what pupillary metrics are most useful. In this study, we compare the reliability, sensitivity to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cognitive load differences, and the likelihood of replication between various pupillary metrics. Raw pupil diameter was recorded from 15 patients with chronic mild TBI and 23 uninjured controls while they performed a cognitive task with three levels of cognitive load...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341775/measuring-change-in-gait-performance-of-children-with-motor-disorders-assessing-the-functional-mobility-scale-and-the-gillette-functional-assessment-questionnaire-walking-scale
#5
Corinne Ammann-Reiffer, Caroline H G Bastiaenen, Hubertus J A Van Hedel
AIM: To examine the responsiveness and minimal important change (MIC) of two gait performance measures, the Functional Mobility Scale (FMS) and the Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire walking scale (FAQ), in a paediatric inpatient setting. METHOD: Sixty-four children and adolescents with a motor disorder, including cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, or stroke (25 females, 39 males; mean age [SD] 12y 6mo [3y 2mo], range 6-18y 6mo), were recruited. Physiotherapists scored the FMS and FAQ at the start and end of active gait rehabilitation...
October 19, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341741/the-shrinking-brain-cerebral-atrophy-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Taylor C Harris, Rijk de Rooij, Ellen Kuhl
Cerebral atrophy in response to traumatic brain injury is a well-documented phenomenon in both primary investigations and review articles. Recent atrophy studies focus on exploring the region-specific patterns of cerebral atrophy; yet, there is no study that analyzes and synthesizes the emerging atrophy patterns in a single comprehensive review. Here we attempt to fill this gap in our current knowledge by integrating the current literature into a cohesive theory of preferential brain tissue loss and by identifying common risk factors for accelerated atrophy progression...
October 17, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341523/a-retrospective-analysis-of-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-children-with-hemophilia-a
#7
Qun Hu, Ai Zhang, Ai-Guo Liu, Song-Mi Wang, Ya-Qin Wang, Liu-Qing Zhang
To investigate the incidence, risk factors, clinical manifestations and prognosis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in children with hemophilia A in a center of China, we conducted a retrospective analysis of 126 children with hemophilia A at our hospital in recent 4 years. Thirty-six children with hemophilia A (including 19 severe cases, and 17 moderate cases complicated with joint diseases) received low dose factor VIII (FVIII) prophylaxis, and none of them had ICH. However, 13 cases of hemophilia A not given prophylaxis were complicated with ICH (12 severe cases, and 1 moderate case) and demonstrated an incidence of 10...
October 2018: Current medical science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339056/characterization-and-etiology-of-swollen-muzzles-in-irradiated-mice
#8
Joy Garrett, Carol H Sampson, P Artur Plett, Robin Crisler, Jeffrey Parker, Richard Venezia, Hui Lin Chua, Debra L Hickman, Catherine Booth, Thomas MacVittie, Christie M Orschell, Joseph R Dynlacht
Several investigators performing bone marrow transplantation studies have previously reported sporadic increases in mortality that were associated with pronounced swelling in the face, head and neck of mice. Over the past few years, we and others have noted an increasing number of experiments in which mice that have received total-body irradiation (TBI) or partial-body irradiation (PBI) develop swollen muzzles, drastic thickening of the upper lip and redness, bruising and/or swelling around the nose and muzzle and sometimes over the top of the head...
October 19, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338903/the-peripheral-atherosclerotic-profile-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-warrants-a-thorough-vascular-assessment-of-asymptomatic-patients
#9
Lía Nattero-Chávez, Sandra Redondo López, Sara Alonso Díaz, Marta Garnica Ureña, Elena Fernández-Durán, Héctor F Escobar-Morreale, Manuel Luque-Ramírez
AIMS: Epidemiological data on subclinical atherosclerotic disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) are scarce. We aimed to estimate the subclinical atherosclerosis profile of asymptomatic patients with DM1 and an abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional design (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02910271), we estimated ABI in 289 consecutive asymptomatic patients with DM1. An abnormal ABI led to measurements of toe-brachial index (TBI) and peripheral doppler ultrasound (DUS) to diagnose peripheral artery disease (PAD) and/or atherosclerotic carotid plaques (ACP)...
October 19, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337986/high-il-1%C3%AE-serum-as-a-predictor-of-decreased-cognitive-function-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#10
Dewa Putu Gede Purwa Samatra, Ni Made Dwita Pratiwi, I Putu Eka Widyadharma
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) exerts a significant impact on society with regards to physical, affective, and cognitive impairment. The consequent cognitive sequelae include a problem in memory, attention, concentration, and processing speed. Following traumatic brain injury, inflammatory response developed, characterised by increased interleukin 1-β (IL-1β) levels in the blood. IL 1-β at pathophysiological concentration has been reported to cause an inhibition of the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the areas CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus...
September 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337835/using-double-pulsed-field-gradient-mri-to-study-tissue-microstructure-in-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi
#11
Michal E Komlosh, Dan Benjamini, Elizabeth B Hutchinson, Sarah King, Margalit Haber, Alexandru V Avram, Lynne A Holtzclaw, Abhishek Desai, Carlo Pierpaoli, Peter J Basser
Double pulsed-field gradient (dPFG) MRI is proposed as a new sensitive tool to detect and characterize tissue microstructure following diffuse axonal injury. In this study dPFG MRI was used to estimate apparent mean axon diameter in a diffuse axonal injury animal model and in healthy fixed mouse brain. Histological analysis was used to verify the presence of the injury detected by MRI.
October 2018: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials: the Official Journal of the International Zeolite Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337090/a-new-clinical-score-for-cranial-computed-tomography-in-emergency-department-non-trauma-patients-definition-and-first-validation
#12
Marcello Covino, Emanuele Gilardi, Alberto Manno, Benedetta Simeoni, Veronica Ojetti, Chiara Cordischi, Evelina Forte, Luigi Carbone, Simona Gaudino, Francesco Franceschi
INTRODUCTION: Well recognized guidelines are available for the use of cranial computed tomography (CCT) in traumatic patients, while no definitely accepted standards exists to for CCT in patients without history of head injury. The aim of this study is to propose an easy clinical score to stratify the need of CCT in emergency department (ED) patients with suspect non-traumatic intracranial pathology. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients presenting to the ED for neurological deficit, postural instability, acute headache, altered mental status, seizures, confusion, dizziness, vertigo, syncope, and pre-syncope...
September 19, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336991/traumatic-brain-injury-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-and-alzheimer-disease
#13
REVIEW
Roula Al-Dahhak, Rita Khoury, Erum Qazi, George T Grossberg
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health and economic burden. With increasing aging population, this issue is expected to continue to rise. Neurodegenerative disorders are more common with aging population in general regardless of history of TBI. Recent evidence continues to support a relation between a TBI and neurocognitive decline later in life (such as in athletes and military). This article summarizes the pathologic and clinical effects of TBI (regardless of severity) on the later development of dementia in individuals 65 years or older...
November 2018: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336936/the-risk-of-delayed-intracranial-hemorrhage-with-direct-acting-oral-anticoagulants-after-trauma-a-two-center-study
#14
Galinos Barmparas, Leslie Kobayashi, Navpreet K Dhillon, Kavita A Patel, Eric J Ley, Raul Coimbra, Daniel R Margulies
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to characterize the risk of a delayed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in trauma patients on direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs). METHODS: Patients on DOACs admitted to two Level I Trauma Centers between 2014 and 2017 were reviewed. Only patients with a negative admission CT brain were included. The primary outcome was a delayed ICH. RESULTS: Overall, 249 patients were included. The median age was 81 years with 82% undergoing a repeat CT...
October 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336803/neuropolypathology-as-a-result-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Colin P Doherty, Eoin O'Keeffe, James Keaney, Brian Lawlor, Robert F Coen, Michael Farrell, Matthew Campbell
A history of brain trauma has long been acknowledged as increasing an individual's risk of developing dementia in later life. The underlying mechanisms that belie this pre-disposition are, however, very poorly understood. Here, we report a clinical-neuropathological correlation of a man who presented at the age of 66 with a progressive complex atypical dementia with early and prominent neurobehavioral symptoms. His neurological condition continued to decline up to his death at the age of 74. During the compilation of his clinical history, it was established that the subject had experienced a single severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) aged 12 years in 1954 resulting in loss of consciousness, hospitalization, and coma for a number of days after which he was deemed to have recovered...
October 19, 2018: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336400/perineal-stimulation-triggering-seizures-in-a-child-with-dravet-syndrome
#16
Puneet Jain, Pratima Gulati, Daad Alsowat, Miguel A Cortez, O Carter Snead, Robyn Whitney
The reported case demonstrates the clinical and EEG features of an interesting seizure precipitant in a child with Dravet Syndrome. It also showed exacerbation of preexisting epilepsy by mild head injury.
October 9, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336178/susceptibility-of-the-cerebral-cortex-to-spreading-depolarization-in-neurological-disease-states-the-impact-of-aging
#17
REVIEW
Péter Hertelendy, Dániel P Varga, Ákos Menyhárt, Ferenc Bari, Eszter Farkas
Secondary injury following acute brain insults significantly contributes to poorer neurological outcome. The spontaneous, recurrent occurrence of spreading depolarization events (SD) has been recognized as a potent secondary injury mechanism in subarachnoid hemorrhage, malignant ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. In addition, SD is the underlying mechanism of the aura symptoms of migraineurs. The susceptibility of the nervous tissue to SD is subject to the metabolic status of the tissue, the ionic composition of the extracellular space, and the functional status of ion pumps, voltage-gated and other cation channels, glutamate receptors and excitatory amino acid transporters...
October 15, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336070/social-cue-perception-and-mentalizing-ability-following-traumatic-brain-injury-a-human-robot-interaction-study
#18
Bilge Mutlu, Melissa Duff, Lyn Turkstra
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Research studies and clinical observations of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicate marked deficits in mentalizing-perceiving social information and integrating it into judgements about the affective and mental states of others. The current study investigates social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie mentalizing ability to advance our understanding of social consequences of TBI and inform the development of more effective clinical interventions. RESEARCH DESIGN: The study followed a mixed-design experiment, manipulating the presence of a mentalizing gaze cue across trials and participant population (TBI vs...
October 18, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335675/complex-feed-forward-and-feed-back-mechanisms-underlie-the-relationship-between-traumatic-brain-injury-and-the-gut-microbiota-brain-axis
#19
T Tyler Patterson, Susannah Nicholson, David Wallace, Gregory W J Hawryluk, Ramesh Grandhi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to nearly one in three injury-related deaths in the United States and accounts for a substantial public health burden and cost. The current literature reports that physiologic responses in the gastrointestinal system after TBI include, but are not limited to, epithelial barrier dysfunction, microbiota changes, and immunologic transformations. Recent evidence suggests gut alterations after TBI modify the homeostasis of the bidirectional gut-microbiota-brain axis, resulting in altered immune responses in the periphery and the brain...
October 17, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335637/evidence-based-physiatry-the-cdc-guideline-on-pediatric-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-the-expanded-role-of-physiatry
#20
Mary Alexis Iaccarino, Sabrina Paganoni, Ross Zafonte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
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