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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327597/molecular-signaling-underlying-bulleyaconitine-a-baa-induced-microglial-expression-of-prodynorphin
#1
Teng-Fei Li, Hai-Yun Wu, Yi-Rui Wang, Xin-Yan Li, Yong-Xiang Wang
Bulleyaconitine (BAA) has been shown to possess antinociceptive activities by stimulation of dynorphin A release from spinal microglia. This study investigated its underlying signal transduction mechanisms. The data showed that (1) BAA treatment induced phosphorylation of CREB (rather than NF-κB) and prodynorphin expression in cultured primary microglia, and antiallodynia in neuropathy, which were totally inhibited by the CREB inhibitor KG-501; (2) BAA upregulated phosphorylation of p38 (but not ERK or JNK), and the p38 inhibitor SB203580 (but not ERK or JNK inhibitor) and p38β gene silencer siRNA/p38β (but not siRNA/p38α) completely blocked BAA-induced p38 phosphorylation and/or prodynorphin expression, and antiallodynia; (3) BAA stimulated cAMP production and PKA phosphorylation, and the adenylate cyclase inhibitor DDA and PKA inhibitor H-89 entirely antagonized BAA-induced prodynorphin expression and antiallodynia; (4) The Gs-protein inhibitor NF449 completely inhibited BAA-increased cAMP level, prodynorphin expression and antiallodynia, whereas the antagonists of noradrenergic, corticotrophin-releasing factor, A1 adenosine, formyl peptide, D1/D2 dopamine, and glucagon like-peptide-1 receptors failed to block BAA-induced antiallodynia...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326944/fatty-acid-binding-protein-inhibition-produces-analgesic-effects-through-peripheral-and-central-mechanisms
#2
Xiaoxue Peng, Keith Studholme, Martha P Kanjiya, Jennifer Luk, Diane Bogdan, Matthew W Elmes, Gregory Carbonetti, Simon Tong, Yu-Han Gary Teng, Robert C Rizzo, Huilin Li, Dale G Deutsch, Iwao Ojima, Mario J Rebecchi, Michelino Puopolo, Martin Kaczocha
Background Fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers for endocannabinoids, N-acylethanolamines, and related lipids. Previous work indicates that systemically administered FABP5 inhibitors produce analgesia in models of inflammatory pain. It is currently not known whether FABP inhibitors exert their effects through peripheral or central mechanisms. Here, we examined FABP5 distribution in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord and examined the analgesic effects of peripherally and centrally administered FABP5 inhibitors...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326936/a-role-for-the-locus-coeruleus-in-the-analgesic-efficacy-of-n-acetylaspartylglutamate-peptidase-gcpii-inhibitors-zj43-and-2-pmpa
#3
Takahiro Nonaka, Toshihiko Yamada, Tatsuhiro Ishimura, Daiying Zuo, John R Moffett, Joseph H Neale, Tatsuo Yamamoto
N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) is the third most prevalent and widely distributed neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system. NAAG activates a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR3) and is inactivated by an extracellular enzyme, glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) in vivo. Inhibitors of this enzyme are analgesic in animal models of inflammatory, neuropathic and bone cancer pain. NAAG and GCPII are present in the locus coeruleus, a center for the descending noradrenergic inhibitory pain system...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306698/oral-application-of-magnesium-l-threonate-attenuates-vincristine-induced-allodynia-and-hyperalgesia-by-normalization-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#4
Ting Xu, Dai Li, Xin Zhou, Han-Dong Ouyang, Li-Jun Zhou, Hang Zhou, Hong-Mei Zhang, Xu-Hong Wei, Guosong Liu, Xian-Guo Liu
BACKGROUND: Antineoplastic agents, including vincristine, often induce neuropathic pain and magnesium deficiency clinically, but the causal link between them has not been determined. No drug is available for treating this form of neuropathic pain. METHODS: Injection of vincristine (0.1 mg · kg · day, intraperitoneally, for 10 days) was used to induce nociceptive sensitization, which was accessed with von Frey hairs and the plantar tester in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
March 17, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303030/formyl-peptide-receptors-promotes-neural-differentiation-in-mouse-neural-stem-cells-by-ros-generation-and-regulation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling
#5
Liang Zhang, Guan Wang, Xingxing Chen, Xin Xue, Qiaonan Guo, Mingyong Liu, Jianhua Zhao
This study aimed to determine whether formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) regulated the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). FPRs promote the migration of NSCs both in vitro and in vivo. However, the role of FPRs during differentiation of NSCs is unknown. Analysis by Western blot showed significantly increased expression of FPR1 and FPR2 during differentiation of NSCs. The activation of FPRs promotes NSCs to differentiate into neurons with more primary neurites and branch points and longer neurites per cell...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300633/the-medullary-dorsal-reticular-nucleus-as-a-relay-for-descending-pronociception-induced-by-the-mglur5-in-the-rat-infralimbic-cortex
#6
Ana David-Pereira, Boriss Sagalajev, Hong Wei, Armando Almeida, Antti Pertovaara, Filipa Pinto-Ribeiro
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) activation in the infralimbic cortex (IL) induces pronociceptive behavior in healthy and monoarthritic rats. Here we studied whether the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt) and the spinal TRPV1 are mediating the IL/mGluR5-induced spinal pronociception and whether the facilitation of pain behavior is correlated with changes in spinal dorsal horn neuron activity. For drug administrations, all animals had a cannula in the IL as well as a cannula in the DRt or an intrathecal catheter...
March 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300326/hur-promotes-the-molecular-signature-and-phenotype-of-activated-microglia-implications-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
Prachi Matsye, Lei Zheng, Ying Si, Soojin Kim, Wenyi Luo, David K Crossman, Preston E Bratcher, Peter H King
In neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), chronic activation of microglia contributes to disease progression. Activated microglia produce cytokines, chemokines, and other factors that normally serve to clear infection or damaged tissue either directly or through the recruitment of other immune cells. The molecular program driving this phenotype is classically linked to the transcription factor NF-κB and characterized by the upregulation of proinflammatory factors such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6...
March 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298799/case-of-neurological-complication-following-subarachnoid-block-in-a-patient-with-unsuspected-coagulopathy
#8
Arun Mathur, C Venkatesh Nagappa
Subarachnoid block (SAB) is an extensively used regional anesthesia technique for many surgeries. Neurological complications are rare following spinal anesthesia. We are reporting neurological complication in a patient the following appendectomy under SAB with unsuspected coagulopathy. The complication was noticed early and managed conservatively with a high dose of intravenous steroid and improved drastically in a short period.
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298786/comparison-of-dexmedetomidine-and-magnesium-sulfate-as-adjuvants-with-ropivacaine-for-spinal-anesthesia-in-infraumbilical-surgeries-and-postoperative-analgesia
#9
Reena Makhni, Joginder Pal Attri, Payal Jain, Veena Chatrath
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative pain is a major cause of fear and anxiety in hospitalized patients and so if patients remain pain-free during this period, they can cooperate with the circumstances well, leading to early recovery. Over the last two decades, there has been considerable revival of interest in the use of regional anesthesia techniques for surgery and pain management. As very few studies have been conducted using ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) as adjuvants, the present study was undertaken with primary aims to compare the hemodynamic stability, onset and duration of sensory and motor block and with secondary aims of the postoperative analgesic effect of dexmedetomidine and MgSO4 along with ropivacaine...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298765/obturator-nerve-block-in-transurethral-resection-of-bladder-tumor-a-comparative-study-by-two-techniques
#10
Deepak Sharma, V P Singh, Nidhi Agarwal, M K Malhotra
CONTEXT: Sparing of obturator nerve is a common problem encountered during transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) under spinal anesthesia. AIMS: To evaluate and compare obturator nerve block (ONB) by two different techniques during TURBT. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This is prospective observational study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty adult male patients from the American Society of Anesthesiologists Class I-IV planned to undergo TURBT under spinal anesthesia were divided into two groups of twenty each...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289637/ultrasonography-evaluation-of-vulnerable-vessels-around-cervical-nerve-roots-during-selective-cervical-nerve-root-block
#11
Hoon Hoon Lee, Donghwi Park, Yoongul Oh, Ju Seok Ryu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of vulnerable blood vessels around cervical nerve roots before cervical nerve root block in the clinical setting. METHODS: This retrospective study included 74 patients with cervical radiculopathy who received an ultrasonography-guided nerve block at an outpatient clinic from July 2012 to July 2014. Before actual injection of the steroid was performed, we evaluated the vulnerable blood vessels around each C5, C6, and C7 nerve root of each patient's painful side, with Doppler ultrasound...
February 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285318/effects-on-qtc-interval-of-2-different-doses-of-spinal-anesthesia-in-inguinal-hernia-operations
#12
Onur Hanbeyoglu, Aykut Urfalioglu, Fatih Mehmet Yazar, Sibel Ozcan
BACKGROUND Cardiac arrhythmia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study, through examination of the effects on the QTc interval of different doses of hyperbaric bupivacaine, we investigated the relationship with arrhythmia. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 60 patients were separated into 2 groups: spinal block was applied with 10 mg bupivacaine to Group S1 and with 15 mg to Group S2. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) values were recorded before the spinal block and at 5 and 30 min after the block and at 60 min postoperatively...
March 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283076/prevalence-of-thoracic-vertebral-malformations-in-french-bulldogs-pugs-and-english-bulldogs-with-and-without-associated-neurological-deficits
#13
R Ryan, R Gutierrez-Quintana, G Ter Haar, Steven De Decker
Congenital vertebral malformations are common incidental findings in small breed dogs. This retrospective observational study evaluated the type and prevalence of thoracic vertebral malformations in 171 neurologically normal and 10 neurologically abnormal screw-tailed brachycephalic dogs. Neurologically normal dogs underwent CT for reasons unrelated to spinal disease, while affected dogs underwent MRI. Imaging studies were reviewed and vertebral malformations including hemivertebrae, block vertebrae, transitional vertebrae, and spina bifida were documented...
March 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273554/head-drop-after-botox-electrodiagnostic-evaluation-of-iatrogenic-botulinum-toxicity
#14
Eliza Szuch, James B Caress, Bandhu Paudyal, Allison Brashear, Michael S Cartwright, Roy E Strowd
BACKGROUND: Botulinum is a potent neurotoxin with increasing indications for neurologic disorders. While clinical benefit manifests primarily due to local actions at the neuromuscular junction, regional and systemic effects do occur. Rarely, systemic symptoms including weakness, dysarthria, dysphagia and other side effects occur as a result of iatrogenic botulinum neurotoxicity. CASE: A 72 year-old female with right leg dystonia developed head drop, bulbar and systemic weakness following right lower extremity botulinum toxin injection...
March 5, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272292/the-erector-spinae-plane-block-provides-visceral-abdominal-analgesia-in-bariatric-surgery-a-report-of-3-cases
#15
Ki Jinn Chin, Laith Malhas, Anahi Perlas
Postoperative pain after bariatric surgery can be significant and yet difficult to manage. These patients frequently have associated obstructive sleep apnea and are at risk of respiratory depression with opioid analgesia. Abdominal wall blocks such as the subcostal transversus abdominis plane block are not of significant benefit, probably in part because they provide only somatic analgesia. The ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane (ESP) block is a recently described regional anesthetic technique for providing thoracic analgesia when performed at the level of the T5 transverse process...
March 8, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271325/nebulization-of-rns60-a-physically-modified-saline-attenuates-the-adoptive-transfer-of-experimental-allergic-encephalomyelitis-in-mice-implications-for-multiple-sclerosis-therapy
#16
Susanta Mondal, Suresh B Rangasamy, Supurna Ghosh, Richard L Watson, Kalipada Pahan
Developing a new and effective therapeutic approach against multiple sclerosis (MS) is always an important area of research. RNS60 is a bioactive aqueous solution generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow under elevated oxygen pressure. Recently we have demonstrated that RNS60, administered through intraperitoneal injection, ameliorated clinical symptoms and disease progression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Since the intravenous route is not preferred for treating a chronic condition, we tested if nebulization of RNS60 could attenuate the disease process of adoptively-transferred EAE in mice...
March 7, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270689/dna-methyltransferase-dnmt3a-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain-by-repressing-kcna2-in-primary-afferent-neurons
#17
Jian-Yuan Zhao, Lingli Liang, Xiyao Gu, Zhisong Li, Shaogen Wu, Linlin Sun, Fidelis E Atianjoh, Jian Feng, Kai Mo, Shushan Jia, Brianna Marie Lutz, Alex Bekker, Eric J Nestler, Yuan-Xiang Tao
Nerve injury induces changes in gene transcription in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which may contribute to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. DNA methylation represses gene expression. Here, we report that peripheral nerve injury increases expression of the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a in the injured DRG neurons via the activation of the transcription factor octamer transcription factor 1. Blocking this increase prevents nerve injury-induced methylation of the voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channel subunit Kcna2 promoter region and rescues Kcna2 expression in the injured DRG and attenuates neuropathic pain...
March 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269761/treatment-with-a-recombinant-human-igm-that-recognizes-psa-ncam-preserves-brain-pathology-in-mog-induced-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#18
Hernan Nicolas Lemus, Arthur E Warrington, Aleksandar Denic, Bharath Wootla, Moses Rodriguez
A single peripheral dose of CNS-binding IgMs promote remyelination and preserve axons in a number of animal models of neurologic disease. A myelin-binding recombinant human IgM (rHIgM22) is presently in a safety trial in MS patients following an acute MS exacerbation. rHIgM22 (directed against oligodendrocytes) or rHIgM12 (directed against neurons) were administered to mice with MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with study endpoints: clinical deficits and brain and spinal cord pathology...
February 24, 2017: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266688/the-bmp2-variant-l51p-restores-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-the-presence-of-intervertebral-disc-cells
#19
A Tekari, R D May, D A Frauchiger, S C Chan, L M Benneker, B Gantenbein
Spinal fusion is hampered by the presence of remaining intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue and leads to spinal non-union. While the exact mechanism remains unknown, we hypothesise that factors preventing disc ossification, such as antagonists of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), could be responsible for this process. The objective of this study was to investigate spinal non-union using an in vitro human model with a focus on the BMP signalling components and to identify factors contributing to the incomplete and delayed ossification...
February 23, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255259/the-effect-of-unilateral-spinal-anaesthesia-and-psoas-compartment-with-sciatic-block-on-the-postoperative-pain-management-in-total-knee-artroplastic-surgery
#20
Ebru Canakci, Dogus Unal, Yunus Guzel
Purpose. This study was designed to investigate the effects of peripheral nerve block methods, applied through unilateral spinal anaesthesia on elderly patients to undergo total knee arthroplasty, on perioperative hemodynamic parameters and postoperative analgesia period. Materials and Method. 60 patients were randomly divided into two groups in the study. In group USA spinal anaesthesia was performed. In group PCS it was applied on psoas compartment block and sciatic nerve block. Results. Significantly higher intraoperative 60th and 90th minute mean arterial pressure values were ascertained in the PCS group compared to the USA group...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
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