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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735748/behaviorally-selective-engagement-of-short-latency-effector-pathways-by-motor-cortex
#1
Andrew Miri, Claire L Warriner, Jeffrey S Seely, Gamaleldin F Elsayed, John P Cunningham, Mark M Churchland, Thomas M Jessell
Blocking motor cortical output with lesions or pharmacological inactivation has identified movements that require motor cortex. Yet, when and how motor cortex influences muscle activity during movement execution remains unresolved. We addressed this ambiguity using measurement and perturbation of motor cortical activity together with electromyography in mice during two forelimb movements that differ in their requirement for cortical involvement. Rapid optogenetic silencing and electrical stimulation indicated that short-latency pathways linking motor cortex with spinal motor neurons are selectively activated during one behavior...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733159/the-impact-of-a-bladder-training-video-versus-standard-urotherapy-on-quality-of-life-of-children-with-bladder-and-bowel-dysfunction-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
N Brownrigg, L H Braga, M Rickard, F Farrokhyar, B Easterbrook, A Dekirmendjian, K Jegatheeswaran, J DeMaria, A J Lorenzo
INTRODUCTION: Bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) can negatively impact the quality of life (QoL) of children. Urotherapy is an accepted treatment option for BBD; however, literature that examines the impact of management options on QoL in this population is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a bladder training video (BTV) is non-inferior to standard urotherapy (SU) in improving QoL in children with BBD. METHODS: Children aged 5-10 years and who scored ≥11 on the Vancouver Non-Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction/Dysfunctional Elimination Syndrome Questionnaire (NLUTD/DES) were recruited from a pediatric tertiary care center...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731982/peripheral-oxytocin-receptors-inhibit-the-nociceptive-input-signal-to-spinal-dorsal-horn-wide-dynamic-range-neurons
#3
Abimael González-Hernández, Alfredo Manzano-García, Guadalupe Martínez-Lorenzana, Irma A Tello-García, Martha Carranza, Carlos Arámburo, Miguel Condés-Lara
Oxytocin has emerged as a mediator of endogenous analgesia in behavioral and electrophysiological experiments. In fact, oxytocin receptors (OTRs) in the spinal dorsal horn participate in a selective inhibition of the neuronal activity mediated by Aδ- and C-fibers but not Aβ-fibers. This study shows that OTRs are expressed in the terminal nerve endings and are able to inhibit nociceptive neuronal firing. Indeed, local peripheral oxytocin blocked the first sensorial activity Aδ- and C-fibers recorded in the spinal cord neurons...
July 19, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730748/extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-activation-in-the-spinal-cord-contributes-to-visceral-hypersensitivity-induced-by-craniofacial-injury-followed-by-stress
#4
Y-J Zhao, J-H Li, B Hu, Y Wang, X-F Chang, R J Traub, D-Y Cao
BACKGROUND: We previously developed an animal model to examine mechanisms that underlie the emergence of visceral hypersensitivity modeling pain characteristics of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients with comorbid irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In ovariectomized (OVx) rats with estradiol (E2) replacement, visceral hypersensitivity developed subsequent to masseter muscle inflammation followed by repeated forced swim (FS) stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the spinal cord contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in this overlapping pain model...
July 21, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728911/effects-of-riluzole-on-spinal-seizure-like-activity-in-the-brainstem-spinal-cord-preparation-of-newborn-rat
#5
Shih Tien Lin, Masayuki Ohbayashi, Toshinori Yamamoto, Hiroshi Onimaru, Mari Kogo
Riluzole blocks persistent Na(+) current, inhibits generation of neuronal bursts and decreases glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In previous studies of respiratory activity, riluzole suppressed inspiratory-related burst generation activity in rat slice or en bloc preparations. We examined riluzole's effects on inspiratory burst generation and drug-induced seizure-like activity in newborn rat en bloc preparations. Medulla-spinal cord preparations from postnatal day 0-3 Wistar rats were isolated under deep isoflurane anesthesia and were superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid equilibrated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2, pH 7...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722336/evidence-for-the-modulation-of-nociception-in-mice-by-central-mast-cells
#6
C L Kissel, K J Kovács, A A Larson
BACKGROUND: Hyperalgesia that develops following nerve ligation corresponds temporally and in magnitude with the number of thalamic mast cells located contralateral to the ligature. We tested the possibility that mast cells modulate nociception centrally, similar to their role in the periphery. METHODS: We examined the central effect of two hyperalgesic compounds that induce mast cell degranulation and of stabilized mast cells using cromolyn. RESULTS: Thermal hyperalgesia (tail flick) induced by nerve growth factor (NGF, a neurotrophic compound) and mechanical hyperalgesia (von Frey) induced by dynorphin A (1-17) (opioid compound) each correlated with the per cent of thalamic mast cells that were degranulated...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720393/maxillary-nerve-blocks-in-horses-an-experimental-comparison-of-surface-landmark-and-ultrasound-guided-techniques
#7
Stephanie Stauffer, Beckie Cordner, Jonathon Dixon, Thomas Witte
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this preliminary proof-of-concept study was to evaluate and compare the success and complication rate of infiltration of the maxillary nerve of cadaver heads using previously described surface landmarks, standard ultrasound and a novel needle guidance positioning ultrasound system (SonixGPS). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, anatomical, method-comparison study. ANIMALS: Thirty-eight equine cadaver heads. METHODS: Twenty-six veterinary students performed the three methods consecutively on cadaver heads using an 18 gauge, 8...
April 6, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718992/melatonin-impedes-tet1-dependent-mglur5-promoter-demethylation-to-relieve-pain
#8
Ming-Chun Hsieh, Yu-Cheng Ho, Cheng-Yuan Lai, Dylan Chou, Hsueh-Hsiao Wang, Gin-Den Chen, Tzer-Bin Lin, Hsien-Yu Peng
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine)/MT2 receptor-dependent epigenetic modification represents a novel pathway in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Because spinal ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (Tet1)-dependent epigenetic demethylation has recently been linked to pain hypersensitivity, we hypothesized that melatonin/MT2-dependent analgesia involves spinal Tet1-dependent demethylation. Here, we showed that spinal Tet1 gene transfer by intrathecal delivery of Tet1-encoding vectors to naïve rats produced profound and long-lasting nociceptive hypersensitivity...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718273/3d-quantitative-evaluation-of-spine-proprioceptive-perception-motor-control-through-instinctive-self-correction-manoeuvre-in-healthy-young-subjects-posture-an-observational-study
#9
Moreno D'Amico, Edyta Kinel, Piero Roncoletta
BACKGROUND: Conservative treatment in spine deformities and spine related disorders is mainly based on proper individual proprioceptive and motor control training. For these reasons, conservative treatment involves the stimulation of individual capability of perceiving/reducing deformities, blocks and/or improper spine posture by voluntary control. The literature describes that habitually adopted relaxed postures often exacerbate low back pain. Typically, youths can be referred to therapeutic programs aimed at improving the quality of body posture along with fostering the awareness of the importance of correct posture...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718233/haemodynamic-preservation-in-caesarean-sections-by-low-dose-0-5-hyperbaric-bupivacaine
#10
Maqsood Ahmad, Mumtaz Ahmad, Naveel Atif
BACKGROUND: Spinal anaesthesia is technique of choice for caesarean sections and hyperbaric bupivacaine is a recommended drug for this popular block. Although safe but few complications are haemodynamic changes, postdural puncture headache, cauda equina syndrome and radiculopathy. However, hypotension remains the common side effect which is believed to occur in 95% of patients resulting in reduction of uteroplacental perfusion causing foetal acid-base abnormalities. Various doses regimes are in safe anaesthesia practice for providing regional anaesthesia for such patients with least detrimental effects on foetal outcome...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717545/low-dose-lignocaine-butorphanol-vs-low-dose-bupivacaine-for-spinal-anaesthesia-in-day-care-urological-surgeries-a-prospective-randomized-control-trial
#11
Shahil Rameshbhai Khant, Rajeev Chaudhari, Rishikesh Arun Kore, Shirish Bhagwat, Ranjan Purushottam Jakhalekar
OBJECTIVE: A local anaesthetic with fast onset, short and reliable duration of anaesthesia may be preferable for day care urological surgeries. Low dose lignocaine is believed to act faster and to have a shorter duration of action than low dose bupivacaine. Use of lignocaine for spinal anesthesia is discouraged now a days because of rare reports of transient neurological symptoms. The purpose of this study was to compare effectiveness and safety of low dose of lignocaine + butorphanol against low dose of bupivacaine for day care urological surgeries...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716633/the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win55212-2-ameliorates-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-via-inhibition-of-gapdh-siah1-in-a-cb2-receptor-dependent-manner
#12
Bin-Xiao Su, Xin Chen, Jia Huo, Shu-Yun Guo, Rui Ma, Yan-Wu Liu
The essential role of GAPDH/Siah1 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of various injurious conditions such as traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has been gradually recognized. However, the drugs targeting this signaling pathway are still lacking. The endocannabinoid system, including its receptors (CB1 and CB2), act as neuroprotective and immunomodulatory modulators in SCI. WIN55212-2, an agonist for CB1 and CB2 receptors, has been demonstrated with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in multiple neurological diseases...
July 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709890/a-novel-collaborative-protocol-for-successful-management-of-penile-pain-mediated-by-radiculitis-of-sacral-spinal-nerve-roots-from-tarlov-cysts
#13
Irwin Goldstein, Barry R Komisaruk, Rachel S Rubin, Sue W Goldstein, Stacy Elliott, Jennifer Kissee, Choll W Kim
INTRODUCTION: Since 14 years of age, the patient had experienced extreme penile pain within seconds of initial sexual arousal through masturbation. Penile pain was so severe that he rarely proceeded to orgasm or ejaculation. After 7 years of undergoing multiple unsuccessful treatments, he was concerned for his long-term mental health and for his future ability to have relationships. AIM: To describe a novel collaboration among specialists in sexual medicine, neurophysiology, and spine surgery that led to successful management...
July 12, 2017: Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708665/hyperbaric-versus-isobaric-bupivacaine-for-spinal-anesthesia-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-adult-patients-undergoing-noncesarean-delivery-surgery
#14
Vishal Uppal, Susanne Retter, Harsha Shanthanna, Christopher Prabhakar, Dolores M McKeen
BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that the choice between isobaric bupivacaine and hyperbaric bupivacaine formulations alters the block characteristics for the conduct of surgery under spinal anesthesia. The aim of this study was to systematically review the comparative evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of the 2 formulations when used for spinal anesthesia for adult noncesarean delivery surgery. METHODS: Key electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials, excluding cesarean delivery surgeries under spinal anesthesia, without any language or date restrictions...
July 13, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704209/robotic-hand-assisted-training-for-spinal-cord-injury-driven-by-myoelectric-pattern-recognition-a-case-report
#15
Zhiyuan Lu, Kai-Yu Tong, Henry Shin, Argyrios Stampas, Ping Zhou
A 51-year-old man with an incomplete C6 spinal cord injury sustained 26 yrs ago attended twenty 2-hr visits over 10 wks for robot-assisted hand training driven by myoelectric pattern recognition. In each visit, his right hand was assisted to perform motions by an exoskeleton robot, while the robot was triggered by his own motion intentions. The hand robot was designed for this study, which can perform six kinds of motions, including hand closing/opening; thumb, index finger, and middle finger closing/opening; and middle, ring, and little fingers closing/opening...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699677/metformin-ameliorates-bscb-disruption-by-inhibiting-neutrophil-infiltration-and-mmp-9-expression-but-not-direct-tj-proteins-expression-regulation
#16
Di Zhang, Qian Tang, Gang Zheng, Chenggui Wang, Yifei Zhou, Yaosen Wu, Jun Xuan, Naifeng Tian, Xiangyang Wang, Yan Wu, Huazi Xu, Xiaolei Zhang
Blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption is a major process for the secondary injury of spinal cord injury (SCI) and is considered to be a therapeutic target for SCI. Previously, we demonstrated that metformin could improve functional recovery after SCI; however, the effect of metformin on BSCB is still unknown. In this study, we found that metformin could prevent the loss of tight junction (TJ) proteins at day 3 after SCI in vivo, but in vitro there was no significant difference of these proteins between control and metformin treatment in endothelial cells...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694067/pharmacological-analysis-of-the-inhibition-produced-by-moxonidine-and-agmatine-on-the-vasodepressor-sensory-cgrpergic-outflow-in-pithed-rats
#17
Eloísa Rubio-Beltrán, Alejandro Labastida-Ramírez, Oswaldo Hernández-Abreu, Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink, Carlos M Villalón
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a role in several (patho)physiological functions, and modulation of its release is considered a therapeutic target. In this respect, electrical spinal (T9-T12) stimulation of the perivascular sensory outflow in pithed rats produces vasodepressor responses mediated by CGRP release. This study investigated the role of imidazoline I1 and I2 receptors in the inhibition by moxonidine and agmatine of these vasodepressor responses. Male Wistar pithed rats (pretreated i...
July 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687604/calpain-inhibition-is-protective-in-machado-joseph-disease-zebrafish-due-to-induction-of-autophagy
#18
Maxinne Watchon, Kristy C Yuan, Nick Mackovski, Adam J Svahn, Nicholas J Cole, Claire Goldsbury, Silke Rinkwitz, Thomas S Becker, Garth A Nicholson, Angela S Laird
The neurodegenerative disease Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), also known as spinocerebellar ataxin-3, affects neurons of the brain and spinal cord, disrupting control of the movement of muscles. We have successfully established the first transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of MJD, which express human ataxin-3 protein containing either 23 glutamines (23Q, wild-type) or 84Q (MJD-causing), within neurons. Phenotypic characterization of the zebrafish (male and female) revealed that the ataxin-3-84Q zebrafish have decreased survival compared to ataxin-3-23Q and develop ataxin-3 neuropathology, ataxin-3 cleavage fragments and motor impairment...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680607/spinal-epidural-hematoma-following-a-thoracic-epidural-in-a-child-with-sickle-cell-disease
#19
Madhankumar Sathyamoorthy, Benjamin Walker, Melissa M Rhodes, Ike Eriator
Acute liver dysfunction in the perioperative period may increase the risk of epidural hematoma in a patient with a neuraxial catheter. Coagulation testing needs to be carefully monitored in these patients. An epidural hematoma should be ruled out urgently by CT or MRI in cases of a persistent motor block.
July 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676927/feasibility-and-limits-of-inguinal-hernia-repair-under-local-anaesthesia-in-a-limited-resource-environment-a-prospective-controlled-study
#20
S Bourgouin, Y Goudard, A Montcriol, J Bordes, A Nau, P Balandraud
PURPOSE: Local anaesthesia (LA) has proven effective for inguinal hernia repair in developed countries. Hernias in low to middle income countries represent a different issue. The aim of this study was to analyse the feasibility of LA for African hernia repairs in a limited resource environment. METHODS: Data from patients who underwent herniorrhaphy under LA or spinal anaesthesia (SA) by the 6th and 7th Forward Surgical Team were prospectively collected. All of the patients benefited from a transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block for postoperative analgesia...
July 4, 2017: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
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