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"Head Injury" OR "Traumatic Brain Injury" OR "TBI"

Pengfei Han, Nicole Winkler, Cornelia Hummel, Antje Hähner, Johannes Gerber, Thomas Hummel
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a major public health problem may lead to olfactory dysfunction. However, little is known about brain responses to odors in TBI olfactory loss patients. Nineteen healthy controls and forty TBI olfactory dysfunctional patients (19 with hyposmia and 21 with anosmia) underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan when two odors (peach and coffee) were presented intranasally using a computerized olfactometer. Olfactory performance was measured using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Dimitrios Makrakis, Stefanos Veneris, Efrosini Papadaki
Multinodular and Vacuolating Neuronal Tumor (MVNT) has been included in the most recent (2016) World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System as unique cytoarchitectural pattern of gangliocytoma. We present a case of a MVNT incidentally discovered in a 22-year old male, who presented with seizures after a head injury. Conventional MRI revealed a left parietal lesion with characteristic tiny, coalescent, well-defined, non-enhancing nodules, located in the juxtacortical white matter with partial involvement of an otherwise normal adjacent cortex and characterized by slight relative increase of the cerebral blood volume (CBV), compared to the contralateral white matter (lesional CBV/contralateral CBV = 1...
October 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Enrico Gugliandolo, Ramona D'Amico, Marika Cordaro, Roberta Fusco, Rosalba Siracusa, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Rosanna Di Paola
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are an important public health challenge. In addition, subsequent events at TBI can compromise the quality of life of these patients. In fact, TBI is associated with several complications for both long and short term, some evidence shows how TBI is associated with a decline in cognitive functions such as the risk of developing dementia, cerebral atrophy, and Parkinson disease. After the direct damage from TBI, a key role in TBI injury is played by the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, that contributes to tissue damage and to neurodegenerative processes, typical of secondary injury, after TBI...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Sarah Kraft, Noémie Bollinger, Benjamin Bodenmann, Dominik Heim, Christoph Bucher, Claudia Lengerke, Martina Kleber, Dimitrios A Tsakiris, Jakob Passweg, Alexandar Tzankov, Michael Medinger
Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) remains a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We hypothesized that TA-TMA correlates with steroid-refractory acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGvHD) and assessed 660 patients suffering from either AML n = 248, ALL n = 79, CML n = 23, CLL n = 36, lymphoma/myeloma n = 127, MDS/MPN n = 124 or bone marrow failure n = 22, who met the study inclusion criteria and had undergone myeloablative (78%) and non-myeloablative (22%) allo-HSCT between 2006 and 2016...
August 14, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Terje Nordgarden, Peter Odland, Anne Berit Guttormsen, Kristina Stølen Ugelvik
BACKGROUND: Studies show increased mortality among severely injured patients not met by trauma team. Proper triage is important to ensure that all severely injured patients receive vital trauma care. In 2017 a new national trauma plan was implemented in Norway, which recommended the use of a modified version of "Guidelines for Field Triage of Injured Patients" to identify severely injured patients. METHODS: A retrospective study of 30,444 patients admitted to Haukeland University Hospital in 2013, with ICD-10 injury codes upon discharge...
August 14, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Thomas R McCarty, Thomas J Abramo, Robert T Maxson, Gregory Albert, Mallikarjuna R Rettiganti, Marie E Saylors, Jonathan W Orsborn, Amanda I Hollingsworth
OBJECTIVE: Hypothermia is an independent risk factor for mortality in adult trauma patients. Two small studies have shown similar results in pediatric trauma patients. Temperature is not included in any pediatric trauma assessment scores. This study sought to compare mortality and various descriptive outcomes between pediatric hypothermic and normothermic trauma patients. METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Trauma Database from 2009 to 2012. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were stratified by presence of isolated head injury, head injury with multiple trauma, and absence of head injury...
August 13, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Gonul Guvenc, Ceren Kizmazoglu, Hasan Emre Aydin
The primary aim of this paper is to investigate the neuroprotective and antiinflammatory effects of mannitol on optic nerve injury after acute traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and brain injury in rat models. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) were produced by a custom-made weight-drop impact acceleration device. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups. Group I (n = 10) was the sham group, group II (n = 10) received TBI, and group III (n = 10) received TBI + mannitol (1 mg/kg intravenously)...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Lin Zhu, Tao Tang, Rong Fan, Jie-Kun Luo, Han-Jin Cui, Chun-Hu Zhang, Wei-Jun Peng, Peng Sun, Xin-Gui Xiong, Yang Wang
Xuefu Zhuyu decoction has been used for treating traumatic brain injury and improving post-traumatic dysfunction, but its mechanism of action needs further investigation. This study established rat models of traumatic brain injury by controlled cortical impact. Rat models were intragastrically administered 9 and 18 g/kg Xuefu Zhuyu decoction once a day for 14 or 21 days. Changes in neurological function were assessed by modified neurological severity scores and the Morris water maze. Immunohistochemistry, western blot assay, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to analyze synapsin protein and mRNA expression at the injury site of rats...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Fernando Dobrachinski, Rogério R Gerbatin, Gláubia Sartori, Ronaldo M Golombieski, Alfredo Antoniazzi, Cristina W Nogueira, Luiz F Royes, Michele R Fighera, Lisiane O Porciúncula, Rodrigo A Cunha, Félix A A Soares
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, triggering chronic neurodegeneration underlying cognitive and mood disorder still without therapeutic prospects. Based on our previous observations that guanosine (GUO) attenuates short-term neurochemical alterations caused by TBI, this study investigated the effects of chronical GUO treatment in behavioral, molecular, and morphological disturbances 21 days after trauma. Rats subject to TBI displayed mood (anxiety-like) and memory dysfunction...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Thomas A Boyle, Kittu A Rao, Davis B Horkan, Marguerite L Bandeian, Juan E Sola, Charles A Karcutskie, Casey Allen, Eduardo A Perez, Edward B Lineen, Anthony R Hogan, Holly L Neville
BACKGROUND: Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death in children and adolescents. Injuries occurring during boating and recreational water sports are poorly described in the literature. Herein, we compare injuries from water sports to those resulting from motor vehicle collisions, which are better described in existing literature. METHODS: A retrospective review of 1935 consecutive pediatric trauma patients, as defined by age < 18 years, admitted to a single level-1 pediatric trauma center between January 2000 and August 2013 was performed...
August 13, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Jyoti A Chuckowree, Zhendan Zhu, Mariana Brizuela, Ka M Lee, Catherine A Blizzard, Tracey C Dickson
Microtubule dynamics underpin a plethora of roles involved in the intricate development, structure, function, and maintenance of the central nervous system. Within the injured brain, microtubules are vulnerable to misalignment and dissolution in neurons and have been implicated in injury-induced glial responses and adaptive neuroplasticity in the aftermath of injury. Unfortunately, there is a current lack of therapeutic options for treating traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thus, using a clinically relevant model of mild TBI, lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) in adult male Thy1-YFPH mice, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of the brain-penetrant microtubule-stabilizing agent, epothilone D...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Heather Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
K Bergen, M Frödin, C von Gertten, A -C Sandberg-Nordqvist, M K Sköld
Following traumatic brain injuries (TBI), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is cortically widely upregulated. This upregulation has a potential role in the recovery of neuronal tissue, plasticity, and neurotrophic activity, though the molecular mechanisms involved in IGF regulation and the exact role of IGF after TBI remain unclear. Vitronectin (VN), an extracellular matrix (ECM) molecule, has recently been shown to be of importance for IGF-mediated cellular growth and migration. Since VN is downregulated after TBI, we hypothesized that insufficient VN levels after TBI impairs the potential beneficial activity of IGF...
August 11, 2018: Brain Sciences
Donald R Dengel, Aaron S Kelly, Lei Zhang, Qi Wang, James S Hodges, Julia Steinberger, K Scott Baker
This study examined the effects of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and associated preparative regimens on vascular structure and function. Measures of carotid artery stiffness as well as brachial artery endothelial-dependent-dilation were obtained in patients who had survived ≥2 yrs after HCT for hematologic malignancy and were diagnosed at ≤21 yrs. HCT (n=108) survivors were examined; 66 received TBI alone or with a low dose cranial radiation boost (TBI+/-LD-CRT), 19 received TBI plus high dose cranial radiation (TBI+HD-CRT), and 23 received a chemotherapy-only preparative regimen (CHEMO)...
August 10, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Rohit Sharma, Lalit Janjani, Vishal Kulkarni, Seema Patrikar, Shailey Singh
PURPOSE: Autologous bone removed at the time of decompressive craniectomy (DC) is always the first choice for cranioplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of cranioplasty after DC by measuring the changes in the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, as well as to draw a comparison with the pre-cranioplasty FIM score and to evaluate the differences in the outcomes of cases managed by 2 methods: autologous bone (group I) or titanium mesh (group II)...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Corey Heitz, Justin Morgenstern, Christopher Bond, William K Milne
This is a validation of a pre-planned secondary analysis of the NEXUS II Head CT Decision Instrument, focusing on the pediatric population. 1,018 patients less than 18 years old, who underwent head CT imaging for blunt head trauma, were included. The decision instrument correctly identified all patient (27/27) who required neurosurgical intervention, and 48 of 49 patients who had clinically significant head injury on CT imaging. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 13, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Tomoo Watanabe, Yasuyuki Kawai, Asami Iwamura, Naoki Maegawa, Hidetada Fukushima, Kazuo Okuchi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in trauma patients. Patients with TBI frequently sustain concomitant injuries in extracranial regions. The effect of severe extracranial injury (SEI) on the outcome of TBI is controversial. For 8 years, we retrospectively enrolled 485 patients with the blunt head injury with head abbreviated injury scale (AIS) ≧ 3. SEI was defined as AIS ≧ 3 injuries in the face, chest, abdomen, and pelvis/extremities. Vital signs and coagulation parameter values were also extracted from the database...
August 11, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
(no author information available yet)
Moriarty, H., Winter, L., Short, T. H., & True, G. (2018). Exploration of factors related to depressive symptomatology in family members of military veterans with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Family Nursing, 24, 184-216. doi: 10.1177/1074840718773470 .
August 2018: Journal of Family Nursing
Ievgen Levadnyi, Jan Awrejcewicz, Yan Zhang, Márcio Fagundes Goethel, Yaodong Gu
This study investigated the influence of human head impact on the severity of traumatic brain injury. Simulation of the dynamic impact of a human head was performed using FEM (finite element method) and employing HIC (Head Injury Criterion). The study of traumatic brain injury included impacts with the occiput, temporal, forehead, and parietal part of the head, and the impact velocity at the surface ranged from 1 to 7 m/s. The following characteristics were considered and analyzed in the simulation: duration of the impact, intracranial pressure, HIC, and change in accelerations at the center of gravity of the brain...
2018: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Elizabeth Compton
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a syndrome classified by episodic presentation of abnormal sympathetic and motor symptoms observed in patients with acquired brain injuries. Although the exact physiologic mechanism of PSH is not fully understood, its clinical significance has been well-established. PSH diagnosis depends on the identification of symptom presence, severity, and patterns. Treatment of PSH is rooted in pharmacologic management of targeted symptoms. Although complex, recognition and management of PSH has meaningful implications on the hospitalization and recovery trajectory for adult patients with traumatic brain injuries...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
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