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"Head Injury" OR "Traumatic Brain Injury" OR "TBI"

Yll Agimi, Lemma Ebssa Regasa, Katharine C Stout
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant health issue that affects U.S. military service members (SM) at home and in combat deployments. We estimated the TBI incidence rate in the deployed and non-deployed setting between 2010 and 2014 and identified subgroups with elevated rates for prevention efforts. Methods: Retrospective population-based study of all active duty U.S. military SM that sustained a first active duty TBI diagnosis between January 2010 and December 2014 collected and analyzed in 2017...
December 4, 2018: Military Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2018: Military Medicine
Nathan Alkemade, Stephen C Bowden, Louis Salzman
Objective: The Gass correction model removes 14 items from the MMPI-2 which refer to neurological damage when assessing a person suffering a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous analysis supported ongoing inclusion of the five correction items from MMPI-2 Hs scale in individuals who suffered a TBI. This study investigates the remaining nine correction model items on the Hy and Sc scales. Participants: A sample of patients with a TBI (n = 242), and the MMPI-2 normative sample (n = 2,600)...
December 5, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Abigail C Gambrill, Regina L Faulkner, Caroline R McKeown, Hollis T Cline
Traumatic brain injuries introduce functional and structural circuit deficits that must be repaired for an organism to regain function. We developed an injury model in which Xenopus laevis tadpoles are given a penetrating stab wound that damages the optic tectal circuit and impairs visuomotor behavior. In tadpoles, as in other systems, injury induces neurogenesis. The newly generated neurons are thought to integrate into the existing circuit, however, whether they integrate via the same mechanisms that govern normal neuronal maturation during development is not understood...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Sara Reis Teixeira, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Carolina A Servin, Kshitij Mankad, Giulio Zuccoli
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a form of inflicted head injury. AHT is more frequent in 2-year-old or younger children. It is an important cause of neurological impairment and the major cause of death from head trauma in this age group. Brain magnetic resonance imaging allows the depiction of retinal hemorrhages, injured bridging veins, and identifying and localizing extra- and intra-axial bleeds, contusions, lacerations, and strokes. The diagnosis of AHT is a multidisciplinary team effort which includes a careful evaluation of social, clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Omar Akhand, Laura J Balcer, Steven L Galetta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review emerging vision-based assessments in the evaluation of concussion. RECENT FINDINGS: Involvement of the visual pathways is common following concussion, the mildest form of traumatic brain injury. The visual system contains widely distributed networks that are prone to neurophysiologic changes after a concussion, resulting in visual symptoms and ocular motor dysfunction. Vision-based testing is increasingly used to improve detection and assess head injury...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Matthew A Koenig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the management of cerebral edema, elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral herniation syndromes in neurocritical care. RECENT FINDINGS: While corticosteroids may be effective in reducing vasogenic edema around brain tumors, they are contraindicated in traumatic cerebral edema. Mannitol and hypertonic saline use should be tailored to patient characteristics including intravascular volume status. In patients with traumatic brain injury who are comatose, elevated ICP should be managed with an algorithmic, multitiered treatment protocol to maintain an ICP of 22 mm Hg or less...
December 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Tze Chao Wee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Sophie O'Keefe, Mandy Stanley, Kerry Adam, Natasha A Lannin
Purpose Addressing return to work early after neurological impairment from stroke or moderate and severe traumatic brain injury may improve likelihood of returning to employment, yet little is known about how best to organize work interventions for delivery in the inpatient hospital setting. The purpose of this scoping review was to identify knowledge gaps and inform program development in hospital-based work interventions. Method We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, OTSeeker and Embase for English-language articles published from database inception until March 2018...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
Lukas Grassner, Franz Marhold, Yousif Miron, Andreas Grillhösl, Karl Ungersboeck, Joachim Schulz, Martin Strowitzki
BACKGROUND: Decompressive craniectomy is a commonly performed procedure. It reduces intracranial pressure, improves survival, and thus might have a positive impact on several neurosurgical diseases and emergencies. Sometimes primary skin closure is not possible due to cerebral herniation or extensive skin defects. In order to prevent further restriction of the underlying tissue, a temporary skin expansion might be necessary. METHODS AND MATERIAL: We retrospectively reviewed patients in need for a temporary skin substitute because skin closure was not possible after craniectomy without violating brain tissue underneath in a time period of 6 years (2011-2016)...
December 4, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Masaki Mino, Miki Fujimura, Masahiro Yoshida, Shinya Sonobe, Teiji Tominaga
BACKGROUND: The optimal management strategy for cerebral contusion remains controversial, especially when standard craniotomy could not be used. We performed neuro-endoscopic target lesionectomy for the delayed progression of cerebral contusion in order to aspirate the necrotic core, which is the primal source of contusional edema. METHODS: The present study included 10 consecutive patients (2 women and 8 men, with a mean age of 67 years old) with traumatic brain injury presenting with delayed deterioration of cerebral contusion where standard craniotomy could not be used...
December 4, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Amr Eisa, Osama Farouk, Dalia G Mahran, Mahmoud Badran, Mohammad K Abdelnasser, Michael Samir, Vasiliki Kalampoki, Anahi Hurtado-Chong, Elke Rometsch, Aly Mohamedean, Faisal Adam
PURPOSE: The primary objective was to identify the predictors of in-hospital mortality after pelvic ring injuries. Secondary objectives were to analyze the differences between adults and children and to analyze the causes and timing of death. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study from the pelvic registry of Assiut University Trauma Unit (AUTU), a level 1 trauma centre in Upper Egypt, was carried out. A total of 1188 consecutive patients with pelvic ring fractures treated from January 2010 to December 2013 were eligible for analysis...
December 4, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Nidhi Ravishankar, Rolla Nuoman, Krishna Amuluru, Mohammad El-Ghanem, Venkatraman Thulasi, Neha S Dangayach, Kiwon Lee, Fawaz Al-Mufti
Standard management strategies for lowering intracranial pressure (ICP) in traumatic brain injury has been well-studied, but the use of lesser known interventions for ICP in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains elusive. Searches were performed in PubMed and EBSCO Host to identify best available evidence for evaluation and management of medically refractory ICP in SAH. The role of standard management strategies such as head elevation, hyperventilation, mannitol and hypertonic saline as well as lesser known management such as sodium bicarbonate, indomethacin, tromethamine, decompressive craniectomy, decompressive laparotomy, hypothermia, and barbiturate coma are reviewed...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Xiaowei Chen, CheukYing Tang, Hongwei Zhou, Zhenlan Li
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to observe residual brain function and responsiveness to amantadine in a patient in a vegetative state (VS) following traumatic brain injury. METHOD: We observed cerebral cortex activation in a 52-year-old man in a VS, and in a healthy individual using fMRI during passive listening and motor-imagery tasks. The patient received oral amantadine for 3 months. fMRI was repeated after treatment...
December 5, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Si A Lee, Myoung-Kwon Kim
BACKGROUND This study was conducted to investigate the effects of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on depression and cognition in patients with traumatic brain injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS To accomplish this, 13 patients who were diagnosed with traumatic brain injury were divided into an experimental group (n=7) and a control group (n=6). The experimental group received rTMS during a 30-minute session 5 days per week for 2 weeks; the control group received sham rTMS...
December 4, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Christine Migliorini, Libby Callaway, Sophie Moore, Grahame K Simpson
INTRODUCTION: The Family Outcome Measure (FOM-40) captures multidimensional data about well-being and capacity of family member as well as the relative with brain injury. This study aimed to produce a profile (positive and negative) of families supporting relatives with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and high support needs. METHODS: Thirty-eight dyads (family member plus relative with TBI and high daily support needs) participated in this cross-sectional survey-based pilot study...
December 4, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Clark Ryan-Gonzalez, Nathan Kimbrel, Eric C Meyer, Evan M Gordon, Bryann B DeBeer, Suzy Bird Gulliver, Timothy R Elliott, Sandra Mosissette
The relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and PTSD has been difficult to disentangle, in part due to the commonality of incidents that can cause both conditions, as well as high rates of comorbidity between the two conditions. Inconsistent findings may be related to different study characteristics and types of mTBI sustained (e.g., blast, non-blast). The objective of this study was to determine the association of blast-vs. non-blast related TBIs with long-term PTSD symptoms after controlling for demographic variables and trauma exposure...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Guangfu Di, Yuhai Zhang, Hua Liu, Xiaochun Jiang, Yong Liu, Kun Yang, Jiu Chen, Hongyi Liu
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative complications are common in patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy (DC) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about the degree of association between the postoperative complications and the long-term outcome of adult TBI patients after DC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of postoperative complications that influenced the long-term outcome of DC in TBI patients. METHOD: A total of 121 patients were studied up to 6 months after DC in TBI...
December 4, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Brian MacWhinney
Ongoing advances in computer technology have opened up a deluge of new datasets for understanding human behavior (Goldstone & Lupyan, 2016). Many of these datasets provide information on the use of written language. However, data on naturally occurring spoken-language conversations are much more difficult to obtain. A major exception to this is the TalkBank system, which provides online multimedia data for 14 types of spoken-language data: language in aphasia, child language, stuttering, child phonology, autism spectrum disorder, bilingualism, Conversation Analysis, classroom discourse, dementia, right hemisphere damage, Danish conversation, second language learning, traumatic brain injury, and daylong recordings in the home...
December 3, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
M Eriksson, E von Oelreich, O Brattström, J Eriksson, E Larsson, A Oldner
Background: High levels of circulating catecholamines after multiple trauma have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist (beta-blocker) therapy has emerged as a potential treatment option, but the effect of preinjury beta-blockade on trauma-induced mortality is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess whether preinjury beta-blocker therapy is associated with reduced mortality after multiple trauma. Methods: Severely injured patients, aged at least 50 years, admitted to a level one trauma centre over a 10-year interval were linked to national and local registries of co-morbidities, prescription drug use and level of education...
December 2018: BJS open
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