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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028948/volumes-of-the-spinal-canal-and-caudal-space-in-children-zero-to-three-years-of-age-assessed-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-implications-for-volume-dosage-of-caudal-blockade
#1
J Forestier, P Castillo, T Finnbogason, M Lundblad, S Eksborg, P A Lönnqvist
Background: The primary aim of this study was to objectively assess the different spinal and caudal volumes that are of interest for caudal block volume dosing. Methods: Three directly assessed (volume of spinal canal/caudal space, volume of the dural sac and volume of spinal cord) and two derived volumes (volume of the epidural space and cerebrospinal fluid volume) were determined from magnetic resonance images (MRI) in 20 children (zero - three yr of age). The assessed volumes were correlated to age, height and weight...
September 27, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025452/management-of-failed-spinal-anaesthesia-for-caesarean-section
#2
Gavin Wyndham Jones, Raphael Anthony Samuel, Bruce McClure Biccard
BACKGROUND: Failed spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section (CS) may be partial or complete and the subsequent discomfort is the most commonly cited cause of litigation in obstetric anaesthesia. OBJECTIVES: To determine if there is a standardised approach to: (i) testing the level of block of spinal anaesthesia; and (ii) the management of failed spinal anaesthesia for CS. METHODS: A structured questionnaire to ascertain the current practice of testing the level of block and management of three different scenarios of failed spinal anaesthesia was distributed to 51 government hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (SA)...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021191/enhancement-of-phrenic-long-term-facilitation-following-repetitive-acute-intermittent-hypoxia-is-blocked-by-the-glycolytic-inhibitor-2-deoxyglucose
#3
Peter M MacFarlane, Stephane Vinit, Gordon S Mitchell
Moderate acute intermittent hypoxia (mAIH) elicits a form of respiratory motor plasticity known as phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). Preconditioning with modest protocols of chronic intermittent hypoxia enhances pLTF, demonstrating pLTF metaplasticity. Since "low dose" protocols of repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia show promise as a therapeutic modality to restore respiratory (and non-respiratory) motor function in clinical disorders with compromised breathing, we tested the hypothesis that preconditioning with a mild repetitive AIH (rAIH) protocol enhances pLTF and hypoglossal (XII) LTF, and whether the enhancement is regulated by glycolytic flux...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020054/a-novel-approach-for-automatic-visualization-and-activation-detection-of-evoked-potentials-induced-by-epidural-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Samineh Mesbah, Claudia A Angeli, Robert S Keynton, Ayman El-Baz, Susan J Harkema
Voluntary movements and the standing of spinal cord injured patients have been facilitated using lumbosacral spinal cord epidural stimulation (scES). Identifying the appropriate stimulation parameters (intensity, frequency and anode/cathode assignment) is an arduous task and requires extensive mapping of the spinal cord using evoked potentials. Effective visualization and detection of muscle evoked potentials induced by scES from the recorded electromyography (EMG) signals is critical to identify the optimal configurations and the effects of specific scES parameters on muscle activation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991854/alkali-burn-induced-corneal-spontaneous-pain-and-activated-neuropathic-pain-matrix-in-the-central-nervous-system-in-mice
#5
Yan Xiang, Wenchang Zhou, Ping Wang, Hui Yang, Feng Gao, Hongbin Xiang, Anne Manyande, Yuke Tian, Xuebi Tian
PURPOSE: To explore whether alkali burn causes corneal neuropathic pain and activates the neuropathic pain matrix in the central nervous system in mice. METHODS: A corneal alkali burn mouse model (grade II) was used. The mechanical threshold in the cauterized area was tested using Von Frey hairs. Spontaneous pain behavior was investigated with conditioned place preference. Phosphor extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is a marker for neuronal activation in chronic pain processing, was investigated in several representative areas of the neuropathic pain matrix: the 2 regions of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (subnucleus interpolaris/caudalis, Vi/Vc; subnucleus caudalis/upper cervical cord, Vc/C1), insular cortex, anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), and the rostroventral medulla (RVM)...
November 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991062/electron-microscopy-of-dural-and-arachnoid-disruptions-after-subarachnoid-block
#6
Miguel Angel Reina, Anna Puigdellívol-Sánchez, Stephen P Gatt, José De Andrés, Alberto Prats-Galino, André van Zundert
BACKGROUND: It has been customary to attribute postdural puncture headache (PDPH) incidence and severity to size and nature of the dural hole produced during major neuraxial blockade or diagnostic dural puncture. Needle orientation in relation to the direction of dural fibers was thought to be of importance because of the propensity for horizontal bevel placement to cause cutting rather than splitting of the dural fibers. METHODS: In vitro punctures of stringently quality-controlled human dural sac specimens were obtained with 27-gauge (27G) Whitacre needle (n = 33), with 29G Quincke used parallel to the spinal axis (n = 30), and with 29G Quincke in perpendicular approach (n = 40)...
October 5, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983455/long-term-cognitive-and-somatic-outcomes-of-enzyme-replacement-therapy-in-untransplanted-hurler-syndrome
#7
Julie B Eisengart, Jeanine Jarnes, Alia Ahmed, Igor Nestrasil, Richard Ziegler, Kathleen Delaney, Elsa Shapiro, Chester Whitley
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) was added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for newborn screening in 2016, highlighting recognition that early treatment of MPS I is critical to stem progressive, irreversible disease manifestations. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is an approved treatment for all MPS I phenotypes, but because the severe form (MPS IH, Hurler syndrome) involves rapid neurocognitive decline, the impermeable blood-brain-barrier is considered an obstacle for ERT. Instead, hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has long been recommended, as it is believed to be the only therapy that arrests neurocognitive decline...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977946/combination-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-sheet-and-platelet-rich-plasma-for-posterolateral-lumbar-fusion
#8
Zunpeng Liu, Yue Zhu, Rui Ge, Jiajun Zhu, Xiaoning He, Xue Yuan, Xinchun Liu
Bone tissue engineering provides a substitute for bone transplantation in spinal fusion. This study examined if combined bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) sheet with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could promote bone regeneration in a rabbit posterolateral spinal fusion model. BMSCs was isolated and confirmed by Flow cytometric analysis and immunofluorescence staining. The morphology of BMSCs was examined by Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. BMSCs were cultured in induction medium or control medium...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977438/spinal-muscular-atrophy-antisense-oligonucleotide-therapy-opens-the-door-to-an-integrated-therapeutic-landscape
#9
Matthew J A Wood, Kevin Talbot, Melissa Bowerman
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating neuromuscular disorder characterized by loss of spinal cord motor neurons, muscle atrophy and infantile death or severe disability. It is caused by severe reduction of the ubiquitously expressed survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, owing to loss of the SMN1 gene. This would be completely incompatible with survival without the presence of a quasi-identical duplicated gene, SMN2, specific to humans. SMN2 harbours a silent point mutation that favours the production of transcripts lacking exon 7 and a rapidly degraded non-functional SMNΔ7 protein, but from which functional full length SMN protein is produced at very low levels (∼10%)...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975565/inhibition-of-%C3%AE-ark1-ameliorates-morphine-induced-tolerance-and-hyperalgesia-via-modulating-the-activity-of-spinal-nmda-receptors
#10
Xue Zhang, Shaorui Chen, Hong Chen, Huilin Pan, Yilin Zhao
Our previous study has proposed that increased presynaptic NMDARs activities play pivotal roles in the development of opioid tolerance and hyperalgesia, and blocking spinal NMDARs attenuates chronic morphine-induced synaptic plasticity and behavior. However, the cellular signaling mechanisms remain to be investigated. The aim of this research was to address the role of β-ARK1 in opioid analgesia. Opioid tolerance and hyperalgesia was induced by daily systemic morphine injections in rats for eight consecutive days...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974849/comparison-of-hemodynamic-changes-in-unilateral-spinal-anesthesia-versus-epidural-anesthesia-below-the-t10-sensory-level-in-unilateral-surgeries-a-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Alieh Zamani Kiasari, Anahita Babaei, Abbas Alipour, Shima Motevalli, Afshin Gholipour Baradari
BACKGROUND: Unilateral spinal anesthesia is used to limit the spread of block. The aim of the present study was to compare hemodynamic changes and complications in unilateral spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia below the T10 sensory level in unilateral surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial in total 120 patients were randomly divided into a unilateral spinal anesthesia group (Group S) and an epidural anesthesia group (Group E)...
August 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974578/lysine-acylation-in-superoxide-dismutase-1-electrostatically-inhibits-formation-of-fibrils-with-prion-like-seeding
#12
Sanaz Rasouli, Alireza Abdolvahabi, Corbin M Croom, Devon L Plewman, Yunhua Shi, Jacob I Ayers, Bryan F Shaw
The acylation of lysine residues in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) has been previously shown to decrease its rate of nucleation and elongation into amyloid-like fibrils linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The chemical mechanism underlying this effect is unclear, i.e. hydrophobic/steric effects versus electrostatic effects. Moreover, the degree to which the acylation might alter the prion-like seeding of SOD1 in in vivo has not been addressed. Here, we acylated a fraction of lysine residues in SOD1 with groups of variable hydrophobicity, charge, and conformational entropy...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974305/ultrasound-guided-stellate-ganglion-block-improves-gastrointestinal-function-after-thoracolumbar-spinal-surgery
#13
Ke Peng, Juan Zhang, Wei-Rong Chen, Hua-Yue Liu, Fu-Hai Ji
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of stellate ganglion block (SGB) on gastrointestinal function after thoracolumbar spinal surgery. METHODS: Forty patients with thoracolumbar fracture scheduled for posterior spinal surgery were randomly assigned to 2 groups: ultrasound-guided SGB or sham (control group). After induction, ultrasound-guided SGB (n = 20) or a sham procedure (n = 20) was conducted with a 6-mL injection of 1% lidocaine or 0...
September 30, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973941/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-g-csf-signaling-in-spinal-microglia-drives-visceral-sensitization-following-colitis
#14
Lilian Basso, Tamia K Lapointe, Mircea Iftinca, Candace Marsters, Morley D Hollenberg, Deborah M Kurrasch, Christophe Altier
Pain is a main symptom of inflammatory diseases and often persists beyond clinical remission. Although we have a good understanding of the mechanisms of sensitization at the periphery during inflammation, little is known about the mediators that drive central sensitization. Recent reports have identified hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors as important regulators of tumor- and nerve injury-associated pain. Using a mouse model of colitis, we identify the proinflammatory cytokine granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF or Csf-3) as a key mediator of visceral sensitization...
October 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973650/bupivacaine-field-block-with-clonidine-for-postoperative-pain-control-in-posterior-spine-approaches-a-randomized-double-blind-trial
#15
Joe Abdel Hay, Sandra Kobaiter-Maarrawi, Patrick Tabet, Ronald Moussa, Tony Rizk, Georges Nohra, Nabil Okais, Elie Samaha, Jospeh Maarrawi
BACKGROUND: The synergistic effect of clonidine with bupivacaine, well established in peripheral nerve blocks, remains controversial in local field block for postoperative analgesia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential analgesic benefit of adding clonidine to bupivacaine during preincisional field block in posterior approaches for spine surgeries. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-five patients were enrolled in this study and underwent lumbar spinal fusion (n = 80), lumbar laminectomy (n = 25), lumbar microdiscectomy (n = 94), or cervical laminectomy (n = 26)...
July 21, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972191/effects-of-acute-intermittent-hypoxia-on-hand-use-after-spinal-cord-trauma-a-preliminary-study
#16
Randy D Trumbower, Heather B Hayes, Gordon S Mitchell, Steven L Wolf, Victoria A Stahl
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that daily acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) combined with hand opening practice improves hand dexterity, function, and maximum hand opening in persons with chronic, motor-incomplete, cervical spinal cord injury. METHODS: Six participants completed the double-blind, crossover study. Participants received daily (5 consecutive days) AIH (15 episodes per day: 1.5 minutes of fraction of inspired oxygen [FIo2] = 0.09, 1-minute normoxic intervals) followed by 20 repetitions of hand opening practice and normoxia (sham, FIo2 = 0...
September 29, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970100/early-intensive-hand-rehabilitation-is-not-more-effective-than-usual-care-plus-one-to-one-hand-therapy-in-people-with-sub-acute-spinal-cord-injury-hands-on-a-randomised-trial
#17
Lisa A Harvey, Sarah A Dunlop, Leonid Churilov, Mary P Galea
QUESTION: What is the effect of adding an intensive task-specific hand-training program involving functional electrical stimulation to a combination of usual care plus three 15-minute sessions per week of one-to-one hand therapy in people with sub-acute tetraplegia? DESIGN: A parallel group, randomised, controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) via a computer-generated concealed block randomisation procedure to either a control or experimental intervention...
October 2017: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965122/effect-of-baricity-of-bupivacaine-on-median-effective-doses-for-motor-block
#18
Ming-Quan Chen, Chun Chen, Lin Li
BACKGROUND The median effective dose (ED50) of a drug gives the amount or dose of drug needed to produce effective therapeutic response or desired effect in at least 50% of the population taking it. Our study focused on determining the ED50 required for effective motor block using hyperbaric and plain bupivacaine, and evaluated the influence of baricity on the ED50 required for motor block. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 38 patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups according to the baricity of bupivacaine: group P received plain bupivacaine and group H received hyperbaric bupivacaine...
October 1, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963951/effectiveness-of-bis-phenylimidazoselenazolyl-diselenide-on-a-mouse-model-of-inflammatory-nociception
#19
Pietro Maria Chagas, Bruna da Cruz Weber Fulco, Ana Paula Pesarico, Juliano Alex Roehrs, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
The injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the hindpaw of rodents induces tissue inflammation and nociceptive hypersensitivity. In addition, it has been reported that organoselenium compounds have antinociceptive properties in animal models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential antinociceptive effect of bis(phenylimidazoselenazolyl) diselenide (BPIS) in the inflammatory nociception model in mice and its possible mechanism of action. C57BL/6 mice received CFA intraplantar in right hindpaw and the inflammatory response was verified 24h after injection as well as the antinociceptive effect of BPIS...
September 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963585/effects-of-eugenol-on-respiratory-burst-generation-in-newborn-rat-brainstem-spinal-cord-preparations
#20
Sayumi Kotani, Saki Irie, Masahiko Izumizaki, Hiroshi Onimaru
Eugenol is contained in several plants including clove and is used as an analgesic drug. In the peripheral and central nervous systems, this compound modulates neuronal activity through action on voltage-gated ionic channels and/or transient receptor potential channels. However, it is unknown whether eugenol exerts any effects on the respiratory center neurons in the medulla. We examined the effects of eugenol on respiratory rhythm generation in the brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rat (P0-P3)...
September 29, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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